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compulsive obsessive disorders

Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Carolina David Wiener, Karen Jansen, Luis Valmor Portela, Diogo R Lara, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the serum GDNF levels in individuals with anxiety disorder (AD) in a population-based study. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study population-based, with people aged 18 to 35. AD's assessment was performed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). Serum GDNF was measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. RESULTS: The prevalence was 3.3% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 6...
June 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Anne-Hélène Clair, William Haynes, Luc Mallet
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been offered to patients suffering of severe and resistant neuropsychiatric disorders like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) and Major Depression (MDD). Modulation of several targets within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits can lead to a decrease of symptom severity in those patients. This review focuses on the recent clinical outcomes in DBS in psychiatric disorders. Studies on OCD and TS are now focusing on the long-term effects of DBS, with encouraging results regarding not only the decrease of symptoms, but also quality of life...
2018: F1000Research
Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Subhasini Vs, Madhuri Hn, Vinay B, Malvika Ravi, Eesha Sharma, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Y C Janardhan Reddy
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the efficacy of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over bilateral presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with partial/poor response to pharmacotherapy, in a double-blinded randomized sham controlled trial. METHOD: Forty subjects with OCD, who were on stable medications with partial/poor response to pharmacotherapy were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20 in each group), to receive either active or sham low-frequency rTMS over bilateral pre-SMA...
June 12, 2018: Journal of ECT
Véronique Palardy, Ghassan El-Baalbaki, Catherine Fredette, Elias Rizkallah, Stéphane Guay
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are characterized by major behavioral dysruptions that may affect patients' social and marital functioning. The disorders' impact on interpersonal relationships may also affect the quality of support patients receive from their social network. The main goal of this systematic review is to determine the association between social or marital support and symptom severity among adults with PD/A or OCD. A systematic search of databases was executed and provided 35 eligible articles...
March 2018: Europe's journal of psychology
Murad Atmaca, Hanefi Yildirim, Seda Yilmaz, Neslihan Caglar, Sema Baykara, Yasemin Kekilli, Filiz Koseoglu, Hakan Turkcapar
OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects of psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the brain are not well understood. In a previous study, we found smaller pituitary volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CBT on pituitary gland volume. METHODS: A total of 81 patients with various anxiety disorders and the same number of healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and their pituitary gland volumes were compared at baseline...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Priscila Chacon, Elisa Bernardes, Lívia Faggian, Marcelo Batistuzzo, Tais Moriyama, Eurípedes C Miguel, Guilherme V Polanczyk
OBJECTIVE: A first-degree relative affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in childhood is an important risk factor for developing the disorder in adulthood. The relationship between a family history of OCD and the presence of OCS and its correlates in childhood is not well established. METHODS: A total of 66 children whose parents or siblings have been diagnosed with OCD were assessed for the presence of OCS and clinical correlates...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Masaru Kuno, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Akiko Nakagawa, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autistic traits may impair treatment response in OCD. To identify possible neurostructural deficits underlying autistic traits, we performed white matter tractography on diffusion tensor images (DTI) and assessed autistic trait severity using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in 33 OCD patients. Correlations between AQ and the DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were examined in major white matter tracts that were suggested to be altered in previous OCD studies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Peter Bosanac, Bridget Elizabeth Hamilton, James Lucak, David Castle
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an emerging and potentially powerful biological treatment for severe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), but the wider impact of the intervention and the sometimes dramatic reduction in symptoms need greater attention in research and practice. The aim of this case study is to explore the subjective experience of preparing for and undergoing DBS as a treatment for severe and treatment-refractory OCD and the experience of the impact of the treatment...
June 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Murad Atmaca
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder which is important and disturbing the quality of life and is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors, now in a different category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5). Neuroimaging investigations are very useful to reveal a neurobiological model of the OCD. Studies conducted in the last quarter century have shown clear results and revealed that specific cortico-subcortical circuits could be involved in the occurrence of OCD symptomatology...
June 12, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Kristy L Kolc, Lynette G Sadleir, Ingrid E Scheffer, Atma Ivancevic, Rachel Roberts, Duyen H Pham, Jozef Gecz
Epilepsy and Mental Retardation Limited to Females (EFMR) is an infantile onset disorder characterized by clusters of seizures. EFMR is due to mutations in the X-chromosome gene PCDH19, and is underpinned by cellular mosaicism due to X-chromosome inactivation in females or somatic mutation in males. This review characterizes the neuropsychiatric profile of this disorder and examines the association of clinical and molecular factors with neuropsychiatric outcomes. Data were extracted from 38 peer-reviewed original articles including 271 individual cases...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Katharina Bey, Christian Kaufmann, Leonhard Lennertz, Anja Riesel, Julia Klawohn, Stephan Heinzel, Rosa Grützmann, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show deficient planning capacity in the Tower of London (TOL) problem solving task. Preliminary evidence for similar deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives suggests that impaired planning may constitute an endophenotype of OCD. However, results on this issue are inconsistent, possibly owing to small sample sizes and variability in problem structure across TOL tasks. Here, we adopted a computerized version of the TOL task featuring a 2 × 2 factorial design (high/low search depth × full/partial tower goal state) and examined a well-characterized sample of n = 72 OCD patients, n = 76 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 102 healthy comparison subjects...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Naomi Weiss-Goldman, Brittany Arditi, Timothy Rice, Barbara J Coffey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Chih-Wei Hsu, Liang-Jen Wang, Pao-Yen Lin
BACKGROUND: While previous studies have investigated the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treating Tourette syndrome (TS), the results remain inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We aim to systematically review the existing literature related to the efficacy of rTMS in TS and synthesize the results through meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and databases without language restriction through January 1, 2018, and included randomized-controlled and open-label trials that assessed the treatment effect of rTMS for tic symptoms...
June 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Marcelo Q Hoexter, Marcelo C Batistuzzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Grzegorz M Wojcik, Jolanta Masiak, Andrzej Kawiak, Piotr Schneider, Lukasz Kwasniewicz, Nikodem Polak, Anna Gajos-Balinska
The interview is still the main and most important tool in psychiatrist's work. The neuroimaging methods such as CT or MRI are widely used in other fields of medicine, for instance neurology. However, psychiatry lacks effective quantitative methods to support of diagnosis. A novel neuroinformatic approach to help clinical patients by means of electroencephalographic technology in order to build foundations for finding neurophysiological biomarkers of psychiatric disorders is proposed. A cohort of 30 right-handed patients (21 males, 9 females) with psychiatric disorders (mainly with panic and anxiety disorder, Asperger syndrome as well as with phobic anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, nonorganic hypersomnia, and moderate depressive episode) were examined using the dense array EEG amplifier in the P300 experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Elena Ali
Purpose: Postpartum anxiety disorders are common and may have significant consequences for mothers and their children. This review examines the literature on women's experiences with postpartum generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), postpartum panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and reference lists were searched. Qualitative and quantitative studies assessing women's experiences with GAD, postpartum PD, OCD, and PTSD were included...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Yann Pelloux, Mickaël Degoulet, Alix Tiran-Cappello, Candie Cohen, Sylvie Lardeux, Olivier George, George F Koob, Serge H Ahmed, Christelle Baunez
One of the key features of addiction is the escalated drug intake. The neural mechanisms involved in the transition to addiction remain to be elucidated. Since abnormal neuronal activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) stands as potential general neuromarker common to impulse control spectrum deficits, as observed in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the present study recorded and manipulated STN neuronal activity during the initial transition to addiction (i.e., escalation) and post-abstinence relapse (i...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
G Gervasini, L M Gonzalez, S Mota-Zamorano, C Gamero-Villarroel, J A Carrillo, I Flores, A Garcia-Herraiz
BACKGROUND: Dopamine physiological functions make dopaminergic genes suitable candidates for association studies in eating disorders (ED). A Val158Met polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which is involved in dopamine degradation, has been studied in relation to ED. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the association between this polymorphism and general psychopathological symptoms that are often coupled to these disorders. METHOD: A total of 303 ED patients, diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria, completed the SCL-90R questionnaire and were genotyped for the Val158Met polymorphism...
June 7, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Debjit Roy, Amrita Sarkar, Arvind Nongpiur, Manoj Prithviraj
It has long been debated whether bowel and bladder anxiety are a part of obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder or a variant of agoraphobia with no consensus view yet. Tricyclic antidepressants are reportedly efficacious in such cases and lead to complete resolution of symptoms. Here, we report a 36-year-old male having urges to visit toilet when in public places or where toilets are not easily available and a resulting avoidance of such spaces fearing an episode of incontinence. Symptoms originated 16 years ago when he was in university which compelled him to drop out...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Mohammad Aleem Siddiqui, Daya Ram, Sanjay Kumar Munda, Shazia Veqar Siddiqui, Sujit Sarkhel
Introduction: There is growing awareness of the heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and of the multiple systems involved in its pathogenesis. Identification of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) may have important implications in the management and prognosis of OCD, but there is a paucity of research in the domain of identification of OCSD in probands with OCD. There are few studies that have examined OCSD in the first-degree relatives (FDR) of OCD patients, some of these were not controlled, and these studies have no final agreements over outcomes, and therefore, this area needs to be further explored...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
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