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Bin Lin, Feng Wang, Jiaxiang Wang, Chengyang Xu, Hui Zhao, Zhaoyun Cheng, Deguang Feng
p72 (probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX17) belongs to the DEAD‑box RNA helicase family. p72 is important in RNA processing. Thus, the role of p72 in doxorubicin (DOX)‑induced cardiomyocyte injury was investigated in the present study. The changes in p72 expression levels were studied in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and p72 overexpression was induced using adenovirus vectors. To investigate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), dihydroethidium staining was conducted. TUNEL and Hoechst staining were used to indicate cell apoptosis...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Patrick Connerty, Sarah Bajan, Judit Remenyi, Frances V Fuller-Pace, Gyorgy Hutvagner
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (21-23nt long) RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in plants and animals. They are key regulators in all biological processes. In mammalian cells miRNAs are loaded into one of the four members of the Argonaute (Ago) protein family to form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISCs inhibit the translation of mRNAs that share sequence complementarity with their loaded miRNAs. miRNA processing and miRNA-mediated gene regulation are highly regulated processes and involve many RNA-binding proteins as auxiliary factors...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Pierre L Triozzi, Susan Achberger, Wayne Aldrich, John W Crabb, Yogen Saunthararajah, Arun D Singh
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic events mediated by methylation and histone modifications have been associated with the development of metastasis in patients with uveal melanoma. The role of epigenetic events mediated by microRNA (miR) is less clear. Tumor and plasma miR expression was examined in patients with primary uveal melanoma with tumor monosomy-3, a predictor of metastasis. RESULTS: miR profiling of tumors by microarray found six miRs over-expressed and 19 under-expressed in 33 tumors with monosomy-3 compared to 22 without...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Judit Remenyi, Sarah Bajan, Frances V Fuller-Pace, J Simon C Arthur, Gyorgy Hutvagner
miRNAs are small RNAs that are key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. The processing of miRNAs is regulated by structural characteristics of the RNA and is also tightly controlled by auxiliary protein factors. Among them, RNA binding proteins play crucial roles to facilitate or inhibit miRNA maturation and can be controlled in a cell, tissue and species-specific manners or in response to environmental stimuli. In this study we dissect the molecular mechanism that promotes the overexpression of miR-132 in mice over its related, co-transcribed and co-regulated miRNA, miR-212...
March 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jillian M Emerson, Bradley M Bartholomai, Carol S Ringelberg, Scott E Baker, Jennifer J Loros, Jay C Dunlap
Mutants in the period-1 (prd-1) gene, characterized by a recessive allele, display a reduced growth rate and period lengthening of the developmental cycle controlled by the circadian clock. We refined the genetic location of prd-1 and used whole genome sequencing to find the mutation defining it, confirming the identity of prd-1 by rescuing the mutant circadian phenotype via transformation. PRD-1 is an RNA helicase whose orthologs, DDX5 [DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) Box Helicase 5] and DDX17 in humans and DBP2 (Dead Box Protein 2) in yeast, are implicated in various processes, including transcriptional regulation, elongation, and termination, ribosome biogenesis, and mRNA decay...
December 22, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yu-De Chu, Hsin-Kai Chen, Tao Huang, Shih-Peng Chan
Primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) are cleaved by the nuclear RNase III Drosha to produce hairpin-shaped precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). In humans, this process is known to be facilitated by the DEAD-box helicases p68 (DDX5) and p72 (DDX17). In this study, we performed a candidate-based RNAi screen in C. elegans to identify DEAD/H-box proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis. In a let-7(mg279) sensitized genetic background, knockdown of a homolog of yeast splicing factor Prp28p, DDX-23, or a homolog of human helicases p68 and p72, DDX-17, enhanced let-7 loss-of-function phenotypes, suggesting that these helicases play a role in let-7 processing and/or function...
January 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
H Alqahtani, K Gopal, N Gupta, K Jung, A Alshareef, X Ye, F Wu, L Li, R Lai
We have previously demonstrated the existence of two phenotypically distinct cell subsets in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (BC) based on their differential response to a Sox2 reporter (SRR2), with reporter responsive (RR) cells being more tumorigenic and stem-like than reporter unresponsive (RU) cells. To delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic dichotomy, we tested our hypothesis that Sox2, which is a key regulator of the RR phenotype, is under the control of its binding partners...
February 2016: Cellular Signalling
Valerie Le Sage, Alessandro Cinti, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Andrew J Mouland
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein is necessary and sufficient to assemble non-infectious particles. Given that HIV-1 subverts many host proteins at all stages of its life cycle, it is essential to identify these interactions as potential targets for antiretroviral therapy. FINDINGS: This work demonstrates the use of proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) of host proteins and complexes that are proximal to the N-terminal domains of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein...
2015: Virology Journal
Nyarie Sithole, Claire Williams, Aisling Vaughan, Andrew Lever
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS is the largest global public health problem; about 76 million people have been infected with HIV and 36 million people have already died. Existing antiviral treatment is successful but requires lifelong adherence and mostly targets viral factors. The virus mutates and evades both drugs and the human immune response. Cellular factors are potential therapeutic targets against HIV because the virus must conserve domains that interact with these cellular factors. Unlike many viruses HIV does not encode any helicases but it has been shown to use cellular DDX3...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
Angela Erazo, Stephen P Goff
BACKGROUND: Matrin 3 is a nuclear matrix protein involved in multiple nuclear processes. In HIV-1 infection, Matrin 3 serves as a Rev cofactor important for the cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 transcripts. ZAP is a potent host restriction factor of multiple viruses including retroviruses HIV-1 and MoMuLV. In this study we sought to further characterize Matrin 3 functions in the regulation of HIV gene expression. RESULTS: Here we describe a function for Matrin 3 as a negative regulator of the ZAP-mediated restriction of retroviruses...
2015: Retrovirology
Claire A Williams, Truus E M Abbink, Kuan-Teh Jeang, Andrew M L Lever
Central to the development of new treatments for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is a more thorough understanding of the viral life cycle and the cellular cofactors upon which this depends. Targeting cellular proteins and their interaction with HIV-1 has the potential to reduce the problem of emerging viral resistance to drugs as mutational escape is more difficult. We performed a short interfering RNA (siRNA) library screen targeting 59 cellular RNA helicases, assessing the effect on both viral capsid protein production and infectious virion formation...
June 2015: Journal of General Virology
Ramiro José González-Duarte, Verna Cázares-Ordoñez, Euclides Ávila-Chávez
MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The major proteins of the canonical microRNA biogenesis pathway in human are: Drosha, DGCR8, DDX5, DDX17, Exportin 5, Dicer and Argonaute 2. Recent studies suggest that gene expression of some canonical microRNA biogenesis components could be regulated by steroid hormones. Furthermore, various alterations in microRNA biogenesis have been associated with diseases like cancer. Due to the importance of microRNAs in cell physiology, the study of the factors that regulate or affect their biogenesis is critical...
September 2014: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Christine Xing'er Koo, Kouji Kobiyama, Yu J Shen, Nina LeBert, Shandar Ahmad, Muznah Khatoo, Taiki Aoshi, Stephan Gasser, Ken J Ishii
RNA:DNA hybrids form in the nuclei and mitochondria of cells as transcription-induced R-loops or G-quadruplexes, but exist only in the cytosol of virus-infected cells. Little is known about the existence of RNA:DNA hybrids in the cytosol of virus-free cells, in particular cancer or transformed cells. Here, we show that cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids are present in various human cell lines, including transformed cells. Inhibition of RNA polymerase III (Pol III), but not DNA polymerase, abrogated cytosolic RNA:DNA hybrids...
March 20, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ryan H Moy, Sara Cherry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Cell Cycle
Ryan H Moy, Brian S Cole, Ari Yasunaga, Beth Gold, Ganesh Shankarling, Andrew Varble, Jerome M Molleston, Benjamin R tenOever, Kristen W Lynch, Sara Cherry
DEAD-box helicases play essential roles in RNA metabolism across species, but emerging data suggest that they have additional functions in immunity. Through RNAi screening, we identify an evolutionarily conserved and interferon-independent role for the DEAD-box helicase DDX17 in restricting Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-transmitted virus in the bunyavirus family that causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Loss of Drosophila DDX17 (Rm62) in cells and flies enhanced RVFV infection...
August 14, 2014: Cell
S Zaccara, T Tebaldi, C Pederiva, Y Ciribilli, A Bisio, A Inga
The increasing number of genome-wide transcriptome analyses focusing on p53-induced cellular responses in many cellular contexts keeps adding to the already numerous p53-regulated transcriptional networks. To investigate post-transcriptional controls as an additional dimension of p53-directed gene expression responses, we performed a translatome analysis through polysomal profiling on MCF7 cells upon 16 hours of doxorubicin or nutlin-3a treatment. The comparison between the transcriptome and the translatome revealed a considerable level of uncoupling, characterized by genes whose transcription variations did not correlate with translation variations...
October 2014: Cell Death and Differentiation
Etienne Dardenne, Micaela Polay Espinoza, Laurent Fattet, Sophie Germann, Marie-Pierre Lambert, Helen Neil, Eleonora Zonta, Hussein Mortada, Lise Gratadou, Mathieu Deygas, Fatima Zahra Chakrama, Samaan Samaan, François-Olivier Desmet, Léon-Charles Tranchevent, Martin Dutertre, Ruth Rimokh, Cyril F Bourgeois, Didier Auboeuf
The RNA helicases DDX5 and DDX17 are members of a large family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in gene-expression regulation; however, their in vivo targets and activities in biological processes such as cell differentiation, which requires reprogramming of gene-expression programs at multiple levels, are not well characterized. Here, we uncovered a mechanism by which DDX5 and DDX17 cooperate with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H/F splicing factors to define epithelial- and myoblast-specific splicing subprograms...
June 26, 2014: Cell Reports
Eunsun Jung, Youngmo Seong, Jae Hong Seo, Young-Soo Kwon, Hoseok Song
Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein...
March 28, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Masaki Mori, Robinson Triboulet, Morvarid Mohseni, Karin Schlegelmilch, Kriti Shrestha, Fernando D Camargo, Richard I Gregory
Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in human cancers and can have a causative role in tumorigenesis. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we show that YAP, the downstream target of the tumor-suppressive Hippo-signaling pathway regulates miRNA biogenesis in a cell-density-dependent manner. At low cell density, nuclear YAP binds and sequesters p72 (DDX17), a regulatory component of the miRNA-processing machinery. At high cell density, Hippo-mediated cytoplasmic retention of YAP facilitates p72 association with Microprocessor and binding to a specific sequence motif in pri-miRNAs...
February 27, 2014: Cell
Samaan Samaan, Léon-Charles Tranchevent, Etienne Dardenne, Micaela Polay Espinoza, Eleonora Zonta, Sophie Germann, Lise Gratadou, Martin Dutertre, Didier Auboeuf
Estrogen and androgen receptors (ER and AR) play key roles in breast and prostate cancers, respectively, where they regulate the transcription of large arrays of genes. The activities of ER and AR are controlled by large networks of protein kinases and transcriptional coregulators, including Ddx5 and its highly related paralog Ddx17. The Ddx5 and Ddx17 RNA helicases are also splicing regulators. Here, we report that Ddx5 and Ddx17 are master regulators of the estrogen- and androgen-signaling pathways by controlling transcription and splicing both upstream and downstream of the receptors...
February 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
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