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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813944/robotic-set-up-to-quantify-hand-eye-behavior-in-motor-execution-and-learning-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Claudia Casellato, Marta Gandolla, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Pedrocchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813534/the-computer-assisted-interview-in-my-shoes-can-benefit-shy-preschool-children-s-communication
#2
Karin Fängström, Raziye Salari, Maria Eriksson, Anna Sarkadi
Interviewing children is a cognitively, socially, and emotionally challenging situation, especially for young and shy children. Thus, finding methods that aid rapport and increase these children's communication is important. The present study investigated whether children's verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior developed differently during the rapport phase, depending on whether children were situationally shy or not, and whether the interview was conducted using the computer-assisted interview In My Shoes (IMS) or a Standard verbal interview...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813301/stress-and-child-development-a-review-of-the-family-stress-model
#3
REVIEW
April S Masarik, Rand D Conger
In the present report, we provide an illustrative review of the Family Stress Model (FSM) framework [1] to understand how family stress influences children across development in physical, social-emotional, and cognitive domains. We note that the FSM as a theory has evolved through inspection of: (a) new explanatory pathways (mediators); (b) factors that moderate FSM pathways; and (c) joint tests of competing models. Also important, most researchers cited in this review used longitudinal designs to test the proposed causal ordering of FSM pathways, which replicated among a diverse set of families varied in structure, ethnic background, and geographic location...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813276/fathers-fathering-and-child-psychopathology
#4
REVIEW
Beth Barker, Jane E Iles, Paul G Ramchandani
The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813274/parenting-in-new-family-forms
#5
REVIEW
Susan Golombok
This paper reviews research on parenting and child development in new family forms including families created by assisted reproductive technologies, same-sex parent families, and families headed by single mothers by choice. The research is examined in the context of the issues and concerns that have been raised regarding these families. The findings not only contest popular assumptions about the psychological consequences for children of being raised in new family forms but also challenge the supremacy of the traditional family...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813272/religiosity-and-parenting-recent-directions-in-process-oriented-research
#6
REVIEW
Marcie C Goeke-Morey, E Mark Cummings
Most faith traditions, in principle, promote family life and positive parent-child relationships. In recent years, research has moved beyond questions of whether religion supports positive parenting towards addressing more nuanced process-oriented questions, including how, why, and when religion is linked with adaptive or maladaptive parenting. Relations between religion and multiple specific parenting behaviors (e.g., involvement, warmth, authoritative parenting, communication) are identified, including contexts for when and why relations between religion and parenting are adaptive or maladaptive...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813271/prenatal-parenting
#7
REVIEW
Vivette Glover, Lauren Capron
Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813269/parenting-and-addiction-neurobiological-insights
#8
REVIEW
Helena Jv Rutherford, Linda C Mayes
Addiction remains a significant public health concern that affects multiple generations within families, and in particular the early relationship between parents and their developing child. This article will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of parenting and addiction. Specifically, the discussion will focus on the reward-stress dysregulation model of addicted parenting, which proposes that the dysregulation of stress and reward neural circuits by addiction represents a neurobiological pathway through which to understand how caregiving may be compromised in addicted parents...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813268/parents-with-intellectual-disability
#9
REVIEW
Carlo Schuengel, Sabina Kef, Marja W Hodes, Marieke Meppelder
Questions around parents with intellectual disability have changed according to sociocultural shifts in the position and rights of people with intellectual disability. The early research focus on capacity for parenting has given way to a contextual model of parenting and child outcomes, increasingly tested in population-based samples. Epidemiological research shows that contextual variables such as low income, exposure to violence, and poor mental health partly account for negative outcomes. As theoretical models developed for other at risk populations prove increasingly helpful for understanding the challenges of parenting with intellectual disability, it becomes viable to adapt existing evidence-based parenting interventions and test these for this population...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813265/parenting-and-globalization-in-western-countries-explaining-differences-in-parent-child-interactions
#10
REVIEW
Mariëlle Jl Prevoo, Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda
We review research on intra-cultural differences in parenting, and the sources of those differences. Ethnic-minority parents differ from majority parents in parenting values, childrearing goals and resources-differences that affect parenting practices and children's development. Within-country comparisons indicate less sensitivity, more authoritarian discipline, less child-focused communications, and less engagement in learning activities in ethnic-minority compared to ethnic-majority parents, which help account for disparities in children...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813263/children-s-physiological-responses-to-childcare
#11
REVIEW
Harriet J Vermeer, Marleen G Groeneveld
This review focuses on children's physiological responses to out-of-home childcare. The finding that children's cortisol levels are higher at childcare than at home has been well-replicated. Here we summarize recent evidence examining possible correlates of elevated cortisol levels. Reviewed studies suggest that childcare quality matters, whereas group sizes and type of care do not. As for child characteristics, elevated cortisol at childcare is more pronounced in toddlers than in infants, and in inhibited and aggressive children...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813258/the-added-value-of-rodent-models-in-studying-parental-influence-on-offspring-development-opportunities-limitations-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Jelle Knop, Marian Joëls, Rixt van der Veen
Over the past decades, the influence of parental care on offspring development has been a topic of extensive research in both human and animal models. Rodent models offer several unique advantages over human studies, allowing for higher levels of environmental control, exploration of interventions, genetic control and examination of underlying neurobiological mechanisms in greater spatiotemporal detail. Although exploitation of these opportunities has led to increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying susceptibility to the early-life environment, translation of results to human parenting and child development appears to be challenging...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813256/parenting-and-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Tamsen Rochat, Elena Netsi, Stephanie Redinger, Alan Stein
With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813253/attachment-theory-progress-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
R M Pasco Fearon, Glenn I Roisman
Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813250/parenting-and-sleep-in-early-childhood
#15
REVIEW
Liat Tikotzky
The development of sleep is influenced by complex interactions between biologically driven forces and diverse socio-environmental factors. Among those factors, parents have a critical role. The present review focuses on new studies regarding the links between parenting and the development of sleep in early childhood in the context of a transactional model. Recent findings from longitudinal studies and large cohort studies highlight the contribution of various parenting factors, such as parental bedtime behaviors, parental cognitions, cry tolerance, maternal mood, stress, and the parents' couple relationship, to the development of child sleep...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813249/neuroendocrine-mechanisms-for-parental-sensitivity-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
James E Swain, Shao-Hsuan Shaun Ho
Early parent-infant relationships play important roles in infants' development. New parents adapt to the developing relationship with their infants to coordinate parenting behaviors in the milieu of infant needs, hormones, moods, and stress. This review highlights research from the past two years, using non-invasive brain-imaging techniques and naturalistic tasks in mothers and fathers in relation to psychological, and endocrine measures. Recent work also connects parental brain physiology with parental sensitive behavior, parent/child outcomes and parent psychotherapy...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813248/early-stress-parental-motivation-and-reproductive-decision-making-applications-of-life-history-theory-to-parental-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Bruce J Ellis
This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812835/impact-of-health-research-systems-on-under-5-mortality-rate-a-trend-analysis
#18
Bahareh Yazdizadeh, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Reza Majdzadeh, Sima Nikooee
BACKGROUND: Between 1990 and 2015, under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) declined by 53%, from an estimated rate of 91 deaths per 1000 live births to 43, globally. The aim of this study was to determine the share of health research systems in this decrease alongside other influential factors. METHODS: We used random effect regression models including the 'random intercept' and 'random intercept and random slope' models to analyze the panel data from 1990 to 2010. We selected the countries with U5MRs falling between the first and third quartiles in 1990...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812324/parents-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-mental-health-screening-using-home-visiting-programs-a-pilot-study
#19
Katie Johnson, Alicia Woodward, Sadie Swenson, Christine Weis, Margene Gunderson, Marilyn Deling, Valeria Cristiani, Brian Lynch
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with adult high-risk behaviors and diseases. There is value in screening parents for ACEs given the repercussions parental ACEs may have on parenting behaviors and child development. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of parental ACE screening in the home setting. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether or not maternal ACEs correlated with maternal mental health measures. METHODS: Two home visiting programs that support early childhood development and conduct parental mental health screening implemented ACE screening for parents of infants <1 year of age...
August 15, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#20
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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