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Autonomic Neuropathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787347/stp-position-paper-recommended-best-practices-for-sampling-processing-and-analysis-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-nerves-and-somatic-and-autonomic-ganglia-during-nonclinical-toxicity-studies
#1
Brad Bolon, Georg Krinke, Mark T Butt, Deepa B Rao, Ingrid D Pardo, Bernard S Jortner, Robert H Garman, Karl Jensen, Lydia Andrews-Jones, James P Morrison, Alok K Sharma, Michael S Thibodeau
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) toxicity is surveyed inconsistently in nonclinical general toxicity studies. These Society of Toxicologic Pathology "best practice" recommendations are designed to ensure consistent, efficient, and effective sampling, processing, and evaluation of PNS tissues for four different situations encountered during nonclinical general toxicity (screening) and dedicated neurotoxicity studies. For toxicity studies where neurotoxicity is unknown or not anticipated (situation 1), PNS evaluation may be limited to one sensorimotor spinal nerve...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780124/hiv-dementia-with-a-decreased-cardiac-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-uptake-masquerading-as-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#2
Masanori Kurihara, Takuya Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji
Cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a promising biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, we experienced a patient with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, and a decreased MIBG uptake who turned out to have HIV dementia. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography reduced the possibility of comorbid Lewy body pathology causing the patient' s parkinsonism. The decreased MIBG uptake was most likely due to postganglionic sympathetic nerve denervation, which can also be caused by HIV...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775674/the-prognostic-value-of-the-frontal-qrs-t-angle-is-comparable-to-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-regarding-long-term-mortality-in-people-with-diabetes-a-population-based-study
#3
O May, C B Graversen, M Ø Johansen, H Arildsen
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a well known prognostic marker in diabetes. A large angle between the QRS- and the T-wave vector (QRS-T angle) in the electrocardiogram (ECG) has recently been introduced as another marker of poor prognosis. AIM: To assess and compare the long-term predictive power of the frontal plane QRS-T angle with CAN in people with diabetes. METHODS: In 1992-93 people with diabetes in the municipality of Horsens, Denmark, were identified by the prescription method andan age and gender stratified sample of 240 individuals with diabetes were randomly selected...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768202/sensory-neuropathy-causing-mutations-in-atl3-cause-aberrant-er-membrane-tethering
#4
Michiel Krols, Sammy Detry, Bob Asselbergh, Leonardo Almeida-Souza, Anna Kremer, Saskia Lippens, Riet De Rycke, Vicky De Winter, Franz-Josef Müller, Ingo Kurth, Harvey T McMahon, Savvas N Savvides, Vincent Timmerman, Sophie Janssens
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex network of sheets and tubules that is continuously remodeled. The relevance of this membrane dynamics is underscored by the fact that mutations in atlastins (ATLs), the ER fusion proteins in mammals, cause neurodegeneration. How defects in this process disrupt neuronal homeostasis is unclear. Using electron microscopy (EM) volume reconstruction of transfected cells, neurons, and patient fibroblasts, we show that hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)-causing ATL3 mutants promote aberrant ER tethering hallmarked by bundles of laterally attached ER tubules...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760923/finger-drop-sign-characteristic-pattern-of-distal-weakness-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Yong Chuan Chee, Beng Hooi Ong
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is an acquired acute autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy that commonly presents with limb weakness and occasional cranial nerve, respiratory and autonomic involvement. Although the classic description of Guillain-Barré Syndrome is that of a demyelinating neuropathy with ascending weakness, predominant bilateral finger drop as presenting feature has rarely been reported. A characteristic pattern of weakness involving the extensor components of the fingers known as "finger drop sign" has been first described to be specific in acute motor axonal neuropathy form of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in the literature...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745908/local-use-of-granulocyte-macrophages-colony-stimulating-factor-in-treatment-of-chronic-diabetic-neuropathic-ulcer-case-review
#6
E Karlafti, Ch Savopoulos, A Hatzitolios, T Didangelos
One of the main causes of amputations in patients with Diabetes Mellitus patients is a chronic diabetic foot ulcer. The authors present a clinical case and discussion of a successful use of Granulocyte-Macrophages Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) treatment for the promotion of healing of a chronic diabetic foot ulcer. A 65 year-old woman was admitted to the Diabetes Center with complaints of a deep non-healing chronic foot ulcer for the last 18 months. At the examination a 5 cm ulcer on the plantar surface of the right foot was revealed...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729587/assessing-sudomotor-impairment-in-patients-with-peripheral-neuropathy-comparison-between-electrochemical-skin-conductance-and-skin-biopsy
#7
Mathilde Duchesne, Laurence Richard, Jean-Michel Vallat, Laurent Magy
OBJECTIVE: Sudoscan provides a rapid assessment of sudomotor function based on the measurement of electrochemical skin conductance (ESC), which is thought to be proportional to small nerve fibres innervating the sweat glands. However, the relationship between ESC and small nerve fibre density on skin biopsy remains unclear. METHODS: In a retrospective single-centre study, we compared ESC measurements with autonomic sweat gland nerve fibre density (SGNFD) and somatic intraepidermal nerve fibre density (IENFD) in patients with polyneuropathy...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728250/minimal-ensemble-based-on-subset-selection-using-ecg-to-diagnose-categories-of-can
#8
Jemal Abawajy, Andrei Kelarev, Xun Yi, Herbert F Jelinek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is critical for reversing or decreasing its progression and prevent complications. Diagnostic accuracy or precision is one of the core requirements of CAN detection. As the standard Ewing battery tests suffer from a number of shortcomings, research in automating and improving the early detection of CAN has recently received serious attention in identifying additional clinical variables and designing advanced ensembles of classifiers to improve the accuracy or precision of CAN diagnostics...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725320/cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-and-glucose-variability-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-is-there-an-association
#9
Szabolcs Nyiraty, Fruzsina Pesei, Andrea Orosz, Sara Coluzzi, Orsolya Eszter Vági, Csaba Lengyel, György Ábrahám, Simona Frontoni, Peter Kempler, Tamás Várkonyi
Introduction: The oxidative stress associated with glucose variability might be responsible for neuronal damage while autonomic neuropathy (AN) has a detrimental effect on metabolism. The aim of the study was to find relationship between AN and GV in type 1 diabetic patients and to identify further factors that affect GV. Patients and methods: Twenty type 1 diabetic patients were involved (age: 39.5 ± 3.4 years, duration of diabetes: 17.5 ± 2.5 years; HbA1c: 8...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706768/small-fiber-neuropathy-disease-classification-beyond-pain-and-burning
#10
REVIEW
Todd D Levine
Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) has a poorly understood pathology, but patients would benefit from determination of clinical phenotypes that allows for better diagnosis and treatment planning. I propose that patients should be classified dependent on whether there is sodium channel dysfunction, classic neurologic symptoms only, widespread neuropathic pain, or autonomic symptoms. Patients with SFN can then be considered in light of their clinical phenotype, allowing for focus on subsets of patients who might have diagnosable conditions or be more prone to responding to a particular type of therapy that may not be efficacious in the broader patient population with SFN...
2018: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693021/predictors-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-onset-and-progression-in-a-cohort-of-type-1-diabetic-patients
#11
M Matta, A Pavy-Le Traon, S Perez-Lloret, C Laporte, I Berdugo, N Nasr, H Hanaire, J M Senard
Aim: The prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in diabetes mellitus is well documented. However, the rate and predictors of both the development and progression of CAN have been less studied. Hereby, we assessed the rate and the major risk factors for CAN initiation and progression in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients followed over a three-year period. Methods: 175 type 1 diabetic patients (mean age: 50 ± 11 years; female/male: 76/99) with positive bedside screening for CAN were included and underwent 2 standardized autonomic testings using 4 standardized tests (deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, and changes in blood pressure during standing), separated by 3 ± 1 years...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681203/the-immunotherapy-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#12
Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Yhojan Rodríguez, Paulina González, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Microorganisms such as Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Zika virus have been linked to the disease. The most common clinical variants are acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulins are the standard therapy for the disease. Areas covered: research to elucidate the pathophysiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome has led to the development of drugs directed towards new potential therapeutic targets...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679631/possible-early-detection-of-coronary-artery-calcium-progression-in-type-1-diabetes-a-case-control-study-of-normoalbuminuric-type-1-diabetes-patients-and-matched-controls
#13
Henrik Ø Hjortkjær, Tonny Jensen, Jannik Hilsted, Helle Corinth, Ulrik M Mogensen, Lars Køber, Andreas Fuchs, Børge G Nordestgaard, Klaus F Kofoed
AIMS: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression of CAC is an independent predictor of mortality. Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased CV risk, especially in persons with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). This study aimed to examine whether short-term progression of CAC is increased in persons with type 1 diabetes compared to matched controls and if CAN increases risk of CAC progression. METHODS: Fifty-three normoalbuminuric persons with long-term type 1 diabetes (20 with CAN) were matched in a 1:2 ratio with 106 controls without diabetes according to age, sex and baseline CAC...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675928/differential-cardiac-sympatho-inhibitory-responses-produced-by-the-agonists-b-ht-933-quinpirole-and-immepip-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-pithed-rats
#14
Eduardo Rivera-Mancilla, Alain H Altamirano-Espinoza, Guadalupe Manrique-Maldonado, Belinda Villanueva-Castillo, Carlos M Villalón
This study compared the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory responses produced by agonists at α2 -adrenergic (B-HT 933), dopamine D2 -like (quinpirole) and histamine H3 /H4 (immepip) receptors between normoglycemic and streptozotocin-pretreated (diabetic) pithed rats. Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of B-HT 933, quinpirole or immepip were used in normoglycemic and diabetic pithed rats to analyse their sympatho-inhibitory effects on the electrically-stimulated cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. Both in normoglycemic and diabetic animals, B-HT 933 (until 100 μg/kg...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670504/clozapine-induced-cardiovascular-side-effects-and-autonomic-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#15
Jessica W Y Yuen, David D Kim, Ric M Procyshyn, Randall F White, William G Honer, Alasdair M Barr
Background: Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has minimal risk for extrapyramidal symptoms. Therapeutic benefits, however, are accompanied by a myriad of cardiometabolic side-effects. The specific reasons for clozapine's high propensity to cause adverse cardiometabolic events remain unknown, but it is believed that autonomic dysfunction may play a role in many of these. Objective: This systematic review summarizes the literature on autonomic dysfunction and related cardiovascular side effects associated with clozapine treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669327/effects-of-baicalin-on-diabetic-cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-mediated-by-the-p2y12-receptor-in-rat-stellate-ganglia
#16
Xuan Sheng, Jiayue Wang, Jingjing Guo, Yurong Xu, Huaide Jiang, Chaoran Zheng, Zixi Xu, Yuanruohan Zhang, Hongyu Che, Shangdong Liang, Gaochun Zhu, Guilin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic diabetic hyperglycemia can damage various of organ systems and cause serious complications. Although diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) is the primary cause of death in diabetic patients, its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. Baicalin is a flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis root and has antibacterial, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti- metamorphotic, and antispasmodic effects. Our study explored the effects of baicalin on enhancing sympathoexcitatory response induced by DCAN via the P2Y12 receptor...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643979/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-as-a-result-of-mild-hypercaloric-challenge-in-absence-of-signs-of-diabetes-modulation-by-antidiabetic-drugs
#17
Ola Al-Assi, Rana Ghali, Ali Mroueh, Abdullah Kaplan, Nahed Mougharbil, Ali H Eid, Fouad A Zouein, Ahmed F El-Yazbi
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an early cardiovascular complication of diabetes occurring before metabolic derangement is evident. The cause of CAN remains elusive and cannot be directly linked to hyperglycemia. Recent clinical data report cardioprotective effects of some antidiabetic drugs independent of their hypoglycemic action. Here, we used a rat model receiving limited daily increase in calories from fat (HC diet) to assess whether mild metabolic challenge led to CAN in absence of interfering effects of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, or obesity...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627307/abnormal-myocardial-dietary-fatty-acid-metabolism-and-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#18
REVIEW
André C Carpentier
Patients with diabetes are at very high risk of hospitalization and death from heart failure. Increased prevalence of coronary heart disease, hypertension, autonomic neuropathy, and kidney failure all play a role in this increased risk. However, cardiac metabolic abnormalities are now recognized to play a role in this increased risk. Increased reliance on fatty acids to produce energy might predispose the diabetic heart to oxidative stress and ischemic damage. Intramyocellular accumulation of toxic lipid metabolites leads to a number of cellular abnormalities that might also contribute to cardiac remodelling and cardiac dysfunction...
January 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611130/understanding-the-disease-course-and-therapeutic-benefit-of-tafamidis-across-real-world-studies-of-hereditary-transthyretin-amyloidosis-with-polyneuropathy-a-proof-of-concept-for-integrative-data-analytic-approaches
#19
Daniel Serrano, Christopher B Atzinger, Marc F Botteman
INTRODUCTION: Hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (hATTR-PN) is a rare, autosomal dominant amyloidosis characterized primarily by progressive ascending sensorimotor neuropathy often associated with  autonomic involvement. hATTR-PN is caused by a mutation in the TTR gene leading to protein misfolding and amyloid accumulation in peripheral nerves and vital organs. The latest global prevalence estimates point to 10,000 cases worldwide, with an upper end of about 40,000...
April 2, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608603/heart-rate-variability-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Thomas Benichou, Bruno Pereira, Martial Mermillod, Igor Tauveron, Daniela Pfabigan, Salwan Maqdasy, Frédéric Dutheil
BACKGROUND: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 dibetes mellitus (T2DM) patients is frequent and associated with high cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate variability (HRV) is the gold standard to measure cardiac autonomic neuropathy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of T2DM on HRV parameters. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched on 1st October 2017 using the keywords "diabetes" AND ("heart rate variability" OR "HRV")...
2018: PloS One
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