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Antigenic drift

Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Asmaa Maatouq, Yassmin Moatasim, Zhipeng Cai, Pamela McKenzie, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms potentiates the possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Herein, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2 viruses, isolated between 2013 and 2015, were analyzed. To elucidate the potential of genetic reassortment, 10 H9N2 isolates were selected based on different avian hosts (chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails) and conducted for phylogenetic analyses of full genome sequences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
El-Sayed M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Kerstin Tauscher, Mario Ziller, Christian Grund, Mohamed K Hassan, Momtaz Shaheen, Timm C Harder, Jens P Teifke, Jürgen Stech, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry and continues to pose a pandemic threat. Studying the progressive genetic changes in A/H5N1 after long term circulation in poultry may help to better understand A/H5N1 biology in birds. A/H5N1 clade antigenic drift viruses have been isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry in Egypt. They exhibit a peculiar stepwise accumulation of glycosylation sites (GS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) with viruses carrying, beyond the conserved 5 GS, additional GS at amino acid residues 72, 154, 236 and 273 resulting in 6, 7, 8 or 9 GS in the HA...
October 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Romain Paillot, Nicola L Rash, Dion Garrett, Leah Prowse-Davis, Fernando Montesso, Ann Cullinane, Laurent Lemaitre, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Sonia Wittreck, Agnes Dancer
Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule...
November 25, 2016: Pathogens
Sudipta Bhat, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Manoj Kumar, Harshad V Murugkar, Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Govindarajulu Venkatesh, Chakradhar Tosh
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major health concern worldwide. In this study, we focused on antigenic analysis of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in India between 2006 and 2015 comprising 25 isolates from four phylogenetic clades 2.2 (1 isolate), (1 isolate), (17 isolates) and (6 isolates). Seven H5N1 isolates from all four clades were selected for production of chicken antiserum, and antigenic analysis was carried out by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay...
November 3, 2016: Archives of Virology
Mandev S Gill, Lam Si Tung Ho, Guy Baele, Philippe Lemey, Marc A Suchard
Understanding the processes that give rise to quantitative measurements associated with molecular sequence data remains an important issue in statistical phylogenetics. Examples of such measurements include geographic coordinates in the context of phylogeography and phenotypic traits in the context of comparative studies. A popular approach is to model the evolution of continuously varying traits as a Brownian diffusion process acting on a phylogenetic tree. However, standard Brownian diffusion is quite restrictive and may not accurately characterize certain trait evolutionary processes...
October 18, 2016: Systematic Biology
Vasiliy P Mishin, Tatiana Baranovich, Rebecca Garten, Anton Chesnokov, Anwar I Abd Elal, Michelle Adamczyk, Jennifer LaPlante, Kirsten St George, Alicia M Fry, John Barnes, Stephanie C Chester, Xiyan Xu, Jacqueline M Katz, David E Wentworth, Larisa V Gubareva
Rapid evolution of influenza A(H3N2) viruses necessitates close monitoring of their antigenic properties so emergence and spread of antigenic drift variants can be rapidly identified. Changes in hemagglutinin (HA) acquired by contemporary A(H3N2) viruses hinder antigenic characterization by traditional methods, thus complicating vaccine strain selection. Sequence-based approaches have been used to infer virus antigenicity; however, they are time-consuming and mid-throughput. To facilitate virological surveillance and epidemiological studies, we have developed and validated a pyrosequencing approach that enables identification of six HA clades of contemporary A(H3N2) viruses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Maria T Arévalo, Junwei Li, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Yanping Chen, Ashley Navarro, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Mingtao Zeng
Preventative influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of 3 tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax edema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
Giovanni Mazzocco, Michal Lazniewski, Piotr Migdał, Teresa Szczepińska, Jan P Radomski, Dariusz Plewczynski
The influenza virus type A (IVA) is an important pathogen which is able to cause annual epidemics and even pandemics. This fact is the consequence of the antigenic shifts and drifts capabilities of IVA, caused by the high mutation rate and the reassortment capabilities of the virus. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein constitutes the main IVA antigen and has a crucial role in the infection mechanism, being responsible for the recognition of host-specific sialic acid derivatives. Despite the relative abundance of HA sequence and serological studies, comparative structure-based analysis of HA are less investigated...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Nadia A Charania, Osman D Mansoor, Diana Murfitt, Nikki M Turner
Influenza is a common respiratory viral infection. Seasonal outbreaks of influenza cause substantial morbidity and mortality that burdens healthcare services every year. The influenza virus constantly evolves by antigenic drift and occasionally by antigenic shift, making this disease particularly challenging to manage and prevent. As influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks and also have the ability to cause pandemics leading to widespread social and economic losses, focused discussions on improving management and prevention efforts is warranted...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Michelle A Barron, Daniel N Frank, David Claypool, Diana Ir, Mariangeli F Ning, Donna Curtis, Adriana Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Influenza strain A/California/07/2009 H1N1 (H1N1-09) reemerged in 2013/2014 as the predominant cause of illness. We sought to determine if antigenic drift may have contributed to the decreased responses to influenza vaccine. METHODS: Fifty adults who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and 56 children who received live attenuated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (LAIV4) had hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralizing (MN) antibodies measured in plasma against H1N1-09 and H1N1 2013/2014 (H1N1-14) influenza...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Stella E van Trierum, Heidi L M De Gruyter, Peter R W A van Run, Ron A M Fouchier, Kenny Roose, Xavier Saelens, Asisa Volz, Gerd Sutter, Rory D de Vries, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
: Due to antigenic drift of influenza viruses, seasonal influenza vaccines need to be updated annually. These vaccines are based on predictions of strains likely to circulate in the next season. However, vaccine efficacy is greatly reduced in the case of a mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains. Furthermore, novel antigenically distinct influenza viruses are introduced into the human population from animal reservoirs occasionally and may cause pandemic outbreaks. To dampen the impact of seasonal and pandemic influenza, vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immunity are preferred...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Adrian J Reber, Jin Hyang Kim, Laura A Coleman, Sarah M Spencer, Jessie R Chung, Jufu Chen, Paul Gargiullo, Maria E Sundaram, Edward A Belongia, David K Shay, Jacqueline M Katz, Suryaprakash Sambhara
BACKGROUND:  Influenza viruses gradually accumulate point mutations, reducing effectiveness of prior immune protection. METHODS:  Children ages 9-14 received 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Vaccination history, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers, and cell-mediated immune responses were assessed, investigatng cross-reactivity with past and future strains. RESULTS:  2010-2011 TIV induced significant T cell responses and HI titers ≥160 with fold-rise ≥4 in the majority of children, maintaining titers ≥100 over 7 months...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Liling Liu, Xianying Zeng, Pucheng Chen, Guohua Deng, Yanbing Li, Jianzhong Shi, Chunyang Gu, Huihui Kong, Yasuo Suzuki, Yongping Jiang, Guobin Tian, Hualan Chen
: The H5N1 avian influenza viruses emerged in Southeast Asia in the late 20th century and have evolved into multiple phylogenetic clades based on their hemagglutinin (HA)-encoding genes. The clade 7.2 viruses were first detected in chickens in northern China in 2006, and vaccines specifically targeted to the clade were developed and have been used in poultry in China since 2006. During routine surveillance and disease diagnosis, we isolated seven H5 viruses between 2011 and 2014 that bear the clade 7...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Min Z Levine, Judith M Martin, F Liaini Gross, Stacie Jefferson, Kelly Stefano Cole, Crystal Ann Archibald, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael Susick, Krissy Moehling, Sarah Spencer, Jessie R Chung, Brendan Flannery, Richard K Zimmerman
Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains...
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Susanne L Linderman, Scott E Hensley
Human antibodies (Abs) elicited by influenza viruses often bind with a high affinity to past influenza virus strains, but paradoxically, do not bind to the viral strain actually eliciting the response. This phenomena is called 'original antigenic sin' (OAS) since this can occur at the expense of generating new de novo Abs. Here, we characterized the specificity and functionality of Abs elicited in mice that were sequentially exposed to two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza virus strains. Many Abs elicited under these conditions had an OAS phenotype, in that they bound strongly to the viral strain used for the first exposure and very weakly to the viral strain used for the second exposure...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Jin Hyang Kim, Margarita Mishina, Jessie R Chung, Kelly Stefano Cole, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Judith M Martin, Sarah Spencer, Brendan Flannery, Richard K Zimmerman, Suryaprakash Sambhara
BACKGROUND: Emergence of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses resulted in reduced vaccine effectiveness in all age groups during the 2014-2015 influenza season. In children, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) elicited neutralizing antibodies (Abs) against drifted strains at significantly lower levels than against the vaccine strain. Little is known about the cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity against drifted strains in children. METHODS: Children aged 3-17 years (n = 48) received IIV during the 2014-2015 influenza season...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Tadasuke Naito, Hirotoshi Tokunaga, Toshihiro Tanaka, Takashi Nakano, Kihei Terada, Masanobu Ohuchi, Mineki Saito
BACKGROUND: Seasonally prevalent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses have evolved by antigenic drift; this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. An epidemiological survey indicated that although the traditional seasonal H1N1 strain had disappeared, H3N2 became predominant again in the seasons (2010-11 and 2011-12) immediately following the H1N1 pandemic of 2009...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jingxuan Qiu, Tianyi Qiu, Yiyan Yang, Dingfeng Wu, Zhiwei Cao
The rapid and consistent mutation of influenza requires frequent evaluation of antigenicity variation among newly emerged strains, during which several in-silico methods have been reported to facilitate the assays. In this paper, we designed a structure-based antigenicity scoring model instead of those sequence-based previously published. Protein structural context was adopted to derive the antigenicity-dominant positions, as well as the physic-chemical change of local micro-environment in correlation with antigenicity change...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chunlong Ma, Fang Li, Rami Ghassan Musharrafieh, Jun Wang
As the number of drug-resistant influenza viruses continues to increase, antivirals with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Among the two classes of FDA-approved antiviral drugs, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, are currently the only choice for the prevention and treatment of influenza virus infection. Due to the antigenic drift and antigenic shift, it will only be a matter of time before influenza viruses become completely resistant to these NA inhibitors...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
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