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Hyperandrogenism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102491/shedding-new-light-on-female-fertility-the-role-of-vitamin-d
#1
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Barbara Altieri, Cristina de Angelis, Stefano Palomba, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao, Francesco Orio
In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues such as ovary, uterus, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. Vitamin D has also a role in the regulation of sex hormone steroidogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D might have a regulatory role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated symptoms, including ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism...
January 19, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102088/hyperandrogenism-in-a-postmenopausal-woman-a-rare-case-of-ectopic-adrenal-cortical-gland
#2
Antonella Guarino, Luisa Di Benedetto, Valentina Giovanale, Gian Luca Rampioni Vinciguerra, Antonella Stoppacciaro, Filippo Bellati, Donatella Caserta
Most frequent causes of androgenic manifestation are Cushing's syndrome, PCO, benign and malignant androgen-secreting non adrenal tumors and iatrogenic hirsutism. Hyperplasia or neoplasms of ectopic adrenocortical gland are rare. We report a case of a 63-year old female with hirsutism and alopecia. Laboratory data highlighted increased levels of androgens. Diagnostic imaging revealed normal morphology of adrenocortical gland and ovaries. In view of the clinical picture and suspected diagnosis of extra-adrenal cause, she underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy...
January 19, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096644/postmenopausal-hyperandrogenism-of-ovarian-origin-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-five-cases
#3
S Ajith, George Beena, Nitu Mariam Mathew, E K Omana
In postmenopausal women presenting with virilization and elevated testosterone levels, laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered after exclusion of adrenal causes. A clinicopathological study was conducted among those women who presented with features of hyperandrogenism in our postmenopausal clinic over a period of 2 years. Relevant past medical and surgical histories were elicited. Basic hormonal evaluation and radiological imaging were done. Laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done...
October 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#4
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089571/normo-and-hyperandrogenic-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-exhibit-an-adverse-metabolic-profile-through-life
#5
Pekka Pinola, Katri Puukka, Terhi T Piltonen, Johanna Puurunen, Eszter Vanky, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Pernille Ravn, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Dorte Glintborg, Jan Roar Mellembakken, Aimo Ruokonen, Juha S Tapanainen, Laure C Morin-Papunen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolic profiles of normo- and hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with those of control women at different ages during reproductive life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): In all, 1,550 women with normoandrogenic (n = 686) or hyperandrogenic (n = 842) PCOS and 447 control women were divided into three age groups: <30, 30-39, and >39 years)...
January 12, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068351/phenotype-and-tissue-expression-as-a-function-of-genetic-risk-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Cindy T Pau, Tim Mosbruger, Richa Saxena, Corrine K Welt
Genome-wide association studies and replication analyses have identified (n = 5) or replicated (n = 10) DNA variants associated with risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in European women. However, the causal gene and underlying mechanism for PCOS risk at these loci have not been determined. We hypothesized that analysis of phenotype, gene expression and metformin response as a function of genotype would identify candidate genes and pathways that could provide insight into the underlying mechanism for risk at these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045919/alterations-in-gut-microbiome-composition-and-barrier-function-are-associated-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-defects-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-a-pilot-study
#7
Lisa Lindheim, Mina Bashir, Julia Münzker, Christian Trummer, Verena Zachhuber, Bettina Leber, Angela Horvath, Thomas R Pieber, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin resistance, fat accumulation, and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. In this pilot study, we compared the stool microbiome, gut permeability, and inflammatory status of women with PCOS and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042549/relationship-between-il-17-serum-level-and-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Alireza Soleimani, Elham Arbab, Mansooreh Samimi, Mohammad Reza Tamadon
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders with an inflammatory basis. It is associated with hyperandrogenism in women and can be also associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age are affected by this disease. This syndrome is the main cause of infertility. Blood pressure may be one of the complications of the syndrome. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to assess the role of the IL-17 inflammatory cytokine in increasing blood pressure in patients with PCOS...
January 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039871/high-salivary-testosterone-to-androstenedione-t-a4-ratio-and-adverse-metabolic-phenotypes-in-women-with-pcos
#9
J Münzker, L Lindheim, J Adaway, C Trummer, E Lerchbaum, T R Pieber, B Keevil, B Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. This study aimed to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of salivary testosterone and androstenedione, and to describe the salivary testosterone to androstenedione (T/A4) ratio as a new tool for the assessment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic health...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034591/women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-have-comparable-hip-bone-geometry-to-age-matched-control-women
#10
Laura E McBreairty, Gordon A Zello, Julianne J Gordon, Shani B Serrao, Roger A Pierson, Donna R Chizen, Philip D Chilibeck
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031728/the-frequency-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-young-reproductive-females-in-qatar
#11
Elham Sharif, Sumaya Rahman, Yumna Zia, Nasser M Rizk
This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 126 female students between the ages of 18 and 30 years were evaluated for the frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) through clinical interview, questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. The diagnostic criteria of the US National Institutes of Health criteria were used. Menstrual irregularities (MI) were identified, and clinical hyperandrogenism was evaluated by self-assessment of hirsutism using modified Ferriman-Gallwey score. Blood analysis was done for measurement of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and the androgen hormones...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030919/cardiovascular-system-diseases-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-the-role-of-inflammation-process-in-this-pathology-and-possibility-of-early-diagnosis-and-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Aleksandra Marciniak, Jolanta Nawrocka Rutkowska, Agnieszka Brodowska, Berenika Wiśniewska, Andrzej Starczewski
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028399/indexes-of-insulin-resistance-in-hyperinsulinemic-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-a-macedonian-cohort-of-women-of-reproductive-age-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Sasha Jovanovska-Mishevska, Aleksandra Atanasova-Boshku, Iskra Bitoska, Irfan Ahmeti, Biljana Todorova, Gordana Pemovska, Tatjana Milenkovic, Brankica Krstevska
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex hormonal, metabolic and reproductive disorder and is a leading cause of female infertility. Hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance plays important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of different indices of insulin resistance and their relevance in a clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 43 patients with PCOS and 29 noromo ovulatory women as a control group was conducted...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001262/current-aspects-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-literature-review
#14
Victor Hugo Lopes DE Andrade, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira DA Mata, Rafael Soares Borges, Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, Luana Mota Martins, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Lívio César Cunha-Nunes, Benedito Borges DA Silva
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders...
December 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990089/metabolic-and-carbohydrate-characteristics-of-different-phenotypes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Ebru Çelik, Ilgın Türkçüoğlu, Barış Ata, Abdullah Karaer, Pınar Kırıcı, Sevil Eraslan, Çağatay Taşkapan, Bülent Berker
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of various metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors and insulin resistance between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with or without hyperandrogenism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study involving women with PCOS as diagnosed according to the Androgen Excess (AE) Society definition (n=504) and women with normoandrogenemic PCOS (n=183). Anthropometrics, lipid profile, glucose, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and reproductive hormone levels were evaluated...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983870/kisspeptin-in-the-hypothalamus-of-two-rat-models-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Satoko Osuka, Akira Iwase, Tatsuo Nakahara, Mika Kondo, Ai Saito, Bayasula, Tomoko Nakamura, Sachiko Takikawa, Maki Goto, Tomomi Kotani, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Hyperandrogenism, disturbance of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis followed by elevated serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and insulin resistance are involved in the complicated pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Kisspeptin is co-expressed with neurokinin B (NKB) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the center of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-pulse generator that is responsible for pulsatile LH secretion. We compared two androgenized rat models of PCOS to evaluate the estrous cycle, hormonal profiles, and expression of kisspeptin and NKB in the ARC...
December 16, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967205/gestational-hyperandrogenism-in-developmental-programming
#17
C Hakim, V Padmanabhan, A K Vyas
Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Potential causes of androgen excess in women include: polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity amongst many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. This paper reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy, its origin, pathophysiology, and the impact of hyperandrogenism on fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940757/atypical-leydig-cell-tumor-in-children-report-of-2-cases
#18
Chiara Mameli, Giorgio Selvaggio, Chiara Cerini, Gaetano Bulfamante, Cristina Madia, Giovanna Riccipetitoni, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are rare cord-stromal tumors that may occur in testis or ovaries and may produce androgens or estrogens. The majority has been found in men between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Adults with androgen-secreting LCTs are usually asymptomatic; feminizing syndromes may result from the production of estradiol or the peripheral aromatization of testosterone. In children, LCTs usually present between 5 and 10 years of age with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty or gynecomastia. We report 2 cases of LCT in prepubertal boys presenting with advanced unilateral pubarche and testicular volume asymmetry...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911591/type-b-insulin-resistance-masquerading-as-ovarian-hyperthecosis
#19
Rebecca J Brown, Jalaja Joseph, Elaine Cochran, Cornelia Gewert, Robert Semple, Phillip Gorden
CONTEXT: Hyperinsulinemia can lead to pathologic ovarian growth and androgen production. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29 year old woman developed an autoantibody to the insulin receptor (Type B insulin resistance), causing extreme insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Testosterone levels were elevated to the adult male range. Treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog led to normalization of testosterone, despite persistent extreme insulin resistance...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906711/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescent-girls
#20
Natalie Hecht Baldauff, Selma Feldman Witchel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous disorder that appears to have its origins during the peripubertal years. The diagnostic conundrum is that the typical clinical features, irregular menses and acne, occur during normal female puberty. Understanding the physiologic origins and molecular basis of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is fundamental to interrupting the distinctive vicious cycle of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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