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Scuba diving

Vincent Souday, Nick J Koning, Bruno Perez, Fabien Grelon, Alain Mercat, Christa Boer, Valérie Seegers, Peter Radermacher, Pierre Asfar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154761.].
2016: PloS One
Maddibande Ramachar Sreevathsa, Khyati Melanta
INTRODUCTION: The most common cause of gas under diaphragm is hollow viscous perforation. In 10% of cases it can be due to rare causes, both abdominal and extra-abdominal, one of them being intra abdominal infection by gas forming organisms. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: A 51 year old male patient, a poorly controlled diabetic, presented with a second episode of severe pain abdomen and abdominal distention, with lower abdominal tenderness. Plain Xray of the abdomen in erect posture showed gas under the right dome of diaphragm and ultrasound abdomen confirmed gross pneumoperitoneum...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
Frank F Vincenzi, Philippe Lunetta
While SCUBA diving, a 44-year-old Caucasian patient had an abnormal cardiac rhythm, presumably Torsade de Pointes (TdP), during the initial descent to depth. Upon surfacing, she developed ventricular fibrillation and died. The patient had been treated for mild depression for nearly a year with citalopram 60 mg per day, a drug known to cause prolonged QT interval. She had also been treated with two potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Liver impairment causes selective loss of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 activity, the major pathway for metabolism of citalopram...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Rebecca Johnson
Dive medicine bodies worldwide recognise that, with comprehensive screening and careful management, people with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) can dive safely. Despite this, people with IDDM in Australia are generally denied access to dive training, an out-dated status quo that is not acceptable to the Australian diabetes community. This paper reflects upon the important advocacy work that has been done to progress this issue, and what is still required to open up access and bring Australia into line with more flexible and supportive international standards...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Stefanie Jansen, Moritz Friedo Meyer, Manuela Boor, Moritz Felsch, Heinz-Dieter Kluenter, Eberhard Daniel Pracht, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of middle ear barotrauma (MEB) and to establish risk factors of MEB after repeated saltwater dives. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study 28 divers were examined over 6 consecutive days of diving in the Red Sea, Egypt. Participants underwent an otoscopic examination before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. In addition, they performed Valsalva maneuver (VM) and were questioned about dive-related complaints...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Emmanuel Gempp, Pierre Louge, Sébastien de Maistre, Jean-Baptiste Morvan, Nicolas Vallée, Jean-Eric Blatteau
BACKGROUND: Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) in scuba diving results in residual vestibulocochlear deficits with a potential impact on health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors for poor clinical recovery and to try to establish a prognostic score on initial physical examination. METHODS: The medical records of injured divers with IEDCS treated in our facility between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Daniel Popa, Karen Van Hoesen
BACKGROUND: Shark bites are rare but sensational injuries that are covered in the lay press but are not well described in the medical literature. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 50-year-old man who sustained two deep puncture wounds to his thigh from a great white shark in the waters surrounding Isla de Guadalupe off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a caged SCUBA dive. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We discuss our strategy of closing the wounds in a delayed primary fashion 24 hours after injury, our antibiotic choices, and the patient's course and review marine pathogens and appropriate antibiotic coverage...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Juan A Sánchez, Angela P Fuentes-Pardo, Íde Ní Almhain, Néstor E Ardila-Espitia, Jaime Cantera-Kintz, Manu Forero-Shelton
Background. Background matching, as a camouflage strategy, is one of the most outstanding examples of adaptation, where little error or mismatch means high vulnerability to predation. It is assumed that the interplay of natural selection and adaptation are the main evolutionary forces shaping the great diversity of phenotypes observed in mimicry; however, there may be other significant processes that intervene in the development of mimicry such as phenotypic plasticity. Based on observations of background mismatching during reproduction events of egg-cowries, sea snails of the family Ovulidae that mimic the octocoral where they inhabit, we wondered if they match the host species diversity...
2016: PeerJ
Jose Enrique Alonso Formento, Jose Luis Fernández Reyes, Blanca Mar Envid Lázaro, Teresa Fernández Letamendi, Ryth Yeste Martín, Francisco José Jódar Morente
Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a rare entity that either results from traumatic injury or can be spontaneously preceded or not by a minor trauma such as sporting activities. It represents a major cause of stroke in young patients. The diagnosis should be suspected with the combination of Horner's syndrome, headache or neck pain, and retinal or cerebral ischaemia. The confirmation is frequently made with a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Although anticoagulation with heparin followed by vitamin-K-antagonists is the most common treatment, there is no difference in efficacy of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs at preventing stroke and death in patients with symptomatic carotid dissection...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Diana Emang, Thomas Hedemark Lundhede, Bo Jellesmark Thorsen
The protected coral reefs off the coast of Malaysia receive numerous tourists, while also being as fishing grounds. These joint environmental pressures raise the need for additional costly conservation measures. It is natural to consider the potential for expanding the 'user pays' principle, already implemented in the form of various user fees. This study explores the potential for price discrimination among scuba divers at Sipadan in Malaysia. The study applies a choice experiment to estimate scuba divers willingness to pay higher user fees for avoiding decreases of or getting improvements in environmental and recreational aspects of the diving experience...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Serena Wright, Tom Hull, David B Sivyer, David Pearce, John K Pinnegar, Martin D J Sayer, Andrew O M Mogg, Elaine Azzopardi, Steve Gontarek, Kieran Hyder
Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles...
2016: Scientific Reports
Massimo Pieri, Danilo Cialoni, Alessandro Marroni
INTRODUCTION: Insulin-dependent diabetes has been considered a scuba diving contraindication. This is currently being reconsidered for well-controlled diabetes. We developed a real-time continuous glucose monitor (CGM) to check glycemia, or blood glucose (BG), during diving, both for prospective studies and to increase diabetic diver safety, allowing for real-time control of glycemia and hypoglycemia prevention. To ensure CGM measurement accuracy we tested the method under hyperbaric conditions...
May 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Hee Duck Kim, Sang Hwan Lee, Huisu Eom, Young Joong Kang
We report here the first case of liver injury in a 51-year-old man following a dive to a depth of 40 meters. He presented with typical neurological symptoms affecting the lower limbs. Five days later, he experienced delayed abdominal pain, followed by rapidly progressive liver and adjacent organ injury due to air emboli in the intrahepatic portal vein. He received supportive care and hyperbaric therapy with a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6 and recovered. Decompression sickness is a disease of protean manifestations...
May 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Alexander Romagna, Florian Oehlschlagel, Hendrik Janssen, Christian Betz, Niklas Thon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Pierre Louge, Mathieu Coulange, Frederic Beneton, Emmanuel Gempp, Olivier Le Pennetier, Maxime Algoud, Lorene Dubourg, Pierre Naibo, Marion Marlinge, Pierre Michelet, Donato Vairo, Nathalie Kipson, François Kerbaul, Yves Jammes, Ian M Jones, Jean-Guillaume Steinberg, Jean Ruf, Régis Guieu, Alain Boussuges, Emmanuel Fenouillet
Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is a misdiagnosed environmental illness caused by water immersion, cold, and exertion. IPE occurs typically during SCUBA diving, snorkeling, and swimming. IPE is sometimes associated with myocardial injury and/or loss of consciousness in water, which may be fatal. IPE is thought to involve hemodynamic and cardiovascular disturbances, but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear, which makes IPE prevention difficult. This observational study aimed to document IPE pathogenesis and improve diagnostic reliability, including distinguishing in some conditions IPE from decompression sickness (DCS), another diving-related disorder...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jean-Marc Schleich, Frédéric Schnell, Benoît Brouant, Gerald Phan, Vincent Lafay, Laurent Bonnemains, Marc Bédossa
The number of recreational scuba divers is steadily increasing. In its latest recommendations, the French Federation of Undersea Studies and Sports listed congenital heart disease as a formal and final contraindication to scuba diving. On the other hand, with the progress made in their management, the prognosis and quality of life of patients with congenital heart diseases have improved considerably, enabling them to engage in physical and sports endeavours, which are known to confer general health and psychological benefits...
August 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Naoharu Kitajima, Akemi Sugita-Kitajima, Seiji Kitajima
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between Eustachian tube function and incidence of inner-ear barotrauma (IEBt) in recreational divers. METHODS: Sixteen patients who experienced a scuba diving injury affecting the inner ear and 20 healthy volunteers who had not experienced a diving injury participated. Healthy volunteers and divers with IEBt received impedance tests regularly to assess Eustachian tube function. Test results from these groups were compared...
June 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Jean-Baptiste Morvan, Emmanuel Gempp, Damien Rivière, Pierre Louge, Nicolas Vallee, Pierre Verdalle
INTRODUCTION: Onset of cochleovestibular symptoms (hearing loss, dizziness or instability, tinnitus) after a dive (scuba or breath-hold diving) warrants emergency transfer to an otology department. One priority is to investigate the possibility of the development of decompression sickness with a view to hyperbaric oxygen treatment of bubble-induced inner-ear damage. If this injury is ruled out, inner-ear barotrauma should be considered together with its underlying specific injury pattern, perilymphatic fistula...
June 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Carl Edmonds
The evolution of scuba divers pulmonary edema is described. When discovered in 1981, it was believed to be a cold-induced response in a submerged, otherwise healthy, scuba diver. The clinical features are described and discussed, as are the demographics. An alleged prevalence of 1.1% was complicated by problematic statistics and an apparent increase in reported cases. Recurrences both while diving and swimming or snorkeling were common. More recent case reports and surveys are described, identifying predisposing factors and associations, including cardiac pathology...
March 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
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