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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694852/back-to-basics-a-methodological-perspective-on-marble-burying-behavior-as-a-screening-test-for-psychiatric-illness
#1
Geoffrey de Brouwer, De Wet Wolmarans
Animal models of human psychiatric illness are valuable frameworks to investigate the etiology and neurobiology underlying the human conditions. Accurate behavioral measures that can be used to characterize animal behavior, thereby contributing to a model's validity, are crucial. One such measure, i.e. the rodent marble-burying test (MBT), is often applied as a measure of anxiety- and compulsive-like behaviors. However, the test is characterized by noteworthy between-laboratory methodological differences and demonstrates positive treatment responses to an array of pharmacotherapies that are often of little translational value...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692400/anxiety-symptoms-in-regular-school-students-in-mumbai-city-india
#2
S Karande, N J Gogtay, N Bala, H Sant, A Thakkar, R Sholapurwala
Aim: Anxiety disorders usually remain undiagnosed in school students owing to the internalized nature of their symptoms. The present study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in school students in Mumbai. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables (age, gender, presence of sibling, and type of school curriculum or school) on anxiety symptoms. Materials and Methods: Study cases (8-15 year olds) were recruited by nonprobability sampling from four English-medium schools...
April 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690990/-movement-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Asli Sena Kücükyildiz, Nanette Mol Debes, Liselotte Skov
Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ticlike compulsions and motoric stereotypies are all movement disorders, which start in childhood and can be difficult to differentiate. In this article, we have outlined the most important focus points on how to differentiate the conditions in order to diagnose correctly and in order to refer to proper treatment.
April 16, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689421/immune-system-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Donatella Marazziti, Federico Mucci, Leonardo F Fontenelle
BACKGROUND: Recently, much attention has been devoted to the possible alterations of the immune system in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the current literature on the relationships between OCD and immune system. METHODS: A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed with specific keywords. RESULTS: In the childhood, much emphasis has been given to the relationship between group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection and the development of a group of clinical syndromes characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms known as "pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" (PANDAS)...
April 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687078/firing-of-putative-dopamine-neurons-in-ventral-tegmental-area-is-modulated-by-probability-of-success-during-performance-of-a-stop-change-task
#5
Stephen S Tennyson, Adam T Brockett, Nicholas W Hricz, Daniel W Bryden, Matthew R Roesch
Response inhibition, the ability to refrain from unwanted actions, is an essential component of complex behavior and is often impaired across numerous neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Accordingly, much research has been devoted to characterizing brain regions responsible for the regulation of response inhibition. The stop-signal task, a task in which animals are required to inhibit a prepotent response in the presence of a STOP cue, is one of the most well-studied tasks of response inhibition...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686658/gut-microbiota-profiling-and-gut-brain-crosstalk-in-children-affected-by-pediatric-acute-onset-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-and-pediatric-autoimmune-neuropsychiatric-disorders-associated-with-streptococcal-infections
#6
Andrea Quagliariello, Federica Del Chierico, Alessandra Russo, Sofia Reddel, Giulia Conte, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Bruno Dallapiccola, Francesco Cardona, Antonio Gasbarrini, Lorenza Putignani
Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) are conditions that impair brain normal neurologic function, resulting in the sudden onset of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behavioral symptoms. Recent studies have emphasized the crosstalk between gut and brain, highlighting how gut composition can influence behavior and brain functions. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between PANS/PANDAS and gut microbiota ecology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685064/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-impulsive-action-in-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder
#7
Austin W Blum, Samuel R Chamberlain, Michael D Harries, Brian L Odlaug, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) has similarities to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and is included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) diagnostic class in DSM-5. Separate neuroimaging and neurocognitive studies suggest that people affected by SPD find it difficult to inhibit dominant motor responses due to a failure of "top-down" control mechanisms. No study has examined the neural correlates of SPD in participants with varying degrees of impulsive motor behavior...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684711/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-in-the-comorbidity-between-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-major-depression
#8
Javier Labad, Virginia Soria, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Cinto Segalàs, Eva Real, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Alex Ferrer, José M Crespo, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Pino Alonso, José M Menchón
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities have been described in both disorders and might play a role in the association between them. We aimed to study the role of HPA axis activity in the comorbidity between OCD and MDD, while controlling for psychopathological dimensions such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. We studied 324 participants belonging to four diagnostic groups: 1) MDD (n = 101), 2) OCD with comorbid MDD (n = 33), 3) OCD without MDD (n = 52), and 4) healthy subjects (n = 138)...
April 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681866/study-protocol-using-deep-brain-stimulation-multimodal-neuroimaging-and-neuroethics-to-understand-and-treat-severe-enduring-anorexia-nervosa
#9
Rebecca J Park, Jessica C Scaife, Tipu Z Aziz
Background: Research suggests that altered eating and the pursuit of thinness in anorexia nervosa (AN) are, in part, a consequence of aberrant reward circuitry. The neural circuits involved in reward processing and compulsivity overlap significantly, and this has been suggested as a transdiagnostic factor underpinning obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions and eating disorders. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is central to both reward processing and compulsivity. In previous studies, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to the NAcc has been shown to result in neural and symptomatic improvement in both obsessive compulsive disorder and addictions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679897/the-role-of-eveningness-in-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-cross-sectional-and-prospective-approaches
#10
Rebecca C Cox, Breanna Tuck, Bunmi O Olatunji
BACKGROUND: Eveningness may be defined as the tendency to be most active and alert during the evening. Previous research has linked eveningness with maladaptive psychological outcomes, and recent evidence has highlighted circadian dysregulation as a novel factor in psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, limited research has examined the unique relationship between eveningness and OC symptoms. Two studies were conducted to thoroughly examine the links between eveningness and OC symptoms, while also considering the role of depression symptoms and sleep-related factors...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677451/treatment-features-associated-with-youth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-follow-up-effects-for-internalizing-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#11
Michael Sun, Leslie R Rith-Najarian, Timothy J Williamson, Bruce F Chorpita
Our aim was to investigate whether four treatment features (i.e., the inclusion of parental involvement, goal-setting strategies, maintenance/relapse prevention sessions, the addition of booster sessions) were associated with posttreatment and follow-up effect size of youth cognitive behavioral therapies (yCBTs) for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder in age groups spanning young children to adolescents. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of 106 yCBTs tested in 76 randomized clinical trials from the PracticeWise Database to examine average effects of yCBTs posttreatment and at a later follow-up assessment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676713/-deep-brain-stimulation-for-psychiatric-disorders
#12
M Figee, P R Schuurman, D Denys
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS) corrects pathological activity of neuropsychiatric brain networks with high frequency current via implanted brain electrodes.- DBS is an effective and safe treatment for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and potentially also for therapy-refractory major depressive disorder.- Experimental psychiatric indications for DBS are Tourette syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and schizophrenia.- DBS influences brain networks that are relevant for a variety of psychiatric symptoms...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673581/hoping-for-more-how-cognitive-science-has-and-hasn-t-been-helpful-to-the-ocd-clinician
#13
REVIEW
Allison J Ouimet, Andrea R Ashbaugh, Adam S Radomsky
Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) stemmed from knowledge acquired from cognitive science. Researchers continue to apply basic cognitive-affective science methods to understanding OCD, with the overarching goal of improving and refining evidence-based treatments. However, the degree to which such research has contributed to this goal is unclear. We reviewed OCD research in the general areas that comprise basic cognitive science, and evaluated the degree to which it has contributed to our understanding of the development, maintenance, and treatment of OCD...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671499/poststreptococcal-illness-recognition-and-management
#14
David L Maness, Michael Martin, Gregg Mitchell
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can cause several postinfectious, nonsuppurative immune- mediated diseases including acute rheumatic fever, poststreptococcal reactive arthritis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Except for sporadic outbreaks, poststreptococcal autoimmune syndromes occur most commonly in sub-Saharan Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. Children younger than three years are rarely affected by group A streptococcus pharyngitis or rheumatic fever, and usually do not require testing...
April 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670353/laxative-use-and-clinical-correlates-in-hospitalized-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-retrospective-descriptive-study
#15
Jianbo Lai, Weihua Zhou, Qiaoqiao Lu, Tingting Huang, Yi Xu, Shaohua Hu
Background: Constipation is a common clinical problem with insufficient attention. Medication-emergent constipation is a rarely studied adverse reaction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: In this descriptive study, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of laxative use and its relationship with clinical characteristics in hospitalized OCD patients. A total of 51 OCD patients were included in the final analysis. Results: The proportion of patients using laxatives was 31...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#16
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666372/brain-serotonin-synthesis-capacity-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-sertraline
#17
Jennifer I Lissemore, Debbie Sookman, Paul Gravel, Alexandre Berney, Amir Barsoum, Mirko Diksic, Thomas E Nordahl, Gilbert Pinard, Igor Sibon, Jean Cottraux, Marco Leyton, Chawki Benkelfat
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are both effective treatments for some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about the neurochemical changes related to these treatment modalities. Here, we used positron emission tomography and the α-[11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan tracer to examine the changes in brain regional serotonin synthesis capacity in OCD patients following treatment with CBT or SSRI treatment. Sixteen medication-free OCD patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either CBT or sertraline treatment...
April 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663874/n-acetyl-cysteine-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-a-general-review
#18
Flavia di Michele, Alberto Siracusano, Talamo Alessandra, Cinzia Niolu
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling mental illness for which pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are all too often inadequate. This demonstrates the need for more targeted therapeutics. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of OCD. Moreover there are studies suggesting that neuroimmune abnormalities may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OCD. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a safe and readily available agent that would modify the synaptic release of glutamate in subcortical brain regions via modulation of the cysteine-glutamate antiporter...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660751/-exposure-therapy-with-the-help-of-a-wearable-defibrillator-device-used-in-the-treatment-of-severe-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-congenital-lqts-an-example-for-interdisciplinary-treatment
#19
Fabian Sinowatz, Clemens Jilek, Ulrich Voderholzer, Ulrich Cuntz, Martin Greetfeld, Petra Hopfner, Jürgen Pache
We report on a case of a young female suffering from both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a severe underlying cardiac disease. Due to the somatic comorbidity, treatment according to guidelines with exposure and reaction prevention was not initially conducted, due to potentially fatal risks to the patient. However, through collaboration with a cardiology clinic, we were able to find an innovative solution which allowed for the continuation of the exposure therapy. This case report demonstrates a successful interdisciplinary collaboration and is intended to sensitize the reader to the need for checking for somatic contraindications before conducting exposure therapy...
April 16, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659102/initial-severity-and-antidepressant-efficacy-for-anxiety-disorders-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#20
Ymkje Anna de Vries, Annelieke M Roest, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressant benefits are smaller for mild than severe depression. Because antidepressants are also used for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we examined the influence of severity for these disorders. METHODS: We used individual patient data of eight trials (3,430 participants) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); four trials (1,195 participants) for social anxiety disorder (SAD); four trials (1,132 participants) for OCD; three trials (1,071 participants) for PTSD; and 10 trials (2,151 participants) for panic disorder (PD)...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
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