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Keyong Huang, Qingyang Xiao, Xia Meng, Guannan Geng, Yujie Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, Dongfeng Gu, Yang Liu
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) remains a worldwide public health issue. However, epidemiological studies on the chronic health impacts of PM2.5 in the developing countries are hindered by the lack of monitoring data. Despite the recent development of using satellite remote sensing to predict ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in China, methods for generating reliable historical PM2.5 exposure, especially prior to the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network in 2013, are still very rare. In this study, a high-performance machine-learning model was developed directly at monthly level to estimate PM2...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ziyao Liang, Zhuo Shen, Yong Zhang, Daode Ji, Jiqiu Li, Alan Warren, Xiaofeng Lin
Four new species of Vorticella, V. parachiangi sp. n., V. scapiformis sp. n., V. sphaeroidalis sp. n., and V. paralima sp. n., were isolated from coastal brackish waters of southern China. Their morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system were investigated based on observations of specimens both in vivo and following silver staining. Vorticella parachiangi sp. n. is distinguished by: a J-shaped macronucleus; a single dorsally located contractile vacuole; a two-rowed infundibular polykinetid 3, in which row 1 is shorter than row 2; 21-31 silverlines between peristome and aboral trochal band, 6-11 between aboral trochal band and scopula...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Nelson S Winkler, Margherita Milone, Jennifer M Martinez-Thompson, Harish Raja, Ross A Aleff, Sanjay V Patel, Michael P Fautsch, Eric D Wieben, Keith H Baratz
Purpose: RNA toxicity from CTG trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion within noncoding DNA of the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) and DM1 protein kinase (DMPK) genes has been described in Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) and myotonic dystrophy, type 1 (DM1), respectively. We prospectively evaluated DM1 patients and their families for phenotypic FECD and report the analysis of CTG expansion in the TCF4 gene and DMPK expression in corneal endothelium. Methods: FECD grade was evaluated by slit lamp biomicroscopy in 26 participants from 14 families with DM1...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
M A Cavigelli, P R Nash, H T Gollany, C Rasmann, R W Polumsky, A N Le, A E Conklin
The impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in no-till (NT) and conventionally tilled (CT) agricultural systems is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of projected climate change on SOC to 50-cm soil depth for grain cropping systems in the southern Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. We used SOC and other data from the long-term Farming Systems Project in Beltsville, MD, and CQESTR, a process-based soil C model, to predict the impact of cropping systems and climate (air temperature and precipitation) on SOC for a 40-yr period (2012-2052)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Roger M Castillo Oré, Roxana E Caceda, Alfredo A Huaman, Maya Williams, Jun Hang, Diana E Juarez, Tadeusz J Kochel, Eric S Halsey, Brett M Forshey
Group C orthobunyaviruses (GRCVs) are a complex of viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus and are associated with human febrile disease in tropical and subtropical areas of South and Central America. While numerous GRCVs have been isolated from mosquitoes, animals, and humans, genetic analysis of these viruses is limited. In this study, we characterized 65 GRCV isolates from febrile patients identified through clinic-based surveillance in the northern and southern Peruvian Amazon. A 500 base pair region of the S segment and 750 base pair regions of the M and L segments were sequenced...
2018: PloS One
Waqas Wakil, Muhammad Yasin, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Geoffrey O Bedford, Yong Jung Kwon
The red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is an important pest of date palms in many regions of the world. This paper reports the first survey of insecticide resistance in field populations of R. ferrugineus in Pakistan which were collected from seven date palm growing areas across Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) provinces, Pakistan. The resistance was assessed by the diet incorporation method against the formulated commonly used chemical insecticides profenophos, imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin and a fumigant phosphine...
2018: PloS One
Mariette Marano, Renee Stein, Wei Song, Deesha Patel, Nicole Taylor-Aidoo, Songli Xu, Lamont Scales
Identifying HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status, linking them to care, and reducing health disparities are important national HIV prevention goals (1). Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) accounted for 70% of HIV infection diagnoses in the United States in 2016, despite representing only 2% of the population (2,3). African American or black (black) MSM accounted for 38% of all new diagnoses of HIV infection among MSM (2)...
July 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Hui-Chen Kuo, Ying Tsao, Hua-You Tu, Zih-Huei Dai, Debra K Creedy
Sleep disturbance is a significant problem affecting around 50% of cancer patients. Non-pharmacological interventions can be used to improve sleep quality in cancer patients, but little is known about the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of auricular point acupressure (APA) to reduce sleep disturbance in women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted at a publicly funded hospital in southern Taiwan. Fifty-five eligible women were approached and 47 women participated...
July 19, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
Laxman Adhikari, Orville M Lindstrom, Jonathan Markham, Ali M Missaoui
Understanding key adaptation traits is crucial to developing new cultivars with broad adaptations. The main objective of this research is to understand the genetic basis of winter hardiness (WH) and fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa and the association between the two traits. QTL analysis was conducted in a pseudo-testcross F1 population developed from two cultivars contrasting in FD (3010 with FD = 2 and CW 1010 with FD = 10). The mapping population was evaluated in three replications at two locations (Watkinsville and Blairsville, GA)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wen-Sheng Fan, He-Ming Li, Yi-Ning He, Ning Tang, Li-Hua Zhang, Hai-Yong Wang, Lian Zhong, Jian-Cai Chen, Tian-Chao Wei, Teng Huang, Mei-Lan Mo, Ping Wei
Live attenuated vaccines are critical in the control of avian infectious bronchitis. It is necessary to know the protection conferred by commonly used commercial live vaccines. In this study, specific pathogen-free chicks were vaccinated with the commercial live vaccines H120, 4/91 and LDT3-A. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals for the detection of IBV-specific antibodies and quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. At 21 days post-inoculation the vaccinated birds were challenged with the IBV prevalent local strains GX-YL5, GX-GL11079 and GX-NN09032, respectively...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Kevin D Cashman, Christian Ritz, Folasade A Adebayo, Kirsten G Dowling, Suvi T Itkonen, Taina Öhman, Essi Skaffari, Elisa M Saarnio, Mairead Kiely, Christel Lamberg Allardt
CONTEXT: Current vitamin D recommendations have been established based on an assumption that there are no differences between Caucasian and other ethnic/racial groups in terms of vitamin D requirements. This assumption, largely made due to the absence of data, is a key knowledge gap identified by a number of authorities. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the distribution of dietary requirements for maintaining winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≥ 30 nmol/L (a priority threshold linked to vitamin D deficiency prevention) differ between Caucasian and Somali women living at northerly latitude...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Farshideh Habibi, Shokoofeh Shamsi
In recent years, there has been a steady decline in the populations of clupeid fish in the Caspian Sea which has been attributed to factors such as overfishing and introduced invasive species of jellyfish. Very little is known about the diseases and possible health impacts of infectious agents such as parasites on the population of these important fish in the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to determine if infection with parasites can have adverse impacts on fish health and population. Sixty fish were collected, measured for weight and length, aged, and then examined for presence of Acanthocephala...
July 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Wei Zheng, Xin-Ni Luo, Hai-Yan Li, Xiao-Yin Ke, Qing Dai, Chan-Juan Zhang, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Tao Xiang, Yu-Ping Ning
BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in medical outpatient clinics in China are lacking. This study examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and their socio-demographic correlates in patients treated at medical outpatient clinics affiliated with four general hospitals in Guangzhou, a large metropolis in southern China. METHOD: A total of 4399 patients were consecutively invited to participate in the study. Data on insomnia and its socio-demographic correlates were collected with standardized questionnaires...
July 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Zhonglian Lian, Zhijian Jiang, Xiaoping Huang, Songlin Liu, Jingping Zhang, Yunchao Wu
Little is known about the labile and recalcitrant sediment organic carbon (SOC) in estuarine ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on SOC sequestration also remain poorly understood. In this study, sediment cores in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent coastal areas in the South China Sea were collected to analyse variations in the sources of SOC and its labile and recalcitrant pools. Concentrations of SOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and recalcitrant organic carbon (ROC) ranged from 4.37 to 10...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sanjay Bhandari, Mubeen Khan Mohammed Abdul, Will Hollabaugh, Kanav Sharma, Douglas B Evans, Nalini Guda
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pancreatic cancer is one of the common cancers in US and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The objectives of our study were to look at the recent trends in the number of hospitalizations with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We identified patients with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in the National Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2011 using International Classification of Diseases-Clinical Modification, 9th revision (ICD-9-CM) codes...
2018: PloS One
Angelika K Loots, Prudent S Mokgokong, Emily Mitchell, Estelle H Venter, Antoinette Kotze, Desiré Lee Dalton
Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a severe contagious disease in a broad range of hosts. This is the first study to genetically characterise CDV strains from four different wildlife species in South Africa. The phylogenetic diversity of CDV is examined, using the haemagglutinin gene. The South African wildlife CDV isolates showed a high degree of similarity to CDV in South African domestic dogs. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of 12 geographical lineages with CDV strains from South African wildlife falling within the Southern African lineage...
2018: PloS One
Katie M Clow, Rachel Finer, Genevieve Lumsden, Claire M Jardine
Tick dragging is an important tool used by public health for Ixodes scapularis surveillance to identify Lyme disease risk areas in Ontario, Canada. Concerns have been raised on the repeatability of tick dragging due to fluctuations that occur in the tick population in response to micro- and macroclimatic variations. Our objective was to assess the repeatability of tick dragging over a short timescale by examining three outcome measures: presence/absence of ticks, tick abundance, and likelihood of tick establishment based on an indicator developed by Clow et al...
July 18, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sumaetee Tangwancharoen, Gary W Moy, Ronald S Burton
Thermal tolerance is a key determinant of species distribution. Despite much study, the genetic basis of adaptive evolution of thermal tolerance, including the relative contributions of transcriptional regulation versus protein evolution, remains unclear. Populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus are adapted to local thermal regimes across their broad geographic range. Upon thermal stress, adults from a heat tolerant southern population (San Diego) upregulate several heat shock proteins (HSPs) to higher levels than those from a less tolerant northern population (Santa Cruz)...
July 18, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Emilia Ruggiero, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Francesca Bracone, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello, Marialaura Bonaccio
Background: To evaluate the adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) and its major socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants in a large sample of the Italian population, covering three main geographical areas of the Country (Southern, Central and Northern). Methods: Data were obtained from the Italian Nutrition & Health Survey (INHES), including a total of 7, 430 participants (age >20) recruited from all over Italy (2010-13). Dietary information was collected by the European Food Propensity Questionnaire...
July 17, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Ana Paula Pereira Marques, Ana Paula Morais de Carvalho Macedo
Under the Troika Memorandum (2011-2015), health policies in Portugal know a political agenda, business and organizational schedule guided by the principles of privatisation, deregulation and underfinancing of public services by the State. In this article, the authors provide a review of the literature on health systems in the countries of the Southern European countries, highlighting the Portuguese situation regarding reform processes and major health inequalities before and during the economic crisis. Complementarily, the testimonies of different professionals of the health sector (doctor, nurse, therapeutics technician, unions and heads of care units) are summoned...
July 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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