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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641325/superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-associated-with-scuba-diving
#1
Naoharu Kitajima, Akemi Sugita-Kitajima, Seiji Kitajima
A 28-year-old female diver presented with dizziness and difficulty clearing her left ear whilst scuba diving. Her pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry were normal. Testing of Eustachian tube function revealed tubal stenosis. Video-oculography revealed a predominantly torsional nystagmus while the patient was in the lordotic position. Fistula signs were positive. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone revealed a diagnosis of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCDS). Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) testing showed that the amplitude of the cVEMP measured from her left ear was larger than that from the right...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641322/scuba-diving-and-otology-a-systematic-review-with-recommendations-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-post-operative-care
#2
REVIEW
Devon M Livingstone, Kristine A Smith, Beth Lange
Scuba diving is a popular recreational and professional activity with inherent risks. Complications related to barotrauma and decompression illness can pose significant morbidity to a diver's hearing and balance systems. The majority of dive-related injuries affect the head and neck, particularly the outer, middle and inner ear. Given the high incidence of otologic complications from diving, an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of otic pathology is a necessity. We performed a systematic and comprehensive literature review including the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of otologic pathology related to diving...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641319/understanding-scuba-diving-fatalities-carbon-dioxide-concentrations-in-intra-cardiac-gas
#3
Vincent Varlet, Alejandro Dominguez, Marc Augsburger, Maisy Lossois, Coraline Egger, Cristian Palmiere, Raquel Vilarino, Silke Grabherr
INTRODUCTION: Important developments in the diagnosis of scuba diving fatalities have been made thanks to forensic imaging tool improvements. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable interpretation of the overall gaseous distribution in the cadaver. However, due to post-mortem delay, the radiological interpretation is often doubtful because the distinction between gas related to the dive and post-mortem decomposition artifactual gases becomes less obvious. METHODS: We present six cases of fatal scuba diving showing gas in the heart and other vasculature...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617634/dramatic-fighting-by-male-cuttlefish-for-a-female-mate
#4
Justine J Allen, Derya Akkaynak, Alexandra K Schnell, Roger T Hanlon
Male cuttlefish compete for females with a repertoire of visually dramatic behaviors. Laboratory experiments have explored this system in Sepia officinalis, but corroborative field data have eluded collection attempts by many researchers. While scuba diving in Turkey, we fortuitously filmed an intense sequence of consort/intruder behaviors in which the consort lost and then regained his female mate from the intruder. These agonistic bouts escalated in stages, leading to fast dramatic expression of the elaborate intense zebra display and culminating in biting and inking as the intruder male attempted a forced copulation of the female...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600260/diving-into-research-of-biomedical-engineering-in-scuba-diving
#5
Tobias Cibis, Alistair McEwan, Bjoern Eskofier, John Lippmann, Karl Friedl, Michael Bennett
The physiologic response of the human body to different environments is a complex phenomenon to ensure survival. Immersion and compressed gas diving, together trigger a set of responses. Monitoring those responses in real-time may increase our understanding of these and help to develop safety procedures and equipment. This review outlines diving physiology and diseases and identifies physiological parameters worthy of monitoring. Subsequently, we have investigated technological approaches matched to those in order to evaluated their capability for underwater application...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598405/design-and-validation-of-a-breathing-detection-system-for-scuba-divers
#6
Corentin Altepe, S Murat Egi, Tamer Ozyigit, D Ruzgar Sinoplu, Alessandro Marroni, Paola Pierleoni
Drowning is the major cause of death in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving. This study proposes an embedded system with a live and light-weight algorithm which detects the breathing of divers through the analysis of the intermediate pressure (IP) signal of the SCUBA regulator. A system composed mainly of two pressure sensors and a low-power microcontroller was designed and programmed to record the pressure sensors signals and provide alarms in absence of breathing. An algorithm was developed to analyze the signals and identify inhalation events of the diver...
June 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531363/beneficial-effect-of-enriched-air-nitrox-on-bubble-formation-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#7
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Bubble formation during scuba diving might induce decompression sickness. This prospective randomised and double-blind study included 108 advanced recreational divers (38 females). Fifty-four pairs of divers, 1 breathing air and the other breathing nitrox28 undertook a standardised dive (24 ± 1 msw; 62 ± 5min) in the Red Sea. Venous gas bubbles were counted (Doppler) 30-<45 min (early) and 45-60 min (late) post-dive at jugular, subclavian and femoral sites. Only 7% (air) vs. 11% (air28®) (n.s.) were bubble-free after a dive...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505552/probabilistic-pharmacokinetic-models-of-decompression-sickness-in-humans-part-1-coupled-perfusion-limited-compartments
#8
F Gregory Murphy, Ethan A Hada, David J Doolette, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease caused by gas bubbles forming in body tissues following a reduction in ambient pressure, such as occurs in scuba diving. Probabilistic models for quantifying the risk of DCS are typically composed of a collection of independent, perfusion-limited theoretical tissue compartments which describe gas content or bubble volume within these compartments. It has been previously shown that 'pharmacokinetic' gas content models, with compartments coupled in series, show promise as predictors of the incidence of DCS...
July 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502451/benefits-and-shortcomings-of-non-destructive-benthic-imagery-for-monitoring-hard-bottom-habitats
#9
Kolja Beisiegel, Alexander Darr, Mayya Gogina, Michael L Zettler
Hard-bottom habitats with complex topography and fragile epibenthic communities are still not adequately considered in benthic monitoring programs, despite their potential ecological importance. While indicators of ecosystem health are defined by major EU directives, methods commonly used to measure them are deficient in quantification of biota on hard surfaces. We address the suitability of seafloor imaging for monitoring activities. We compared the ability of high-resolution imagery and physical sampling methods (grab, dredge, SCUBA-diving) to detect taxonomic and functional components of epibenthos...
May 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501412/sudden-death-in-a-diver-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#10
Scott Dougherty, Maziar Khorsandi, Myra Adelbai, Vipin Zamvar, James Francis
We discuss the case of an experienced diver who ran out of air during his final ascent while scuba diving. He lost consciousness rapidly after surfacing and despite immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, could not be revived. On arrival at the emergency department he was noted to have copious amounts of blood in his upper airway and had developed extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Large amounts of air were observed in the central circulation following a postmortem computerized tomography scan as well as pneumomediastinum, a small right-sided hemothorax, and extensive subcutaneous emphysema...
May 10, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480488/mishaps-and-unsafe-conditions-in-recreational-scuba-diving-and-pre-dive-checklist-use-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Steve Wing, Charles Poole, Kristen L Kucera, Stephen W Marshall, Petar J Denoble
BACKGROUND: Recreational scuba diving involves the use of complex instruments and specialized skills in an unforgiving environment. Errors in dive preparation in such an environment may lead to unsafe conditions, mishaps, injuries and fatalities. Diving mishaps can be major and minor based on their potential to cause injury and the severity of the resulting injury. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence of diving mishaps and unsafe conditions, and their associations with the participants' routine use of their own checklists...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467885/diving-and-pulmonary-physiology-surfactant-binding-protein-lung-fluid-and-cardiopulmonary-test-changes-in-professional-divers
#12
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Cristina Banfi, Denise Brusoni, Massimo Mapelli, Stefania Ghilardi, Ante Obad, Darija Bakovic-Kramaric, Zeljko Dujic, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Alteration of breathing pattern ranging from an increase of respiratory rate to overt hyperventilation during and after SCUBA diving is frequently reported and is associated with intrathoracic fluid overload. This study was undertaken to assess breathing efficiency after diving and the association with damage of alveolar cells. Ventilation efficiency (VE/VCO2) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) before and 2h after a standard protocol dive has been analyzed in twelve professional males divers (39...
April 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465564/paleochannel-and-beach-bar-palimpsest-topography-as-initial-substrate-for-coralligenous-buildups-offshore-venice-italy
#13
Luigi Tosi, Massimo Zecchin, Fulvio Franchi, Andrea Bergamasco, Cristina Da Lio, Luca Baradello, Claudio Mazzoli, Paolo Montagna, Marco Taviani, Davide Tagliapietra, Eleonora Carol, Gianluca Franceschini, Otello Giovanardi, Sandra Donnici
We provide a model for the genesis of Holocene coralligenous buildups occurring in the northwestern Adriatic Sea offshore Venice at 17-24 m depth. High-resolution geophysical surveys and underwater SCUBA diving reconnaissance revealed meandering shaped morphologies underneath bio-concretionned rocky buildups. These morphologies are inferred to have been inherited from Pleistocene fluvial systems reactivated as tidal channels during the post- Last Glacial Maximum transgression, when the study area was a lagoon protected by a sandy barrier...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464277/forensic-case-reports-presenting-immersion-pulmonary-edema-as-a-differential-diagnosis-in-fatal-diving-accidents
#14
Julie Vinkel, Peter Bak, Peter Juel Thiis Knudsen, Ole Hyldegaard
Immersion Pulmonary Edema (IPE) reduces the transport of gases over the respiratory membrane due to edema in the interstitium and respiratory zones. IPE has previously been described in both swimmers and divers, with a few known fatal cases. We have reviewed 42 SCUBA and snorkeling-related drowning deaths, and through a thorough analysis of each case, including both diving physiology and forensic pathology, we present IPE as a differential diagnosis to drowning in four cases. Our findings propose that; absence of watery content in the stomach and conducting airways, and liquid filled lungs without hyperexpansion, may be compatible with IPE...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439981/evolution-of-the-plasma-proteome-of-divers-before-and-after-a-single-scuba-dive
#15
Jacky Lautridou, Vianney Pichereau, Sébastien Artigaud, Benoit Bernay, Otto Barak, Ryan Hoiland, Andrew T Lovering, Ingrid Eftedal, Zeljko Dujic, François Guerrero
PURPOSE: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a poorly understood and complex systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a reduction of ambient pressure. A previous proteomic study of ours showed that DCS occurrence but not diving was associated with changes in the plasma proteome in rats, including a dramatic decrease of abundance of the tetrameric form of Transthyretin (TTR). The present study aims to assess the impact on the human blood proteome of a dive inducing significant decompression stress but without inducing DCS symptoms...
April 25, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429454/scuba-diving-patent-foramen-ovale-and-heart-rhythm-disturbances-the-role-of-underwater-holter-monitoring-case-report
#16
Szymon Olędzki, Andrzej Wojtarowicz, Edyta Płońska-Gościniak, Maciej Lewandowski, Jarosław Gorący
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is thought to be a risk factor for decompression illness (DCI). Catheter-based closure procedure reduces the risk of DCI in selected scuba divers with PFO. Major complication of invasive approach are rare, minor, especially heart rhythm disturbances are reported relatively often. We describe a case of 41-year-old diver, who underwent PFO closure due to recurrent DCI events. Afterward, he experienced no DCI symptoms; however, he complained about feeling of the heart beating during a submersion...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398949/sildenafil-possible-prophylaxis-against-swimming-induced-pulmonary-edema-sipe
#17
Stefanie D Martina, John J Freiberger, Dionne F Peacher, Michael J Natoli, Eric A Schinazi, Dawn N Kernagis, Jennifer Av Potter, Claire E Otteni, Richard E Moon
Swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) occurs during swimming and scuba diving, usually in cold water, in susceptible healthy individuals, especially military recruits and triathletes. We have previously demonstrated that pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) are higher during immersed exercise in SIPE-susceptible individuals vs. controls, confirming that SIPE is a form of hemodynamic pulmonary edema. Oral sildenafil 50 mg 1 hour before immersed exercise reduced PAP and PAWP, suggesting that sildenafil may prevent SIPE...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397524/effects-of-oxygen-enriched-air-on-cognitive-performance-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#18
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Backround: Nitrogen narcosis impairs cognitive function, a fact relevant during SCUBA-diving. Oxygen-enriched air (nitrox) became popular in recreational diving, while evidence of its advantages over air is limited. AIM: Compare effects of nitrox28 and air on two psychometric tests. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, open-water study, 108 advanced divers (38 females) were randomized to an air or a nitrox-group for a 60-min dive to 24 m salt water. Breathing gas effects on cognitive performance were assessed during the dive using a short- and long-term memory test and a number connection test...
April 11, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390222/recovery-of-deceased-scuba-divers-from-within-flooded-subterranean-caves
#19
Peter Buzzacott, Craig Nelson, Ken Hill, Lamar Hires
Each year in the US three divers, on average, perish inside flooded caves and their remains require recovery. Recovery is a hazardous undertaking often performed by members of the International Underwater Cave Rescue and Recovery (IUCRR) team, in collaboration with local law enforcement and medical examiners/coroners. Since forming in 1999 the IUCRR have established standard recovery procedures for cave diving fatalities. This article reviews each stage of the recovery; the call out, arrival on site, the search, recording/preserving the evidence, the recovery, the handover and post-recovery record-keeping...
March 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385268/macroinvertebrate-communities-from-the-shallow-soft-bottoms-of-deception-island-southern-ocean-a-paradise-for-opportunists
#20
Carlos Angulo-Preckler, Carlos Leiva, Conxita Avila, Sergi Taboada
Deception Island (South Shetland Islands) is an atypical spot in its Antarctic context, being a still active volcano with a submerged caldera. Although the sea-floor of its enclosed bay, Port Foster, has been extensively studied from 40 m down, little is known about the macrozoobenthic composition of its shallower areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the so far unexplored soft-bottom marine macroinvertebrate communities living within the first few meters depth in Port Foster. Eight sampling stations were selected, and three replicates per station and depth (5 and 15 m) were collected by SCUBA diving using 0...
June 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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