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Eun Hyang Han, Dominic P Petrella, Joshua J Blakeslee
Salt stress causes worldwide reductions in agricultural yields, a problem that is exacerbated by the depletion of global freshwater reserves and the use of contaminated or recycled water (i.e. effluent water). Additionally, salt stress can occur as cultivated areas are subjected to frequent rounds of irrigation followed by periods of moderate to severe evapotranspiration, which can result in the heterogeneous aggregation of salts in agricultural soils. Our understanding of the later stages of salt stress and the mechanisms by which salt is transported out of cells and roots has greatly improved over the last decade...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kun Li, Tianyi Ma, Jingjing Cai, Min Huang, Hongye Guo, Di Zhou, Shenglin Luan, Jinyu Yang, Dan Liu, Yongkui Jing, Linxiang Zhao
Twenty-six conjugates of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives with 3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)propanoic acid were designed and synthesized as Pin1 inhibitors. Most of these semi-synthetic compounds showed improved Pin1 inhibitory activity and anti-proliferative effects against prostate cancer cells as compared to 3-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)propanoic acid and GA. Compounds 10a and 12i were the most potent to inhibit growth of prostate cancer PC-3 with GI50 values of 7.80μM and 3.52μM, respectively. The enzyme inhibition ratio of nine compounds at 10μM was over 90%...
August 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Morris Nechama, Chien-Ling Lin, Joel D Richter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jian Wang, Ke Liu, Xiao-Feng Wang, Dian-Jun Sun
Accumulating data show that prolylisomerase (Pin1) is overexpressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens. Therefore, Pin1 inhibitors should be investigated as a new chemotherapeutic drug that may enhance the clinical management of human gliomas. Recently, juglone, a Pin1 inhibitor, was shown to exhibit potent anticancer activity in various tumor cells, but its role in human glioma cells remains unknown. In the present study, we determined if juglone exerts antitumor effects in the U251 human glioma cell line and investigated its potential underlying molecular mechanisms...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
Juan Li, Wei-Hua Wu, Yi Wang
The changes in external K(+) concentrations affect plant root growth. However, the molecular mechanism for a plant perceiving K(+) signal and modulating its root growth remains unknown. It is hypothesized that the K(+) channel AKT1 may be involved in low K(+) sensing in Arabidopsis root and subsequently regulate root growth. Along with the decline of external K(+) concentrations, the primary root growth of wild-type plants was gradually inhibited. However, the primary root of akt1 mutant can still grow under low K(+) (LK) conditions...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Rabia Islam, Heein Yoon, Bong-Soo Kim, Han-Sol Bae, Hye-Rim Shin, Woo-Jin Kim, Won-Joon Yoon, Yun-Sil Lee, Kyung Mi Woo, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo
The conformation and function of a subset of serine and threonine-phosphorylated proteins are regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 through isomerization of phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro bonds. Pin1 is intensely expressed in Sertoli cells, but its function in this post mitotic cell remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the role of Pin1 in the Sertoli cells. Lack of Pin1 caused disruption of the blood-testis barrier. We next investigated if the activin pathways in the Sertoli cells were affected by lack of Pin1 through immunostaining for Smad3 protein in testis tissue...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chi-Fa Huang, Chun-Ping Yu, Yeh-Hua Wu, Mei-Yeh Jade Lu, Shih-Long Tu, Shu-Hsing Wu, Shin-Han Shiu, Maurice S B Ku, Wen-Hsiung Li
High vein density, a distinctive trait of C4 leaves, is central to both C3-to-C4 evolution and conversion of C3 to C4-like crops. We tested the hypothesis that high vein density in C4 leaves is due to elevated auxin biosynthesis and transport in developing leaves. Up-regulation of genes in auxin biosynthesis pathways and higher auxin content were found in developing C4 leaves compared with developing C3 leaves. The same observation held for maize foliar (C4) and husk (C3) leaf primordia. Moreover, auxin content and vein density were increased in loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis MYC2, a suppressor of auxin biosynthesis...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maziar S Ardejani, Evan T Powers, Jeffery W Kelly
The rates and equilibria of the folding of biopolymers are determined by the conformational preferences of the subunits that make up the sequence of the biopolymer and by the interactions that are formed in the folded state in aqueous solution. Because of the centrality of these processes to life, quantifying conformational propensities and interaction strengths is vitally important to understanding biology. In this Account, we describe our use of peptide model systems that fold cooperatively yet are small enough to be chemically synthesized to measure such quantities...
August 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Parker J Nichols, Alexandra Born, Morkos A Henen, Dean Strotz, Julien Orts, Simon Olsson, Peter Güntert, Celestine N Chi, Beat Vögeli
Although often depicted as rigid structures, proteins are highly dynamic systems, whose motions are essential to their functions. Despite this, it is difficult to investigate protein dynamics due to the rapid timescale at which they sample their conformational space, leading most NMR-determined structures to represent only an averaged snapshot of the dynamic picture. While NMR relaxation measurements can help to determine local dynamics, it is difficult to detect translational or concerted motion, and only recently have significant advances been made to make it possible to acquire a more holistic representation of the dynamics and structural landscapes of proteins...
July 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Karen E Ross, Darren A Natale, Cecilia Arighi, Sheng-Chih Chen, Hongzhan Huang, Gang Li, Jia Ren, Michael Wang, K Vijay-Shanker, Cathy H Wu
The Protein Ontology (PRO) defines protein classes and their interrelationships from the family to the protein form (proteoform) level within and across species. One of the unique contributions of PRO is its representation of post-translationally modified (PTM) proteoforms. However, progress in adding PTM proteoform classes to PRO has been relatively slow due to the extensive manual curation effort required. Here we report an automated pipeline for creation of PTM proteoform classes that leverages two phosphorylation-focused text mining tools (RLIMS-P, which detects mentions of kinases, substrates, and phosphorylation sites, and eFIP, which detects phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions (PPIs)) and our integrated PTM database, iPTMnet...
August 2016: CEUR Workshop Proceedings
L Fattorini, A Veloccia, F Della Rovere, S D'Angeli, G Falasca, M M Altamura
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), control adventitious root (AR) formation in planta. Adventitious roots are also crucial for propagation via cuttings. However, IBA role(s) is/are still far to be elucidated. In Arabidopsis thaliana stem cuttings, 10 μM IBA is more AR-inductive than 10 μM IAA, and, in thin cell layers (TCLs), IBA induces ARs when combined with 0.1 μM kinetin (Kin). It is unknown whether arabidopsis TCLs produce ARs under IBA alone (10 μM) or IAA alone (10 μM), and whether they contain endogenous IAA/IBA at culture onset, possibly interfering with the exogenous IBA/IAA input...
July 11, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Ricardo Tejos, Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlan, Maciej Adamowski, Michael Sauer, Lorena Norambuena, Jiří Friml
Coordinated cell polarization in developing tissues is a recurrent theme in multicellular organisms. In plants, a directional distribution of the plant hormone auxin is at the core of many developmental programs. A feedback regulation of auxin on the polarized localization of PIN auxin transporters in individual cells has been proposed as a self-organizing mechanism for coordinated tissue polarization, but the molecular mechanisms linking auxin signalling to PIN-dependent auxin transport remain unknown. We performed a microarray-based approach to find regulators of the auxin-induced PIN relocation in the Arabidopsis thaliana root...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Alexandra L Thomas, Hanne Lind, Angela Hong, Danijela Dokic, Kailey Oppat, Elana Rosenthal, Amina Guo, Aaron Thomas, Randala Hamden, Jacqueline S Jeruss
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype that lacks effective targeted therapies. Although TNBC is not defined by specific therapeutic targets, a subset of patients have tumors that overexpress cyclins. High cyclin D/E expression catalyzes CDK4/2 activity. In turn, CDK4/2 can non-canonically phosphorylate Smad3, a key TGFβ signaling intermediate, and this phosphorylation has been associated with the shift from tumor-suppressive to oncogenic TGFβ pathway action in breast oncogenesis...
August 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
Liuyan Zeng, Shengqun Luo, Xin Li, Mengxuan Lu, Huahui Li, Tong Li, Guanhua Wang, Xiaoming Lyu, Wenrui Jia, Zigang Dong, Qiang Jiang, Zhihua Shen, Guo-Liang Huang, Zhiwei He
Our previous work reported the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PIN1 promoter and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk with a small sample size in a low incidence area. This study investigated the association between the two SNPs and NPC risk in 733 patients and 895 controls from a high incidence area. The results indicated the genotype and allele frequencies of -842G > C and -667C > T were both significantly different between patients and controls even using the resampling statistics...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaozhao Xu, Xu Li, Xingwang Hu, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang, Zhenhai Han
Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156), the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J) and rejuvenated (Mx-R) Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like) genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A) trees...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peng He, Peng Zhao, Limin Wang, Yuzhou Zhang, Xiaosi Wang, Hui Xiao, Jianing Yu, Guanghui Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cell elongation and expansion are significant contributors to plant growth and morphogenesis, and are often regulated by environmental cues and endogenous hormones. Auxin is one of the most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of plant growth and development and plays key roles in plant cell expansion and elongation. Cotton fiber cells are a model system for studying cell elongation due to their large size. Cotton is also the world's most utilized crop for the production of natural fibers for textile and garment industries, and targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM increased cotton fiber initiation...
July 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
Hyeong-Jun Han, Bu Young Choi, Young-Joon Surh
Pin 1 is a unique peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) that catalyzes the cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl peptide bonds of its substrate proteins by binding to their specific phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro (pSer/Thr-Pro) motifs. This alters the conformation of target proteins and consequently affects their stability, intracellular localization, and/or biological functions. The abnormal overexpression of Pin1 is observed in some malignancies, which is associated with cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion...
July 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xian-Fang Rong, Ying-Ni Sun, Dong-Mei Liu, Hua-Jing Yin, Ying Peng, Shao-Feng Xu, Ling Wang, Xiao-Liang Wang
AIMS: To investigate the roles of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) in the pathology of aging and neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). RESULTS: In this study, we confirmed the upregulation of NDRG2 in the brains of aging and AD animal models. To explore the role of NDRG2 in the pathology of AD at molecular level, we conducted a cell-based assay of highly expressed wild-type human APP695 SK-N-SH cells (SK-N-SH APPwt). By silencing and overexpressing gene of NDRG2, we demonstrated that NDRG2-mediated increase in Aβ1-42 was through the pathways of BACE1 and GGA3...
July 2, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Qionghui Fei, Shaodong Wei, Zhaoyang Zhou, Huanhuan Gao, Xiaofeng Li
A fresh look at the roles of auxin, ethylene, and polar auxin transport during the plant root growth response to warmer ambient temperature (AT). The ambient temperature (AT) affects plant growth and development. Plants can sense changes in the AT, but how this change is transduced into a plant root growth response is still relatively unclear. Here, we found that the Arabidopsis ckrc1-1 mutant is sensitive to higher AT. At 27 °C, the ckrc1-1 root length is significantly shortened and the root gravity defect is enhanced, changes that can be restored with addition of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)...
June 28, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Jing Wang, Ryosuke Kawasaki, Jun-Ichi Uewaki, Arif U R Rashid, Naoya Tochio, Shin-Ichi Tate
Allosteric communication among domains in modular proteins consisting of flexibly linked domains with complimentary roles remains poorly understood. To understand how complementary domains communicate, we have studied human Pin1, a representative modular protein with two domains mutually tethered by a flexible linker: a WW domain for substrate recognition and a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain. Previous studies of Pin1 showed that physical contact between the domains causes dynamic allostery by reducing conformation dynamics in the catalytic domain, which compensates for the entropy costs of substrate binding to the catalytic site and thus increases catalytic activity...
June 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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