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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457672/gambling-related-cognitive-distortions-predict-level-of-function-among-us-veterans-seeking-treatment-for-gambling-disorders
#1
Steven D Shirk, Megan M Kelly, Shane W Kraus, Marc N Potenza, Kendra Pugh, Christopher Waltrous, Edward Federman, Christopher Krebs, Charles E Drebing
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by recurrent gambling behavior that is associated with significant impairment and distress, high psychiatric comorbidities, and high functional disability. The military veteran population appears particularly susceptible to developing the disorder, but relatively little has been studied among this population. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical psychopathologies and comorbidities of veterans seeking treatment for problem gambling and how problem gambling may impact functioning...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455687/distinct-risk-factors-for-obsessive-and-compulsive-symptoms-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#2
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Yulia Worbe, Miguel Bernardo, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common in clozapine-treated patients although the actual prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to address the three aforementioned questions. METHODS: The electronic records of a large cohort of clozapine-medicated schizophrenia patients routinely screened for OCD were used. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory Revised version (OCI-R) was available from 118 cases and a 21 points cut-off threshold for OCD was defined...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455021/effect-of-dopamine-receptor-d4-drd4-haplotypes-on-general-psychopathology-in-patients-with-eating-disorders
#3
Guillermo Gervasini, Luz M González, Carmen Gamero-Villarroel, Sonia Mota-Zamorano, Juan Antonio Carrillo, Isalud Flores, Angustias Garcia-Herráiz
Among the many candidate genes analyzed in eating disorder (ED) patients, those involved in dopaminergic functions may be of special relevance, as dopamine is known to play a significant role in feeding behavior, the distortion of body image, hyperactivity and reward and reinforcement processes. We aimed to determine the effect of functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) gene on general psychopathological symptoms in ED patients. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three ED patients [199 with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and 74 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN)] completed the SCL-90R inventory and were genotyped for four functional, clinically relevant DRD4 polymorphisms: three variants in the promoter region [120-bp tandem repeat (TR, long vs...
February 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451967/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-and-related-disorders-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Joseph K Carpenter, Leigh A Andrews, Sara M Witcraft, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Stefan G Hofmann
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety-related disorders based on randomized placebo-controlled trials. We included 41 studies that randomly assigned patients (N = 2,843) with acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or social anxiety disorder (SAD) to CBT or a psychological or pill placebo condition. Findings demonstrated moderate placebo-controlled effects of CBT on target disorder symptoms (Hedges' g = 0...
February 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451027/a-case-of-late-onset-ocd-developing-pls-and-ftd
#5
Enrica Bersano, Maria Francesca Sarnelli, Valentina Solara, Fabiola De Marchi, Gian Mauro Sacchetti, Alessandro Stecco, Lucia Corrado, Sandra D'alfonso, Roberto Cantello, Letizia Mazzini
We describe a 64-year-old woman, suffering from late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the age of 57, who developed dysarthria and dysphagia, spastic diplegic, and proximal muscles weakness. Needle electromyography showed no active denervation. Neuropsychological evaluation showed intact cognitive functioning. We diagnosed upper motor neuron disease (MND), with no known genetic correlates. Brain magnetic resonance (MRI) detected bilateral hippocampal atrophy with sclerosis of right hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450234/is-the-concept-of-compulsion-useful-in-the-explanation-or-description-of-addictive-behaviour-and-experience
#6
Nick Heather
The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i) to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii) to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii) to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv) to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441204/relationships-between-compulsive-exercise-quality-of-life-psychological-distress-and-motivation-to-change-in-adults-with-anorexia-nervosa
#7
Sarah Young, Stephen Touyz, Caroline Meyer, Jon Arcelus, Paul Rhodes, Sloane Madden, Kathleen Pike, Evelyn Attia, Ross D Crosby, Phillipa Hay
Background: For people with anorexia nervosa (AN), compulsive exercise is characterized by extreme concerns about the perceived negative consequences of stopping/reducing exercise, dysregulation of affect, and inflexible exercise routines. It is associated with increased eating disorder psychopathology and poor clinical outcome. However, its relationships with two important clinical issues, quality of life (QoL) and motivation to change, are currently unknown. This study aimed to assess the cross-sectional relationships between compulsive exercise, QoL, psychological distress (anxiety and depressive symptoms, and obsessive-compulsive traits) and motivation to change in patients with AN...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440404/multivariate-resting-state-functional-connectivity-predicts-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Nicco Reggente, Teena D Moody, Francesca Morfini, Courtney Sheen, Jesse Rissman, Joseph O'Neill, Jamie D Feusner
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, response varies considerably among individuals. Attaining a means to predict an individual's potential response would permit clinicians to more prudently allocate resources for this often stressful and time-consuming treatment. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from adults with OCD before and after 4 weeks of intensive daily CBT. We leveraged machine learning with cross-validation to assess the power of functional connectivity (FC) patterns to predict individual posttreatment OCD symptom severity...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435695/assessing-acute-secondary-treatment-outcomes-in-early-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Mary Kathryn Cancilliere, Jennifer Freeman, Abbe Garcia, Kristen Benito, Jeffrey Sapyta, Martin Franklin
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children under 8 years of age, referred to as early-onset OCD, has similar features to OCD in older children, including moderate to severe symptoms, impairment, and significant comorbidity. Family-based cognitive behavioral therapy (FB-CBT) has been found efficacious in reducing OCD symptoms and functional impairment in children ages 5-8 years with OCD; however, its effectiveness on reducing comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this same population has yet to be demonstrated...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433610/accuracy-of-the-whooley-questions-and-the-edinburgh-postnatal-depression-scale-in-identifying-depression-and-other-mental-disorders-in-early-pregnancy
#10
Louise Michele Howard, Elizabeth G Ryan, Kylee Trevillion, Fraser Anderson, Debra Bick, Amanda Bye, Sarah Byford, Sheila O'Connor, Polly Sands, Jill Demilew, Jeannette Milgrom, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the prevalence and identification of antenatal mental disorders. Aims To investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in early pregnancy and the diagnostic accuracy of depression-screening (Whooley) questions compared with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), against the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV-TR. METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of women responding to Whooley questions asked at their first antenatal appointment...
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432500/large-animals-as-potential-models-of-human-mental-and-behavioral-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Michał Danek, Janusz Danek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431884/successes-and-optimism-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-neurological-disorders-ripe-for-a-surgical-time-out
#12
Alexander I Tröster
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). DBS has been approved for these same conditions in Europe, but, additionally the European Commission (EC) has granted the Conformité Européenne (CE) Mark for DBS as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures in adults with medically refractory epilepsy. In this issue of EJN Budman and colleagues [1] briefly review the range of neurologic conditions that might constitute promising new indications for DBS...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426573/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-transdiagnostic-construct-with-implications-for-phenomenology-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Carrie B Gillett, Emily L Bilek, Gregory L Hanna, Kate D Fitzgerald
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are early-onset disorders with significant overlapping phenomenology, especially in young patients who, due to developmental stage, may have difficulty recognizing obsessions and worries as unrealistic or excessive. Shared phenomenology and high rates of comorbidity between OCD and GAD raise the possibility of common underlying processes, and recent work has focused on intolerance of uncertainty (IU) as a reasonable candidate. With an emphasis on the youth literature, we review the phenomenological overlap between OCD and GAD, how symptoms may relate to IU, and how IU may be measured...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426262/the-relationship-between-theory-of-mind-and-insight-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Rıza Gökçer Tulacı, Eylem Şahin Cankurtaran, Kadir Özdel, Nefise Öztürk, Erkan Kuru, İlker Özdemir
BACKGROUND: It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). AIM: To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. METHODS: Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale...
February 9, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425951/a-novel-approach-to-challenging-ocd-related-beliefs-using-a-mobile-app-an-exploratory-study
#15
María Roncero, Amparo Belloch, Guy Doron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to cognitive models, obsessive compulsive symptoms result from catastrophic misinterpretations of commonly occurring intrusive experiences and the use of counterproductive strategies to manage them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) related beliefs such as inflated responsibility, importance of thoughts and perfectionism increases the likelihood of such misinterpretations. Consistent with a growing body of literature supporting the usefulness of mobile delivered technologies in fostering cognitive behavior change, the present study assessed the effectiveness of a novel cognitive training exercise designed to challenge OCD-related beliefs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424003/a-retrospective-case-series-of-referrals-to-our-psychodermatology-clinic-2009-2016
#16
L Roche, B Ramsay
Psychodermatology is a relatively new subspecialty exploring the interaction between skin and the mind. Managing patients in this cohort can be challenging1,2,3 . The aetiology of psychocutaneous disease is often complex, ranging from solely functional skin-directed symptoms (psychogenic pruritis), to thought disorders manifesting in a cutaneous fashion (delusional parasitosis), to factitious disorders with cutaneous consequences (e.g. dermatitis artefacta). In addition, purely psychiatric conditions (i.e. substance misuse, depression or obsessive compulsive disorder), may occur alongside dermatological disease, further complicating successful management...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423665/a-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-different-cortical-targets-used-in-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd
#17
REVIEW
Simone Rehn, Guy D Eslick, Vlasios Brakoulias
Randomised and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results, which may be due to the variability in rTMS parameters used. We performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of OCD and aimed to determine whether certain rTMS parameters, such as cortical target, may be associated with higher treatment effectiveness. After conducting a systematic literature review for RCTs on rTMS for OCD through to 1 December 2016 using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google, and Google Scholar, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis with the outcome measure as pre-post changes in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores...
February 9, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421371/changing-disgust-through-imagery-rescripting-and-cognitive-reappraisal-in-contamination-based-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#18
Jakob Fink, Elisa Pflugradt, Christian Stierle, Cornelia Exner
Contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (C-OCD) is characterized by strongly experienced disgust and fear, in response to potentially contaminating stimuli. Both emotions differ in their susceptibility for change by habituation and extinction, which are important processes for the success of exposure therapy. Even though the response rates for exposure therapy for C-OCD are very good, it seems promising to test additional therapeutic techniques which target disgust more directly. Therefore, imagery rescripting and cognitive reappraisal were evaluated for their potential to change levels of disgust (within-subject), in the two-session laboratory study with 30 participants, with diagnosed C-OCD, and 30 matched, healthy controls (between-subject), presented...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419948/treatment-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-adults-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-treatment-strategies
#19
Sean T Gregory, Brian Kay, Joseph Smith, Kristin Hall, Alessandro S De Nadai, Troy Quast, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of 7 treatment strategies for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. METHODS: A model was developed to evaluate treatment alternatives for adults (18-64 years old) that consisted of 2 parts: a decision analytic model and a Markov model. The decision analytic model stratified 7 outpatient treatment strategies, and the Markov model accumulated benefits and costs across the life expectancy of a simulated cohort of individuals...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415552/eveningness-is-associated-with-poor-sleep-quality-and-negative-affect-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Péter Simor, András Harsányi, Kata Csigó, Gergely Miklós, Alpár Sándor Lázár, Gyula Demeter
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors that severely encumber daily functioning. OCD patients seem to exhibit sleep disturbances, especially delayed bedtimes that reflect disrupted circadian rhythmicity. Morningness-eveningness is a fundamental factor reflecting individual variations in diurnal preferences related to sleep and waking activities. Eveningness reflecting a delayed sleep-wake timing has repeatedly been associated with sleep problems and negative affect (NA)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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