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Urine toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296258/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-long-term-metabolites-of-oxymesterone-and-mesterolone-in-human-urine-by-application-of-srm-gc-ci-ms-ms
#1
Michael Polet, Wim Van Gansbeke, Lore Geldof, Koen Deventer, Peter Van Eenoo
The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in for example toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. samples of previous Olympic Games. A substantial number of previously alleged negative samples have now been declared positive due to the detection of various long term steroid metabolites of which the existence was unknown during the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295913/identification-and-characterization-of-fluvastatin-metabolites-in-rats-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms-ms-and-in-silico-toxicological-screening-of-the-metabolites
#2
Balasaheb B Chavan, Pradipbhai D Kalariya, Rakesh D Nimbalkar, Prabha Garg, R Srinivas, M V N Kumar Talluri
The present study reports the in vivo and in vitro identification and characterization of metabolites of fluvastatin (FLU), the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In vitro studies were conducted by incubating the drug with human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). In vivo studies were carried out by administration of the drug in the form of suspension to the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats followed by collection of urine, faeces and blood at different time points upto 24 h...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290200/quantification-of-methylenecyclopropyl-compounds-and-acyl-conjugates-by-uplc-ms-ms-in-the-study-of-the-biochemical-effects-of-the-ingestion-of-canned-ackee-blighia-sapida-and-lychee-litchi-chinensis
#3
Johannes Sander, Michael Terhardt, Stefanie Sander, Nils Janzen
Consumption of ackee (Blighia sapida) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) fruit has led to severe poisoning. Considering their expanded agricultural production, toxicological evaluation has become important. Therefore, the biochemical effects of eating 1 g/kg canned ackee, containing 99.2 μmol/kg hypoglycin A, and 5 g/kg canned lychee, containing 1.3 μmol/kg hypoglycin A, were quantified in a self-experiment. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine, and methylenecyclopropylformyl-glycine, as well as the respective carnitine conjugates, were found in urine after ingesting ackee...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279691/-use-of-urine-drug-screening-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-paediatric-hospital
#4
Núria Ferrer Bosch, Lidia Martínez Sánchez, Victoria Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Jesús Velasco Rodríguez, Elsa García González, Carles Luaces Cubells
OBJECTIVE: To describe the situations in which urine drug screening is used in a Paediatric Emergency Department (ED). An analysis is also made on its potential usefulness on whether it changes the patient management, and if the results are confirmed by using specific techniques. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was conducted on patients under the age of 18 attended in the ED during 2014 and in whom urine drug screening was requested. Depending on the potential capacity of the screening result to change patient management, two groups were defined (potentially useful and not potentially useful)...
March 6, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264758/merging-outpatient-addiction-and-opioid-maintenance-programs-during-a-disaster-lessons-from-hurricane-sandy
#5
Vishal K Gupta, Helena Hansen, Sonia Mendoza, Xinlin Linda Chen, Ronnie G Swift
OBJECTIVE: After Hurricane Sandy flooded Bellevue Hospital in New York City, its opiate maintenance patients were displaced and Bellevue's outpatient program was temporarily merged with the program at Metropolitan Hospital for continuation of care. The merger forced Metropolitan to accommodate a program twice as large as its own and required special staff coordination and adjustments in clinical care. METHODS: Physicians, clinicians, and administrators from both institutions participated in interviews regarding the merger...
March 7, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262132/ischemic-stroke-associated-with-the-use-of-a-synthetic-cannabinoid-spice
#6
Sebastian Moeller, Caroline Lücke, Tobias Struffert, Bernhard Schwarze, Stefan T Gerner, Stefan Schwab, Martin Köhrmann, Kristin Machold, Alexandra Philipsen, Helge H Müller
Synthetic cannabinoids, i.e. "spice", are psychoactive drugs with increasing use worldwide. Spice may have harmful neuropsychiatric and physical side effects. Here, we present the case of a 25-year-old man with ischemic stroke after smoking spice on the previous evening. Diagnostic work-up was negative for other common causes of stroke. Toxicology screen unveiled the cannabimimetic ADB-FUBINACA in the drug sample and in patient's urine. The cardiac sympathomimetic effect of spice might have triggered an unnoticed episode of tachyarrhythmia and resulted in stroke via cardioembolic etiology...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261791/drug-recognition-evaluation-and-chemical-confirmation-of-a-25c-nbome-impaired-driver
#7
James W Rajotte, Jean-Paul F P Palmentier, Helena Rachelle Wallage
This case report details an individual arrested for drug-impaired driving after leaving the scene of multiple motor vehicle collisions and evading police. The driver was examined by a drug recognition expert and failed the drug recognition evaluation. The driver admitted to using cocaine, marijuana, an antidepressant medication and "N-bomb," a novel psychoactive substance that possesses hallucinogenic properties. Toxicological analyses at the Centre of Forensic Sciences' Toronto laboratory revealed only the substance 2-[4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) in the accused's urine...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256646/magnetic-nanoparticles-for-drug-targeting-from-design-to-insights-into-systemic-toxicity-preclinical-evaluation-of-hematological-vascular-and-neurobehavioral-toxicology
#8
Mariela A Agotegaray, Adrián E Campelo, Roberto D Zysler, Fernanda Gumilar, Cristina Bras, Ariel Gandini, Alejandra Minetti, Virginia L Massheimer, Verónica L Lassalle
A simple two-step drug encapsulation method was developed to obtain biocompatible magnetic nanocarriers for the potential targeted treatment of diverse diseases. The nanodevice consists of a magnetite core coated with chitosan (Chit@MNPs) as a platform for diclofenac (Dic) loading as a model drug (Dic-Chit@MNPs). Mechanistic and experimental conditions related to drug incorporation and quantification are further addressed. This multi-disciplinary study aims to elucidate the toxicological impact of the MNPs at hematological, vascular, neurological and behavioral levels...
March 3, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252613/-the-detection-and-identification-of-alpha-pyrrolidino-valerophenone-%C3%AE-pvp-and-its-metabolites-in-the-objects-of-the-forensic-chemical-examination
#9
E V Moskaleva, N N Eroshchenko, A N Kiryushin, D A Kardonsky, A A Eganov
The combined application of the IK 200609 chemical toxicological analyzer and the diagnostic biosensor (reagent) for the determination of synthetic cations (with due regard for compliance with the instruction for analysis) made it possible to detect during 15 minutes the presence of cations in the urine samples at the concentration of 376.64 ng/ml. This result was further confirmed by HPLC-Ms/MS and GH-MS. The use of the analyzer allowed the screening of the urine samples to be performed within several minutes at the preliminary stage of the study...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245001/fatal-accidents-at-work-in-agriculture-associated-with-alcohol-intoxication-in-lower-silesia-in-poland
#10
Tomasz Jurek, Marta Rorat
BACKGROUND: Determining the prevalence of alcohol intoxication and the level of intoxication in victims of fatal occupational accidents is necessary to improve work safety. The circumstances of the accident and the time between alcohol consumption and death are important factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 18 935 medico-legal autopsy reports and toxicological reports performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Wroclaw Medical University, Poland, in the years 1991-2014...
February 28, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244893/methadone-induced-hyperhidrosis-treated-with-oxybutynin
#11
Joe Hong, Jooyeon Lee, Holly Totouom-Tangho, Norma Ramos Dunn, Ronnie Gorman Swift
OBJECTIVES: This case report aims to help healthcare providers and methadone clinic patients to recognize one of the less recognized adverse effects of methadone, hyperhidrosis, and to suggest oxybutynin as a possible solution. METHODS: A 35-year-old man on methadone maintenance therapy presented with excessive sweating, which began promptly after methadone was introduced. Urine toxicology was conducted every 2 weeks to rule out other illicit substances that may have contributed to the sweating...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240418/analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-cerumen-correlation-of-postmortem-analysis-results-with-those-for-blood-urine-and-hair
#12
Sylvia I Meier, Sarah C Koelzer, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
The evaluation of drug and alcohol abuse is a major subject of forensic toxicology. Assessment of drug abstinence currently requires the analysis of urine or hair. In the present study cerumen, a mixture of sebum and sweat, was tested as an alternative. Postmortem samples (blood, urine, hair and cerumen from 38 corpses) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, each coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS, GC-MS). The results were compared. In all cases of recent drug use (i.e. detection of opiates, amphetamine and derivatives, cocaine, methadone and diazepam or their metabolites in blood) the corresponding cerumen was positive...
February 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239534/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analysis-of-liver-and-kidneys-of-rats-chronically-fed-nk603-roundup-tolerant-genetically-modified-maize
#13
Robin Mesnage, Matthew Arno, Gilles-Eric Séralini, Michael N Antoniou
BACKGROUND: A previous 2-year rat feeding trial assessing potential toxicity of NK603 Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize revealed blood and urine biochemical changes indicative of liver and kidney pathology. In an effort to obtain deeper insight into these findings, molecular profiling of the liver and kidneys from the same animals was undertaken. RESULTS: Transcriptomics showed no segregation of NK603 maize and control feed groups with false discovery rates ranging from 43 to 83% at a cut-off p value of 1%...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239160/insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-polygonum-multiflorum-thunb-induced-liver-injury-a-computational-systems-toxicology-approach
#14
Yin-Yin Wang, Jie Li, Zeng-Rui Wu, Bo Zhang, Hong-Bin Yang, Qin Wang, Ying-Chun Cai, Gui-Xia Liu, Wei-Hua Li, Yun Tang
An increasing number of cases of herb-induced liver injury (HILI) have been reported, presenting new clinical challenges. In this study, taking Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (PmT) as an example, we proposed a computational systems toxicology approach to explore the molecular mechanisms of HILI. First, the chemical components of PmT were extracted from 3 main TCM databases as well as the literature related to natural products. Then, the known targets were collected through data integration, and the potential compound-target interactions (CTIs) were predicted using our substructure-drug-target network-based inference (SDTNBI) method...
February 27, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237441/toxicological-results-in-a-fatal-and-two-non-fatal-cases-of-scopolamine-facilitated-robberies
#15
K J Lusthof, I J Bosman, B Kubat, M J Vincenten-van Maanen
The use of scopolamine as an incapacitating drug, in sexual crimes and robberies, has been known for many decades. However, blood concentrations and doses of scopolamine in those cases are largely unknown. Here we present the toxicological results of one fatal and two non-fatal cases in a series of scopolamine-facilitated robberies. In the fatal case, the concentration of scopolamine in heart blood was 0.30mg/L, about 3000 times higher than the average therapeutic level of 0.0001mg/L (for one dermal patch)...
February 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228424/widespread-sucralose-exposure-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-healthy-young-adults
#16
Allison C Sylvetsky, Peter J Walter, H Martin Garraffo, Kim Robien, Kristina I Rother
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are found in many foods and beverages, but consumers may not realize their presence, and their role in appetite, weight, and health is controversial. Although consumption limits based on toxicologic safety are well established, the threshold required to exert clinically relevant metabolic effects is unknown.Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether individuals who do not report consumption of LCSs can be correctly characterized as "unexposed" and to investigate whether instructions to avoid LCSs are effective in minimizing exposure...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226335/repeated-quantitative-urine-toxicology-analysis-may-improve-chronic-pain-patient-compliance-with-opioid-therapy
#17
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Omar M Khan, Afsaneh Beiranvand, Kenneth D Candido
BACKGROUND: Even though serious efforts have been undertaken by different medical societies to reduce opioid use for treating chronic benign pain, many Americans continue to seek pain relief through opioid consumption. Assuring compliance of these patients may be a difficult aspect of proper management even with regular behavioral monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the compliance of chronic opioid-consuming patients in an outpatient setting and evaluate if utilizing repeated urine drug testing (UDT) could improve compliance...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#18
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194688/emergency-department-initiated-buprenorphine-for-opioid-dependence-with-continuation-in-primary-care-outcomes-during-and-after-intervention
#19
Gail D'Onofrio, Marek C Chawarski, Patrick G O'Connor, Michael V Pantalon, Susan H Busch, Patricia H Owens, Kathryn Hawk, Steven L Bernstein, David A Fiellin
BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED)-initiated buprenorphine/naloxone with continuation in primary care was found to increase engagement in addiction treatment and reduce illicit opioid use at 30 days compared to referral only or a brief intervention with referral. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes at 2, 6 and 12 months following ED interventions. DESIGN: Evaluation of treatment engagement, drug use, and HIV risk among a cohort of patients from a randomized trial who completed at least one long-term follow-up assessment...
February 13, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191694/generalizability-of-findings-from-randomized-controlled-trials-application-to-the-national-institute-of-drug-abuse-clinical-trials-network
#20
Ryoko Susukida, Rosa M Crum, Cyrus Ebnesajjad, Elizabeth A Stuart, Ramin Mojtabai
AIMS: To compare randomized controlled trial (RCT) sample treatment effects with the population effects of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. DESIGN: Statistical weighting was used to re-compute the effects from ten RCTs such that the participants in the trials had characteristics that resembled those of patients in the target populations. SETTINGS: Multi-site RCTs and usual SUD treatment settings in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3,592 patients in ten RCTs and 1,602,226 patients from usual SUD treatment settings between 2001 and 2009...
February 13, 2017: Addiction
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