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Yong Zhang, Monique N O'Leary, Suraj Peri, Minshi Wang, Jikun Zha, Simon Melov, Dietmar J Kappes, Qing Feng, Jennifer Rhodes, Paul S Amieux, David R Morris, Brian K Kennedy, David L Wiest
Most ribosomal proteins (RP) are regarded as essential, static components that contribute only to ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. However, emerging evidence suggests that RNA-binding RP are dynamic and can influence cellular processes by performing "extraribosomal," regulatory functions involving binding to select critical target mRNAs. We report here that the RP, Rpl22, and its highly homologous paralog Rpl22-Like1 (Rpl22l1 or Like1) play critical, extraribosomal roles in embryogenesis. Indeed, they antagonistically control morphogenesis through developmentally regulated localization to the nucleus, where they modulate splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding smad2, an essential transcriptional effector of Nodal/TGF-β signaling...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
Jin-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Li Liu, Yu-Deng Lin, Yu-Ling Li, Jian-Wei Pan, Sa Zong, Yang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein(hnRNP) K regulating autophagy in the drug resistance of acute myeloid leukemia, so as to provide a new molecular marker for treatment of leukemia. METHODS: The relationship between the expression level of hnRNP K and the drug resistance of myeloid leukemia was verified by fluorescence quantitative PCR; the expression of autophagy related protein LC3I/ II was detected by Western blot after the hnRNP K was modulated by RNA interference technology; the sensitivity of leukemia cells to doxorubicin was analyzed before and after the expression of hnRNP K were modulatd...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Jing Lu, Feng-Hou Gao
DNA damage repair is a kind of cellular self-protection mechanism that some relevant proteins are activated when DNA damage response happens in order to maintain the intracellular function stability and structure integrity. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins can rapidly confers to them more complicated structure and sophisticated function by covalently combining with different small molecules with target proteins, which in turn plays an important regulatory role in DNA damage repair. It was reported that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) could be involved in DNA damage repair process under the regulation of its many post-translational modifications, including methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and phosphorylation...
November 29, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Lulzim Shkreta, Johanne Toutant, Mathieu Durand, James L Manley, Benoit Chabot
RNA binding proteins and signaling components control the production of pro-death and pro-survival splice variants of Bcl-x. DNA damage promoted by oxaliplatin increases the level of pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS in an ATM/CHK2-dependent manner, but how this shift is enforced is not known. Here, we show that in normally growing cells, when the 5' splice site of Bcl-xS is largely repressed, SRSF10 partially relieves repression and interacts with repressor hnRNP K and stimulatory hnRNP F/H proteins. Oxaliplatin abrogates the interaction of SRSF10 with hnRNP F/H and decreases the association of SRSF10 and hnRNP K with the Bcl-x pre-mRNA...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
Stefan Eder, Annette Arndt, Andreas Lamkowski, Wassiliki Daskalaki, Alexis Rump, Markus Priller, Felicitas Genze, Eva Wardelmann, Matthias Port, Konrad Steinestel
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is overexpressed in malignant tumors and involved in DNA damage response upon ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we investigate its role in radioresistance of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and evaluate a pharmacological approach to enhance CRC radiosensitivity via downregulation of hnRNP K. We show that hnRNP K is overexpressed in CRC tissue specimens and upregulated in response to IR in vitro, which occurs faster in KRAS-mutant CRC cells. HnRNP K knockdown impairs cell survival, cell cycle progression and KRAS-dependent radioresistance and increases apoptosis...
January 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
Fernando J Martinez, Gabriel A Pratt, Eric L Van Nostrand, Ranjan Batra, Stephanie C Huelga, Katannya Kapeli, Peter Freese, Seung J Chun, Karen Ling, Chelsea Gelboin-Burkhart, Layla Fijany, Harrison C Wang, Julia K Nussbacher, Sara M Broski, Hong Joo Kim, Rea Lardelli, Balaji Sundararaman, John P Donohue, Ashkan Javaherian, Jens Lykke-Andersen, Steven Finkbeiner, C Frank Bennett, Manuel Ares, Christopher B Burge, J Paul Taylor, Frank Rigo, Gene W Yeo
HnRNPA2B1 encodes an RNA binding protein associated with neurodegeneration. However, its function in the nervous system is unclear. Transcriptome-wide crosslinking and immunoprecipitation in mouse spinal cord discover UAGG motifs enriched within ∼2,500 hnRNP A2/B1 binding sites and an unexpected role for hnRNP A2/B1 in alternative polyadenylation. HnRNP A2/B1 loss results in alternative splicing (AS), including skipping of an exon in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) that reduces D-serine metabolism...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
Peter J Thompson, Vered Dulberg, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J Foster, Carol Chen, Mohammad M Karimi, Matthew C Lorincz
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004933.].
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Caleb Sutherland, Yunxi Cui, Hanbin Mao, Laurence H Hurley
MYC is overexpressed in many different cancer types and is an intensively studied oncogene because of its contributions to tumorigenesis. The regulation of MYC is complex, and the NHE III1 and FUSE elements rely upon noncanonical DNA structures and transcriptionally induced negative superhelicity. In the NHE III1 only the G-quadruplex has been extensively studied, whereas the role of the i-motif, formed on the opposite C-rich strand, is much less understood. We demonstrate here that the i-motif is formed within the 4CT element and is recognized by hnRNP K, which leads to a low level of transcription activation...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yoshihiro Kawasaki, Mimon Komiya, Kosuke Matsumura, Lumi Negishi, Sakiko Suda, Masumi Okuno, Naoko Yokota, Tomoya Osada, Takeshi Nagashima, Masaya Hiyoshi, Mariko Okada-Hatakeyama, Joji Kitayama, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsu Akiyama
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a major driving force in colon cancer. Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces the expression of the transcription factor c-Myc, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. c-Myc regulates multiple biological processes through its ability to directly modulate gene expression. Here, we identify a direct target of c-Myc, termed MYU, and show that MYU is upregulated in most colon cancers and required for the tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MYU associates with the RNA binding protein hnRNP-K to stabilize CDK6 expression and thereby promotes the G1-S transition of the cell cycle...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Erica J Hutchins, Jamie L Belrose, Ben G Szaro
hnRNP K is a highly conserved nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, which associates with RNAs through synergistic binding via its three KH domains. hnRNP K is required for proper nuclear export and translational control of its mRNA targets, and these processes are controlled by hnRNP K's movement between subcellular compartments. Whereas the nuclear export and localization of hnRNP K that is associated with mRNP complexes has been well studied, the trafficking of hnRNP K that is unbound to mRNA has yet to be elucidated...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Koichi Yamamoto, Mari T Furukawa, Kazuhiro Fukumura, Arisa Kawamura, Tomoko Yamada, Hitoshi Suzuki, Tetsuro Hirose, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Kunio Inoue
Pre-mRNA splicing is widely repressed upon heat shock in eukaryotic cells. However, it has been shown that HSP105 pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in response to heat stress. Using RNAi screening in HeLa cells, we found that RNA-binding proteins hnRNP K and PSF/SFPQ are necessary for the exon 12 exclusion of HSP105 during heat stress. Moreover, exon array analyses showed that a group of genes is alternatively spliced during heat stress in an hnRNP K-dependent manner, whereas hnRNP K is not necessary for the stress-induced alternative splicing of the remaining genes...
September 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Gitte H Bruun, Thomas K Doktor, Jonas Borch-Jensen, Akio Masuda, Adrian R Krainer, Kinji Ohno, Brage S Andresen
BACKGROUND: Many pathogenic genetic variants have been shown to disrupt mRNA splicing. Besides splice mutations in the well-conserved splice sites, mutations in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) may deregulate splicing and cause disease. A promising therapeutic approach is to compensate for this deregulation by blocking other SREs with splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs). However, the location and sequence of most SREs are not well known. RESULTS: Here, we used individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to establish an in vivo binding map for the key splicing regulatory factor hnRNP A1 and to generate an hnRNP A1 consensus binding motif...
2016: BMC Biology
Muralidhar L Hegde, Arijit Dutta, Chunying Yang, Anil K Mantha, Pavana M Hegde, Arvind Pandey, Shiladitya Sengupta, Yaping Yu, Patrick Calsou, David Chen, Susan P Lees-Miller, Sankar Mitra
Ionizing radiation (IR) induces highly cytotoxic double-strand breaks (DSBs) and also clustered oxidized bases in mammalian genomes. Base excision repair (BER) of bi-stranded oxidized bases could generate additional DSBs as repair intermediates in the vicinity of direct DSBs, leading to loss of DNA fragments. This could be avoided if DSB repair via DNA-PK-mediated nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) precedes BER initiated by NEIL1 and other DNA glycosylases (DGs). Here we show that DNA-PK subunit Ku inhibits DGs via direct interaction...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Kyu Young Song, Hack Sun Choi, Ping-Yee Law, Li-Na Wei, Horace H Loh
Expression of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) protein is controlled by extensive transcriptional and post-transcriptional processing. MOR gene expression has previously been shown to be altered by a post-transcriptional mechanism involving the MOR mRNA untranslated region (UTR). Here, we demonstrate for the first time the role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleic acids (hnRNA)-binding protein (hnRNP) K and poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) as post-transcriptional inducers in MOR gene regulation. In the absence of morphine, a significant level of MOR mRNA is sustained in its resting state and partitions in the translationally inactive polysomal fraction...
March 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jing Lu, Feng-Hou Gao
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a member of the hnRNP family, which exists in the nucleus and the cytoplasm simultaneously. It is a multifunctional protein that can participate in a variety of regulatory progressions of gene expression and signal transduction, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription, RNA alternative splicing and translation. hnRNP K not only directly binds to the kinases, but also recruits the associated factors regarding transcription, splicing and translation to control gene expression, and therefore, it serves as a docking platform for integrating transduction pathways to nucleic acid-directed processes...
June 2016: Biomedical Reports
Ruirui Yang, Ying Zeng, Haifan Xu, Zhuo Chen, Mengqin Xiang, Yun Fu, Yufang Yin, Jing Zhong, Min Zeng, Peihua Wang, Qin You, Xi Zeng
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is one of the major pre-mRNA-binding proteins, that is involved in translational modifications. In our previous studies, we found that hnRNP K is associated with human gastric cancer. The protein levels of hnRNP K were detected in cell lines and tissue microarrays. The correlation between hnRNP K expression and patient survival rate was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In addition, we also detected hnRNP K expression in preoperative and postoperative serum samples from patients with gastric cancer, and serum samples from healthy volunteers...
August 2016: Oncology Reports
R Singh, S C Gupta, W-X Peng, N Zhou, R Pochampally, A Atfi, K Watabe, Z Lu, Y-Y Mo
BC200 is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis, yet whether dysregulation of BC200 contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases remains elusive. In this study, we show that BC200 is upregulated in breast cancer; among breast tumor specimens there is a higher level of BC200 in estrogen receptor (ER) positive than in ER-negative tumors. Further experiments show that activation of estrogen signaling induces expression of BC200. To determine the significance of ER-regulated BC200 expression, we knockout (KO) BC200 by CRISPR/Cas9...
June 9, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Eun Joo Jung, Ky Hyun Chung, Dong-Won Bae, Choong Won Kim
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to regulate both cancer cell survival and death signaling, depending on the cellular circumstances, in various cell types. In this study, we showed that NGF strongly upregulated the protein level of tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) in TrkA-inducible SK-N-MC cancer cells, resulting in increases in various TrkA-dependent cellular processes, including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-8 cleavage. In addition, NGF enhanced TrkA-induced morphological changes and cell death, and this effect was significantly suppressed by the JNK inhibitor SP600125, but not by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin...
2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
JinFang Zhang, XiaoLi Liu, YuDeng Lin, YuLing Li, JianWei Pan, Sa Zong, YongKang Li, Yang Zhou
The goal of this study was to explore the role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in drug resistance through the regulation of autophagy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). First, we used fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to verify the connection between the expression level of hnRNP K and the level of drug resistance in AML. We then used Western blotting to determine the expression level of the autophagy-related proteins microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 I and II (LC3 I/II) after the modulation of hnRNP K by ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference...
September 2016: Experimental Hematology
Emily K Meredith, Maggie M Balas, Karla Sindy, Krystal Haislop, Aaron M Johnson
The human long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR acts in trans to recruit the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the HOXD gene cluster and to promote gene silencing during development. In breast cancers, overexpression of HOTAIR increases metastatic potential via the repression of many additional genes. It has remained unclear what factors determine HOTAIR-dependent PRC2 activity at specific genomic loci, particularly when high levels of HOTAIR result in aberrant gene silencing. To identify additional proteins that contribute to the specific action of HOTAIR, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of the HOTAIR interactome...
July 2016: RNA
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