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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538944/gauging-the-auditory-dimensions-of-dysarthric-impairment-reliability-and-construct-validity-of-the-bogenhausen-dysarthria-scales-bodys
#1
Wolfram Ziegler, Anja Staiger, Theresa Schölderle, Mathias Vogel
Purpose: Standardized clinical assessment of dysarthria is essential for management and research. We present a new, fully standardized dysarthria assessment, the Bogenhausen Dysarthria Scales (BoDyS). The measurement model of the BoDyS is based on auditory evaluations of connected speech using 9 scales (traits) assessed by 4 elicitation methods. Analyses of the BoDyS' reliability and construct validity were performed to test this model, with the aim of gauging the auditory dimensions of speech impairment in dysarthria...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538143/openrbc-a-fast-simulator-of-red-blood-cells-at%C3%A2-protein-resolution
#2
Yu-Hang Tang, Lu Lu, He Li, Constantinos Evangelinos, Leopold Grinberg, Vipin Sachdeva, George Em Karniadakis
We present OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment-simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton as modeled by multiple millions of mesoscopic particles-using a single shared memory commodity workstation. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial-searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse three-dimensional space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538055/high-reliability-principles-must-be-tied-to-value-based-outcomes
#3
Mitchell L Wasden
WellStar Health System and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), highlighted in this issue's feature articles, are two organizations seeking to drive high reliability by educating leaders and incorporating high-reliability principles into their quality improvement (QI) efforts. The organizations have taken slightly different approaches to executing on high reliability, yet both are encouraged by the apparent success of high-reliability principles in other industries.The high-reliability framework is often applied to healthcare despite the limitations of comparing healthcare organizations to nuclear reactors, commercial airlines, and aircraft carriers...
July 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537812/perspectives-of-patients-with-cancer-on-the-ethics-of-rapid-learning-health-systems
#4
Reshma Jagsi, Kent A Griffith, Aaron Sabolch, Rochelle Jones, Rebecca Spence, Raymond De Vries, David Grande, Angela R Bradbury
Purpose To inform the evolving implementation of CancerLinQ and other rapid-learning systems for oncology care, we sought to evaluate perspectives of patients with cancer regarding ethical issues. Methods Using the GfK Group online research panel, representative of the US population, we surveyed 875 patients with cancer; 621 (71%) responded. We evaluated perceptions of appropriateness (scored from 1 to 10; 10, very appropriate) using scenarios and compared responses by age, race, and education. We constructed a scaled measure of comfort with secondary use of deidentified medical information and evaluated its correlates in a multivariable model...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535588/pedogenic-knowledge-aided-modelling-of-soil-inorganic-carbon-stocks-in-an-alpine-environment
#5
Ren-Min Yang, Fan Yang, Fei Yang, Lai-Ming Huang, Feng Liu, Jin-Ling Yang, Yu-Guo Zhao, De-Cheng Li, Gan-Lin Zhang
Accurate estimation of soil carbon is essential for accounting carbon cycling on the background of global environment change. However, previous studies made little contribution to the patterns and stocks of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in large scales. In this study, we defined the structure of the soil depth function to fit vertical distribution of SIC based on pedogenic knowledge across various landscapes. Soil depth functions were constructed from a dataset of 99 soil profiles in the alpine area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535449/the-center-for-epidemiological-studies-depression-scale-ces-d-measurement-equivalence-across-gender-groups-in-hispanic-college-students
#6
Consuelo Arbona, Andrea Burridge, Norma Olvera
BACKGROUND: This study examined among Hispanic college students the factor structure and gender measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The CES-D's original 20 item four-factor model was compared to a recently proposed 14 item, three-factor model. METHODS: Participants included 858 Hispanic undergraduates at an ethnically diverse, major research, urban, public university in the Southwest United States (U.S.). Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) and structural equation modeling were used to examine the factor structure, gender invariance, and construct validity of the CES-D scores...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535370/epithelial-patterning-morphogenesis-and-evolution-drosophila-eggshell-as-a-model
#7
REVIEW
Miriam Osterfield, Celeste A Berg, Stanislav Y Shvartsman
Understanding the mechanisms driving tissue and organ formation requires knowledge across scales. How do signaling pathways specify distinct tissue types? How does the patterning system control morphogenesis? How do these processes evolve? The Drosophila egg chamber, where EGF and BMP signaling intersect to specify unique cell types that construct epithelial tubes for specialized eggshell structures, has provided a tractable system to ask these questions. Work there has elucidated connections between scales of development, including across evolutionary scales, and fostered the development of quantitative modeling tools...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535348/coarse-grained-modeling-of-polyethylene-melts-effect-on-dynamics
#8
Brandon L Peters, K Michael Salerno, Anupriya Agrawal, Dvora Perahia, Gary S Grest
The distinctive viscoelastic behavior of polymers results from a coupled interplay of motion on multiple length and time scales. Capturing the broad time and length scales of polymer motion remains a challenge. Using polyethylene (PE) as a model macromolecule, we construct coarse-grained (CG) models of PE with 3-6 methyl groups per CG bead and probe two critical aspects of the technique: pressure corrections required after iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) to generate CG potentials that match the pressure of reference fully-atomistic melt simulations and the transferability of CG potentials across temperatures...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534804/fuzzy-adaptive-decentralized-optimal-control-for-strict-feedback-nonlinear-large-scale-systems
#9
Kangkang Sun, Shuai Sui, Shaocheng Tong
This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534780/katzlgo-large-scale-prediction-of-lncrna-functions-by-using-the-katz-measure-based-on-multiple-networks
#10
Zuping Zhang, Jingpu Zhang, Chao Fan, Yongjun Tang, Lei Deng
Aggregating evidences have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) generally play key roles in cellular biological processes such as epigenetic regulation, gene expression regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, cell differentiation and others. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. There is an urgent need to develop computational approaches for function annotation of increasing available lncRNAs. In this article, we propose a global network-based method, KATZLGO, to predict the functions of human lncRNAs at large scale...
May 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534064/reflections-on-clinical-and-statistical-use-of-the-penetration-aspiration-scale
#11
REVIEW
Catriona M Steele, Karen Grace-Martin
The 8-point Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) was introduced to the field of dysphagia in 1996 and has become the standard method used by both clinicians and researchers to describe and measure the severity of airway invasion during swallowing. In this article, we review the properties of the scale and explore what has been learned over 20 years of use regarding the construct validity, ordinality, intervality, score distribution, and sensitivity of the PAS to change. We propose that a categorical revision of the PAS into four levels of increasing physiological severity would be appropriate...
May 22, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533786/high-density-linkage-map-construction-and-mapping-of-yield-trait-qtls-in-maize-zea-mays-using-the-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-technology
#12
Chengfu Su, Wei Wang, Shunliang Gong, Jinghui Zuo, Shujiang Li, Shizhong Xu
Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533184/multi-institutional-development-of-a-mastoidectomy-performance-evaluation-instrument
#13
Thomas Kerwin, Brad Hittle, Don Stredney, Paul De Boeck, Gregory Wiet
OBJECTIVE: A method for rating surgical performance of a mastoidectomy procedure that is shown to apply universally across teaching institutions has not yet been devised. This work describes the development of a rating instrument created from a multi-institutional consortium. DESIGN: Using a participatory design and a modified Delphi approach, a multi-institutional group of expert otologists constructed a 15-element task-based checklist for evaluating mastoidectomy performance...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532452/psychometric-properties-of-the-paindetect-questionnaire-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-spondyloarthritis-rasch-analysis-and-test-retest-reliability
#14
Signe Rifbjerg-Madsen, Eva Ejlersen Wæhrens, Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Pain is inherent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) and traditionally considered to be of nociceptive origin. Emerging data suggest a potential role of augmented central pain mechanisms in subsets of patients, thus, valid instruments that can identify underlying pain mechanisms are needed. The painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) was originally designed to differentiate between pain phenotypes. The objectives were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PDQ in patients with inflammatory arthritis by applying Rasch analysis and to explore the reliability of pain classification by test-retest...
May 22, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532426/measuring-health-workers-motivation-composition-validation-of-a-scale-based-on-self-determination-theory-in-burkina-faso
#15
Julia Lohmann, Aurélia Souares, Justin Tiendrebéogo, Nathalie Houlfort, Paul Jacob Robyn, Serge M A Somda, Manuela De Allegri
BACKGROUND: Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation...
May 22, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532390/comparative-genomics-of-eucalyptus-and-corymbia-reveals-low-rates-of-genome-structural-rearrangement
#16
J B Butler, R E Vaillancourt, B M Potts, D J Lee, G J King, A Baten, M Shepherd, J S Freeman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest genome structure is largely conserved between Eucalyptus species. However, it is unknown if this conservation extends to more divergent eucalypt taxa. We performed comparative genomics between the eucalypt genera Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Our results will facilitate transfer of genomic information between these important taxa and provide further insights into the rate of structural change in tree genomes. RESULTS: We constructed three high density linkage maps for two Corymbia species (Corymbia citriodora subsp...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531766/development-and-initial-validation-of-a-cessation-fatigue-scale
#17
Amanda R Mathew, Bryan W Heckman, Ellen Meier, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation fatigue, or tiredness of attempting to quit smoking, has been posited as a latent construct encompassing loss of motivation, loss of hope in cessation success, decreased self-efficacy, and exhaustion of self-control resources. Despite the potential clinical impact of characterizing cessation fatigue, there is currently no validated measure to assess it. Using a rational scale development approach, we developed a cessation fatigue measure and examined its reliability and construct validity in relation to a) smokers' experience of a recently failed quit attempt (QA) and b) readiness to engage in a subsequent QA...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531454/preliminary-validation-of-the-malay-yale-food-addiction-scale-factor-structure-and-item-analysis-in-an-obese-population
#18
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Norafidza Ashiquin Abd Patah, Mahalakshmi Ponnusamy Pillai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Researchers suggest that the rise in obesity rates may be explained by the addictive properties of certain types of food. In view of the growing obesity epidemic in South-East Asia, there is a need for a psychometric tool to assess the concept of food addiction amongst high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to translate the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) into the Malay language and subsequently validate its use in an obese population. METHODS: Between the year 2014 and 2015, a total of 250 obese adults were assessed for food addiction utilizing the Malay version of the YFAS at a primary care clinic...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#19
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531174/genome-partitioner-a-web-tool-for-multi-level-partitioning-of-large-scale-dna-constructs-for-synthetic-biology-applications
#20
Matthias Christen, Luca Del Medico, Heinz Christen, Beat Christen
Recent advances in lower-cost DNA synthesis techniques have enabled new innovations in the field of synthetic biology. Still, efficient design and higher-order assembly of genome-scale DNA constructs remains a labor-intensive process. Given the complexity, computer assisted design tools that fragment large DNA sequences into fabricable DNA blocks are needed to pave the way towards streamlined assembly of biological systems. Here, we present the Genome Partitioner software implemented as a web-based interface that permits multi-level partitioning of genome-scale DNA designs...
2017: PloS One
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