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Urine toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899216/poisoning-suicide-with-ingestion-of-the-pyrethroids-alpha-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-and-the-antidepressant-mirtazapine-a-case-report
#1
Vassiliki A Boumba, Georgios N Rallis, Theodore Vougiouklakis
This case report describes a death attributed to the intake of the pyrethroid insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, and the antidepressant mirtazapine. The autopsy findings showed absence of external traumatic injuries and internal generalized visceral congestion, edema and cyanosis. The toxicological results revealed the presence of a toxic concentration of mirtazapine (12.5mg/L and 10.7mg/L in blood and urine, respectively) and high concentrations of pyrethroids (2.46mg/L alpha-cypermethrin and 2...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898722/suicide-among-young-people-and-adults-in-ireland-method-characteristics-toxicological-analysis-and-substance-abuse-histories-compared
#2
Ella Arensman, Marco Bennardi, Celine Larkin, Amanda Wall, Carmel McAuliffe, Jacklyn McCarthy, Eileen Williamson, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVE: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. METHODS: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897471/use-of-risk-mitigation-practices-by-family-nurse-practitioners-prescribing-opioids-for-the-management-of-chronic-non-malignant-pain
#3
Sahil Chaudhary, Peggy Compton
BACKGROUND: Ongoing opioid analgesic use in patients suffering from chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) has been associated with the development of opioid misuse, abuse, addiction, and overdose. To prevent these adverse outcomes, it is important that family nurse practitioners (FNPs) implement recommended risk mitigation practices (RMPs) when treating CNMP patients with opioids. METHODS: A national sample of 856 FNPs was invited to answer an online survey about their utilization of opioids and RMPs in treating CNMP...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890104/an-autopsy-case-of-spontaneous-esophageal-perforation-boerhaave-syndrome
#4
Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Junko Fujihara, Satsuki Kurata, Yoshikazu Takinami, Ken Inoue, Toshihiro Yasuda, Haruo Takeshita
A 45-year-old male, an alcohol addict with asthma, was found dead in his home, after several days of continued drinking. A forensic autopsy was performed 3days after the discovery of his death in order to specify the cause of death. A longitudinal perforation penetrating all layers of the esophagus measuring 1.8cm was present on the left wall approximately 2.0cm from the gastroesophageal junction. There were 1900mL of greenish to brownish turbid liquid in the left pleural cavity and 150mL of greenish viscous liquid in the stomach...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872646/mercury-vapour-long-lasting-exposure-lymphocyte-muscarinic-receptors-as-neurochemical-markers-of-accidental-intoxication
#5
E Roda, A Giampreti, S Vecchio, P Apostoli, T Coccini
Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg) vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg) monitoring were performed from admission (t0), until 1 year later (t2), paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs)...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864965/attempted-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-xylazine-intoxication-in-a-child
#6
Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Alexander Mueller, Sven Anders
There are only a few cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on children reported in the literature so far. Here, a case of a four-year-old boy is presented. He was unconscious, and the accompanying adults reported that the child had been at a playground on his own. Returning home, he complained of having been stung and collapsed immediately. Urine and serum samples of the child were investigated. In the toxicological analysis, xylazine, a sedative and muscle relaxant used in animals, was detected. Subsequent quantification by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction revealed 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864544/investigative-nonclinical-cardiovascular-safety-and-toxicology-studies-with-bms-986094-an-ns5b-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#7
M Gill, K Horn, J Hennan, R White, D Bounous, S Clark, J R Megill, E Janovitz, M Davies, T Sanderson, M Graziano
BMS-986094, a 2'-C-methylguanosine prodrug that was in development for treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection was withdrawn from Phase 2 clinical trials because of unexpected cardiac and renal adverse events. Investigative nonclinical studies were conducted to extend the understanding of these findings using more comprehensive endpoints. BMS-986094 was given orally to female CD-1 mice (25 and 150 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks (53/group) and to cynomolgus monkeys (15 and 30 mg/kg/d) for up to 6 weeks (2-3/sex/group for cardiovascular safety, and 5/sex/group for toxicology)...
November 17, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856027/a-case-of-strychnine-poisoning-from-a-southeast-asian-herbal-remedy
#8
Terry Singhapricha, Adam C Pomerleau
BACKGROUND: Strychnine is a highly toxic alkaloid found in both naturally occurring compounds and commercial products. Extracts of fruits from the strychnine plant have been used in Southeast Asia as remedies for various illnesses. We describe strychnine poisoning from ingestion of a Southeast Asian herbal supplement quantitatively confirmed by serum and urine analysis. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old Cambodian woman presented to the emergency department with a complaint of jaw pain and spasms...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855664/challenges-in-detecting-and-diagnosing-substance-use-in-women-in-the-acute-psychiatric-department-a-naturalistic-cohort-study
#9
Torill Vassli Sallaup, Arne Einar Vaaler, Valentina Cabral Iversen, Ismail Cuneyt Guzey
BACKGROUND: This study examines sex differences in substance use and substance use disorder in the acute psychiatric department, and possible interactions between sex and clinical and social factors associated with this phenomenon. METHODS: Data concerning substance use were collected in a naturalistic cohort study (n = 384, 51.6% male, 48.4% female) in an acute psychiatric department. Recent intake of substances at admission, diagnosis of substance use disorder and demographic and socioeconomic information were recorded...
November 17, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847000/substance-exposure-and-helmet-use-in-all-terrain-vehicle-accidents-nine-years-of-experience-at-a-level-1-trauma-center
#10
Audis Bethea, Damayanti Samanta, John A Willis, Franck C Lucente, Julton Tomanguillo Chumbe
INTRODUCTION: The surging popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) in the United States has caused an "epidemic of injuries and mortality." The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 99,600 injuries and 426 fatalities from ATV accidents in 2013. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between helmet use and positive toxicology screenings on outcomes in ATV accident victims. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center in southwestern West Virginia following an ATV accident between 2005 and 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842785/toxicology-in-pain-management
#11
REVIEW
Daniel A Schwarz, M P George, Martin H Bluth
Toxicology testing in pain management has become the standard of care. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention published guidelines including urine drug testing prior to initiating opioid therapy and for monitoring prescription and illicit drugs. Physicians must know indications for toxicology testing, and the frequency based upon risk stratification. This includes personal and family history of alcohol or substance related disorders, mental illness and smoking. Knowledge of opioid metabolism and various matrices to test are described...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830028/characterization-of-acetaminophen-induced-cytotoxicity-in-target-tissues
#12
Chao Guo, Guojie Xie, Min Su, Xinmou Wu, Xiuli Lu, Ka Wu, Chaohe Wei
Acetaminophen (APAP), commonly used in clinical prescription, has time- and dose-dependent side effects. Thus, further animal study warrants to be investigated to assess possible adverse effect of APAP application. Here, we conducted pre-clinical research to elucidate the molecular mechanism regarding APAP-mediated toxicological action. Our data showed that serous/urinary and hepatic/renal APAP concentrations were significantly increased when compared with normal control, which the liver tissue showed the highest level...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829332/in-vitro-metabolite-profiling-of-adb-fubinaca-a-new-synthetic-cannabinoid
#13
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Ariane Wohlfarth, Karl Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
Metabolite profiling of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) is critical for documenting drug consumption. N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-FUBINACA) is an emerging synthetic cannabinoid whose toxicological and metabolic data are currently unavailable. We aimed to determine optimal markers for identifying ADB-FUBINACA intake. Metabolic stability was evaluated with human liver microsome incubations. Metabolites were identified after 1 and 3 h incubation with pooled human hepatocytes, liquid chromatography- high resolution mass spectrometry in positive-ion mode (5600+ TripleTOF®, Sciex) and several data mining approaches (MetabolitePilot™, Sciex)...
November 8, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825624/quantification-of-suvorexant-in-urine-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Mariah Carson, Sarah Kerrigan
Suvorexant (Belsomra(®)) is a novel sedative hypnotic drug that is prescribed to promote sleep in patients with insomnia. It is the first of a new class of drugs classified as dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs). Sedative hypnotics with central nervous system depressant effects feature prominently in forensic toxicology investigations. For this reason, a new analytical method was developed to identify suvorexant in urine using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820669/marijuana-use-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#15
Eman I Draz, Mervat M Oreby, Eman A Elsheikh, Lamia A Khedr, Salwa A Atlam
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substances worldwide, and it has the highest prevalence among drugs used in Egypt. OBJECTIVES: The aims were to evaluate whether the use of cannabis is a risk factor of acute coronary heart disease in low-risk, young males and to compare the cardiac pathological changes between cannabis exposed and non-exposed ischemic patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that was performed on 138 male patients, aged ≤ 40 years, with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit at the University Hospital...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798077/a-fatality-related-to-the-synthetic-opioid-u-47700-postmortem-concentration-distribution
#16
Iain M McIntyre, Ray D Gary, Sandra Joseph, Robert Stabley
In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of drug abuse was found unresponsive and not breathing on his bed. Drug paraphernalia, indicating drug insufflation, was located in the decedent's room. Toxicology screening tests in peripheral blood initially identified U-47700 using an alkaline drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following solid-phase extraction...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789047/self-induced-illegal-abortion-with-rivanol-%C3%A2-a-medicolegal-toxicological-case-report
#17
Sarah C Koelzer, Hannelore Held, Stefan W Toennes, Marcel A Verhoff, Cora Wunder
Approximately during the 30th week of pregnancy, a woman gave birth to a still-born child in a hospital. After first citing an extraneous cause for the premature still-birth, the woman later admitted to having self-induced the abortion by injecting the antiseptic Rivanol(®) (active agent: ethacridine lactate) through her abdominal wall into the amniotic cavity. The investigating authorities ordered an autopsy of the fetus along with additional toxicological investigations. To the naked eye, no obvious cause of death was apparent...
August 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788687/comparative-toxicity-and-biodistribution-assessments-in-rats-following-subchronic-oral-exposure-to-copper-nanoparticles-and-microparticles
#18
In-Chul Lee, Je-Won Ko, Sung-Hyeuk Park, Na-Rae Shin, In-Sik Shin, Changjong Moon, Je-Hein Kim, Hyoung-Chin Kim, Jong-Choon Kim
BACKGROUND: Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) have great potential in electronics and biomedical fields because of their efficient thermodynamic and anti-microbial properties. However, their potential toxic effects and kinetic data following repeated exposure are still unclear. METHODS: We evaluated the physicochemical properties of Cu NPs (25 nm) and copper microparticles (Cu MPs, 14-25 μm). Comparative in vivo toxicity of Cu NPs and Cu MPs was evaluated by conducting a 28-day repeated oral dose study at equivalent dose levels of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day (vehicle, 1 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose)...
October 28, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779447/routine-drug-screening-for-patients-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-state-psychiatric-hospital-a-naturalistic-cohort-study
#19
Anatoly Margolis, Paola Rosca, Rena Kurs, Sharon R Sznitman, Alexander Grinshpoon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the proportion of drug users among patients with mental disorders who attended the emergency department of one major psychiatric hospital in Northern Israel, the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses associated with drug use, and the impact of confirmed drug use on hospital admission. We hypothesized that the proportion of individuals with positive urine drug test results presenting at the psychiatric emergency department during the study period would be 20% to 30%...
July 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776678/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-improves-treatment-outcomes-for-prescription-opioid-users-in-primary-care-buprenorphine-treatment
#20
Brent A Moore, David A Fiellin, Christopher J Cutter, Frank D Buono, Declan T Barry, Lynn E Fiellin, Patrick G O'Connor, Richard S Schottenfeld
To determine whether treatment outcomes differed for prescription opioid and heroin use disorder patients, we conducted a secondary analysis of a 24-week (N=140) randomized trial of physician management (PM) or PM plus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in primary care buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. Self-reported opioid use and urine toxicology analyses were obtained weekly. We examined baseline demographic differences between primary prescription opioid use patients (n=49) and primary heroin use patients (n=91) and evaluated whether treatment response differed by assigned condition...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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