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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156452/an-international-consortium-update-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-adolescence
#1
Lourdes Ibáñez, Sharon E Oberfield, Selma F Witchel, Richard J Auchus, R Jeffrey Chang, Ethel Codner, Preeti Dabadghao, Feyza Darendeliler, Nancy Samir Elbarbary, Alessandra Gambineri, Cecilia Garcia Rudaz, Kathleen M Hoeger, Abel López-Bermejo, Ken Ong, Alexia S Peña, Thomas Reinehr, Nicola Santoro, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Rachel Tao, Bulent O Yildiz, Haya Alkhayyat, Asma Deeb, Dipesalema Joel, Reiko Horikawa, Francis de Zegher, Peter A Lee
This paper represents an international collaboration of paediatric endocrine and other societies (listed in the Appendix) under the International Consortium of Paediatric Endocrinology (ICPE) aiming to improve worldwide care of adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)1. The manuscript examines pathophysiology and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of PCOS during adolescence. The complex pathophysiology of PCOS involves the interaction of genetic and epigenetic changes, primary ovarian abnormalities, neuroendocrine alterations, and endocrine and metabolic modifiers such as anti-Müllerian hormone, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, adiposity, and adiponectin levels...
November 13, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142442/debates-regarding-lean-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Manu Goyal, Ayman S Dawood
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing the clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Two phenotypes are present, either lean or obese, with different biochemical, hormonal, and metabolic profiles. Evidence suggests many treatment modalities that can be applied. However, many of these modalities were found to be not suitable for the lean phenotype of PCOS. Much contradictory research was found regarding lean patients with PCOS...
July 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125859/insulin-resistance-enhances-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#3
Linghui Kong, Qien Wang, Jiewen Jin, Zou Xiang, Taoyu Chen, Shanmei Shen, Hongwei Wang, Qian Gao, Yong Wang
The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125183/ovarian-surgery-for-symptom-relief-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Sam Lepine, Junyoung Jo, Mostafa Metwally, Ying C Cheong
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Long-term health concerns include an increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and the development of precancerous disease of the womb...
November 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125115/roles-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-axis-in-the-abnormal-endocrine-functions-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Fan Wang, Zheng-Hong Zhang, Kai-Zhuan Xiao, Zheng-Chao Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease in women of childbearing age. While it can be affected by a variety of factors,its pathophysiology remains unclear. Its clinical features mainly include anovulation,hyperandrogenism,and hyperinsulinemia,which are closely related with abnormal neuroendocrine system. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis(HPG) plays a crucial regulatory role in various life activities in mammals. In particular,hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary(HPO) axis can be abnormal in PCOS patients...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122541/the-simultaneous-measurement-of-serum-testosterone-and-5%C3%AE-dihydrotestosterone-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-gc-ms
#6
Frank Kannenberg, Manfred Fobker, Erhard Schulte, Grzegorz Pierściński, Reinhard Kelsch, Michael Zitzmann, Jerzy-Roch Nofer, Andreas N Schüring
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous measurement of testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is important for diagnosing androgen deficiency states and hyperandrogenism in males and females, respectively. However, immunoassays used for T and DHT determination suffer from inadequate specificity and sensitivity, while tandem mass spectrometry is expensive and demanding in use. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for parallel T and DHT measurement...
November 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116087/differential-expression-of-mir-93-and-mir-21-in-granulosa-cells-and-follicular-fluid-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-associating-with-different-phenotypes
#7
Mohammad Naji, Ashraf Aleyasin, Saeid Nekoonam, Ehsan Arefian, Reza Mahdian, Fardin Amidi
The heterogeneous and multifactorial essence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) renders a remarkable significance to microRNAs (miRNAs). Normo-androgenic (NA) and hyperandrogenic (HA) PCOS patients were compared with matched healthy women. Expression of miRNAs and TGFβ signaling genes was studied by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Effect of androgen on expression of miR-93 and miR-21 and involvement of androgen receptor were appraised. In granulosa cells (GCs), miR-93 and miR-21 showed significantly increased levels in HA patients compared to NA patients...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108453/very-low-dose-of-flutamide-in-the-treatment-of-hyperandrogenism
#8
Anna Maria Fulghesu, Federica Melis, Giulia Murru, Elena Canu, Gian Benedetto Melis
Hyperandrogenism is a condition affecting 5-10% of adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of very low dose of flutamide in the treatment of hyperandrogenism in adolescence. One hundred and fifty-eight patients, presenting severe acne and/or hirsutism, received 62.5 mg/day of flutamide + ethinylestradiol + gestodene for 18 months. The patients were subjected to assessments of hepatic enzymes levels. Thirty subjects treated with drospirenone + ethinylestradiol represented the control group...
November 6, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100622/value-of-selective-venous-catheterization-in-the-diagnosis-of-hyperandrogenism
#9
Lisa C Hickman, Linnea Goodman, Tommaso Falcone
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical utility of ovarian vessel sampling in the context of the evaluation and treatment of ovarian hyperthecosis. DESIGN: Patient presentation in video format, ovarian vessel sampling demonstration, surgical technique explanation, surgical histology discussion and ovarian hyperthecosis review. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): A 30-year-old nulligravid female presented with severe hyperandrogenic features, consistent with polycystic ovary syndrome...
October 31, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096744/hyperandrogenism-stimulates-inflammation-and-promote-apoptosis-of-cumulus-cells
#10
F Xu, R Liu, X Cao
To explore roles of androgen and cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in PCOS. Cumulus cells were isolated from rat COCs and divided into two sets of experiments. Set 1 includes 4 groups: Control group, IL-1 group (final concentration at 5 nM), IL-6 group (final concentration at 5nM) and TNF-α group (final concentration at 5nM). Set 2 also include 4 groups: Control group, Androgen group 1 (final concentration at 1 nM), Androgen group 2 (final concentration at 10 nM) and Androgen group 3 (final concentration at 100 nM)...
October 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095983/progesterone-suppression-of-lh-pulse-frequency-in-adolescent-girls-with-hyperandrogenism-effects-of-metformin
#11
Jessica A Lundgren, Su Hee Kim, Christine M Burt Solorzano, Christopher R McCartney, John C Marshall
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and adolescent hyperandrogenism (HA) are characterized by rapid LH (GnRH) pulse frequency. This partly reflects impaired GnRH pulse generator (hypothalamic) sensitivity to progesterone (P4) negative feedback. We aimed to assess whether metformin may improve P4 sensitivity in adolescent HA, for which it is prescribed widely. Objective: To test the hypothesis that metformin improves hypothalamic P4 sensitivity in adolescent HA...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089199/microrna-27a-3p-affects-estradiol-and-androgen-imbalance-by-targeting-creb1-in-the-granulosa-cells-in-mouse-polycytic-ovary-syndrome-model
#12
Mingming Wang, Mei Liu, Jing Sun, Lina Jia, Shuoqian Ma, Jun Gao, Yunyun Xu, Hongwen Zhang, Suk Ying Tsang, Xiangdong Li
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine abnormality in women characterized by a menstrual disturbance with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important fine-tune regulators involved in various physiological and pathological processes, but their actions are not fully understood. In this study, we observed the increased expression of miR-27a-3p in the ovaries of mice with PCOS and explored its functions in primary mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) and the mouse granulosa-like tumor cell line, KK-1, using several approaches...
October 28, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082367/association-of-snp-rs-2414096-cyp19-gene-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-in-iranian-women
#13
Anahita Mehdizadeh, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hassan Sheikhha, Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Azam Ghanei
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common endocrinological disorder of women in their reproductive age. Androgen metabolism is impaired in PCOS and, thus, CYP19 gene which is involved in this pathway can be a candidate gene. Previous studies have shown a relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP19 in hyperandrogenism and PCOS in some racial groups. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to elucidate the role of CYP19 gene in PCOS in Iran...
August 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080721/no-350-hirsutism-evaluation-and-treatment
#14
Kimberly Liu, Tarek Motan, Paul Claman
OBJECTIVES: To review the etiology, evaluation, and treatment of hirsutism. EVALUATION: A thorough history and physical examination plus selected laboratory evaluations will confirm the diagnosis and direct treatment. TREATMENT: Pharmacologic interventions can suppress ovarian or adrenal androgen production and block androgen receptors in the hair follicle. Hair removal methods and lifestyle modifications may improve or hasten the therapeutic response...
November 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075233/genes-gender-hormones-and-doping-in-sport-a-convoluted-tale
#15
Alan D Rogol, Lindsay Parks Pieper
We are writing this piece in the aftermath of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each of the words in the title plays a role(s) in deciding who may compete, especially who may compete as a woman. We shall be careful to disentangle the issues of genes and gender from hormonal levels of the potent androgen testosterone, and very clearly demarcate these natural occurrences from those of doping, for which the World Anti-Doping Agency has established strict guidelines. These elements became conflated in the aftermath of the Court of Arbitration of Sport's decision, now more than 2 years ago, concerning the teenage Indian sprinter, Dutee Chand...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075170/correlation-of-hba1c-levels-with-body-mass-index-in-newly-diagnosed-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Manju Bala, Meenakshi, Menaka K, Anjali Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, multisystem endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age manifested with various metabolic disturbances and a wide spectrum of clinical features such as obesity, menstrual abnormalities and hyperandrogenism. Hyperinsulinemia was noted in 50% to 70% of PCOS patients and plays a central role in the development of further complications. The prevalence of obesity in PCOS ranges from 38% to 87%. It has been reported in previous studies that the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) is higher in obese PCOS women than obesity without PCOS...
October 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072679/anp-promotes-proliferation-and-inhibits-apoptosis-of-ovarian-granulosa-cells-by-npra-pgrmc1-egfr-complex-and-improves-ovary-functions-of-pcos-rats
#17
Qin Zheng, Yulin Li, Dandan Zhang, Xinyuan Cui, Kuixing Dai, Yu Yang, Shuai Liu, Jichun Tan, Qiu Yan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive endocrine disease characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. It is one of the main causes of infertility. RU486 is an antagonist of progesterone receptor, and most commonly used as a contraceptive. However, whether RU486 is correlated with PCOS remains unclear. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a small peptide with natriuretic and diuretic functions, and its availability to be used in PCOS treatment is unknown. Here, we showed that the serum ANP level was lower in PCOS patients than that in healthy women, and it was also decreased in the serum and ovarian tissues of RU486-induced PCOS rats compared with the control rats...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068242/heterogenous-origins-of-hyperandrogenism-in-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-relation-to-body-mass-index-and-insulin-resistance
#18
Shalini Patlolla, Suresh Vaikkakara, Alok Sachan, Ashok Venkatanarasu, Bharath Bachimanchi, Aparna Bitla, Sarala Settipalli, Sumathi Pathiputturu, Roopa Naik Sugali, Sravani Chiri
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and obesity are not universal features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We planned to assess the differences between patients with nonobese /insulin-sensitive phenotype vs. obese/ insulin-resistant phenotype in terms of the potential mechanisms underlying their hyperandrogenism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 52 women satisfying Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria were included. Hormonal and metabolic profile including prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), free testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured in follicular phase...
October 25, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062793/ultra-low-doses-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-progesterone-attenuate-the-severity-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-features-in-a-hyperandrogenized-mouse-model
#19
Irene Tessaro, Silvia Modina, Valentina Lodde, Giulia Sivelli, Federica Franciosi, Laura Terzaghi, Patrizia Luchini, Cristiano Rumio, Alberto Maria Luciano
BACKGROUND: Polycystic-ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive illness characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulation. Using hyperandrogenized mice, it was demonstrated that the oral administration of incremental dose of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) attenuated some of PCOS characteristics. This work aimed to study the effect of ultra-low doses of combined FSH and progesterone orally administered on PCOS murine model. Moreover, the effect of sequential kinetic activation of administered hormones was tested...
July 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049986/new-diagnostic-criteria-of-polycystic-ovarian-morphology-for-adolescents-impact-on-prevalence-and-hormonal-profile
#20
Paulina M Merino, Claudio Villarroel, Cristián Jesam, Patricia López, Ethel Codner
BACKGROUND: The ultrasonographic criteria used to identify polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) during adolescence have changed over time. Recently, a Worldwide Pediatric Consensus (PedC) defined PCOM using stricter criteria than the previous recommendations of the Rotterdam Consensus (RC) and Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Society (AES/PCOS) criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PCOM in healthy adolescents according to the 3 reported diagnostic criteria and compare the hormonal profile in females with and without PCOM based on the PedC criteria...
October 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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