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Antigenic drift

Maria T Arévalo, Junwei Li, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Yanping Chen, Ashley Navarro, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Mingtao Zeng
Preventative influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of 3 tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax edema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
Giovanni Mazzocco, Michal Lazniewski, Piotr Migdał, Teresa Szczepińska, Jan P Radomski, Dariusz Plewczynski
The influenza virus type A (IVA) is an important pathogen which is able to cause annual epidemics and even pandemics. This fact is the consequence of the antigenic shifts and drifts capabilities of IVA, caused by the high mutation rate and the reassortment capabilities of the virus. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein constitutes the main IVA antigen and has a crucial role in the infection mechanism, being responsible for the recognition of host-specific sialic acid derivatives. Despite the relative abundance of HA sequence and serological studies, comparative structure-based analysis of HA are less investigated...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Nadia A Charania, Osman D Mansoor, Diana Murfitt, Nikki M Turner
Influenza is a common respiratory viral infection. Seasonal outbreaks of influenza cause substantial morbidity and mortality that burdens healthcare services every year. The influenza virus constantly evolves by antigenic drift and occasionally by antigenic shift, making this disease particularly challenging to manage and prevent. As influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks and also have the ability to cause pandemics leading to widespread social and economic losses, focused discussions on improving management and prevention efforts is warranted...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Michelle A Barron, Daniel N Frank, David Claypool, Diana Ir, Mariangeli F Ning, Donna Curtis, Adriana Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Influenza strain A/California/07/2009 H1N1 (H1N1-09) reemerged in 2013/2014 as the predominant cause of illness. We sought to determine if antigenic drift may have contributed to the decreased responses to influenza vaccine. METHODS: Fifty adults who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and 56 children who received live attenuated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (LAIV4) had hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralizing (MN) antibodies measured in plasma against H1N1-09 and H1N1 2013/2014 (H1N1-14) influenza...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Stella E van Trierum, Heidi L M De Gruyter, Peter R W A van Run, Ron A M Fouchier, Kenny Roose, Xavier Saelens, Asisa Volz, Gerd Sutter, Rory D de Vries, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
: Due to antigenic drift of influenza viruses, seasonal influenza vaccines need to be updated annually. These vaccines are based on predictions of strains likely to circulate in the next season. However, vaccine efficacy is greatly reduced in case of a mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains. Furthermore, novel antigenically distinct influenza viruses are introduced into the human population from animal reservoirs occasionally and may cause pandemic outbreaks. To dampen the impact of seasonal and pandemic influenza, vaccines that induce broadly protective and long lasting immunity are preferred...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Virology
Adrian J Reber, Jin Hyang Kim, Laura A Coleman, Sarah M Spencer, Jessie R Chung, Jufu Chen, Paul Gargiullo, Maria E Sundaram, Edward A Belongia, David K Shay, Jacqueline M Katz, Suryaprakash Sambhara
BACKGROUND:  Influenza viruses gradually accumulate point mutations, reducing effectiveness of prior immune protection. METHODS:  Children ages 9-14 received 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Vaccination history, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers, and cell-mediated immune responses were assessed, investigatng cross-reactivity with past and future strains. RESULTS:  2010-2011 TIV induced significant T cell responses and HI titers ≥160 with fold-rise ≥4 in the majority of children, maintaining titers ≥100 over 7 months...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Liling Liu, Xianying Zeng, Pucheng Chen, Guohua Deng, Yanbing Li, Jianzhong Shi, Chunyang Gu, Huihui Kong, Yasuo Suzuki, Yongping Jiang, Guobin Tian, Hualan Chen
: The H5N1 avian influenza viruses emerged in Southeast Asia in the late 20th century and have evolved into multiple phylogenetic clades based on their hemagglutinin (HA)-encoding genes. The clade 7.2 viruses were first detected in chickens in northern China in 2006, and vaccines specifically targeted to the clade were developed and have been used in poultry in China since 2006. During routine surveillance and disease diagnosis, we isolated seven H5 viruses between 2011 and 2014 that bear the clade 7...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Min Z Levine, Judith M Martin, F Liaini Gross, Stacie Jefferson, Kelly Stefano Cole, Crystal Ann Archibald, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael Susick, Krissy Moehling, Sarah Spencer, Jessie R Chung, Brendan Flannery, Richard K Zimmerman
Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains...
October 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Susanne L Linderman, Scott E Hensley
Human antibodies (Abs) elicited by influenza viruses often bind with a high affinity to past influenza virus strains, but paradoxically, do not bind to the viral strain actually eliciting the response. This phenomena is called 'original antigenic sin' (OAS) since this can occur at the expense of generating new de novo Abs. Here, we characterized the specificity and functionality of Abs elicited in mice that were sequentially exposed to two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza virus strains. Many Abs elicited under these conditions had an OAS phenotype, in that they bound strongly to the viral strain used for the first exposure and very weakly to the viral strain used for the second exposure...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Jin Hyang Kim, Margarita Mishina, Jessie R Chung, Kelly Stefano Cole, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Judith M Martin, Sarah Spencer, Brendan Flannery, Richard K Zimmerman, Suryaprakash Sambhara
BACKGROUND: Emergence of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses resulted in reduced vaccine effectiveness in all age groups during the 2014-2015 influenza season. In children, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) elicited neutralizing antibodies (Abs) against drifted strains at significantly lower levels than against the vaccine strain. Little is known about the cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity against drifted strains in children. METHODS: Children aged 3-17 years (n = 48) received IIV during the 2014-2015 influenza season...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Tadasuke Naito, Hirotoshi Tokunaga, Toshihiro Tanaka, Takashi Nakano, Kihei Terada, Masanobu Ohuchi, Mineki Saito
BACKGROUND: Seasonally prevalent H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses have evolved by antigenic drift; this evolution has resulted in the acquisition of asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation sites (NGSs) in the globular head of hemagglutinin (HA), thereby affecting the antigenic and receptor-binding properties, as well as virulence. An epidemiological survey indicated that although the traditional seasonal H1N1 strain had disappeared, H3N2 became predominant again in the seasons (2010-11 and 2011-12) immediately following the H1N1 pandemic of 2009...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jingxuan Qiu, Tianyi Qiu, Yiyan Yang, Dingfeng Wu, Zhiwei Cao
The rapid and consistent mutation of influenza requires frequent evaluation of antigenicity variation among newly emerged strains, during which several in-silico methods have been reported to facilitate the assays. In this paper, we designed a structure-based antigenicity scoring model instead of those sequence-based previously published. Protein structural context was adopted to derive the antigenicity-dominant positions, as well as the physic-chemical change of local micro-environment in correlation with antigenicity change...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chunlong Ma, Fang Li, Rami Ghassan Musharrafieh, Jun Wang
As the number of drug-resistant influenza viruses continues to increase, antivirals with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Among the two classes of FDA-approved antiviral drugs, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, are currently the only choice for the prevention and treatment of influenza virus infection. Due to the antigenic drift and antigenic shift, it will only be a matter of time before influenza viruses become completely resistant to these NA inhibitors...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
Yandi Wei, Lu Qi, Huijie Gao, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Yipeng Sun, Jinhua Liu
To prevent H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in chickens, a long-term vaccination program using inactivated vaccines has been implemented in China. However, the protective efficacy of inactivated vaccines against antigenic drift variants is limited, and H9N2 influenza virus continues to circulate in vaccinated chicken flocks in China. Therefore, developing a cross-reactive vaccine to control the impact of H9N2 influenza in the poultry industry remains a high priority. In the present study, we developed a live cold-adapted H9N2 influenza vaccine candidate (SD/01/10-ca) by serial passages in embryonated eggs at successively lower temperatures...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rory D de Vries, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population, complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice...
July 25, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Nicole L Kallewaard, Davide Corti, Patrick J Collins, Ursula Neu, Josephine M McAuliffe, Ebony Benjamin, Leslie Wachter-Rosati, Frances J Palmer-Hill, Andy Q Yuan, Philip A Walker, Matthias K Vorlaender, Siro Bianchi, Barbara Guarino, Anna De Marco, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Gloria Agatic, Mathilde Foglierini, Debora Pinna, Blanca Fernandez-Rodriguez, Alexander Fruehwirth, Chiara Silacci, Roksana W Ogrodowicz, Stephen R Martin, Federica Sallusto, JoAnn A Suzich, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Qing Zhu, Steven J Gamblin, John J Skehel
Influenza virus remains a threat because of its ability to evade vaccine-induced immune responses due to antigenic drift. Here, we describe the isolation, evolution, and structure of a broad-spectrum human monoclonal antibody (mAb), MEDI8852, effectively reacting with all influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. MEDI8852 uses the heavy-chain VH6-1 gene and has higher potency and breadth when compared to other anti-stem antibodies. MEDI8852 is effective in mice and ferrets with a therapeutic window superior to that of oseltamivir...
July 28, 2016: Cell
Ahmed Samy, Mona I El-Enbaawy, Ahmed A El-Sanousi, Soad A Nasef, Hirokazu Hikono, Takehiko Saito
Following the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1, the Egyptian government implemented a massive poultry vaccination campaign as the cornerstone of its policies to control the virus. The efficacy of vaccination has been evaluated primarily by measuring titers of antibodies inhibiting the hemagglutinating activity of the viral hemagglutinin (HA). However, other aspects of the host response remain poorly understood. In the present study, in addition to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, cytokine profiles were examined and IFNγ concentrations were measured in vivo after immunization with a whole inactivated virus (WIV) prepared from a classical strain of clade 2...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
Daniel F Hoft, Kathleen Lottenbach, Johannes B Goll, Heather Hill, Patricia L Winokur, Shital M Patel, Rebecca C Brady, Wilbur H Chen, Kathryn Edwards, C Buddy Creech, Sharon E Frey, Tamara P Blevins, Rachelle Salomon, Robert B Belshe
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H5N1) virus and other avian influenza virus strains represent major pandemic threats. Like all influenza A virus strains, A(H5N1) viruses evolve rapidly. Innovative immunization strategies are needed to induce cross-protective immunity. METHODS: Subjects primed with clade 1 H5 antigen, with or without adjuvant, and H5-naive individuals were boosted with clade 2 H5 antigen. The impact of priming on T cells capable of both proliferation and cytokine production after antigen restimulation was assessed...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Armita Nourmohammad, Jakub Otwinowski, Joshua B Plotkin
The vertebrate adaptive immune system provides a flexible and diverse set of molecules to neutralize pathogens. Yet, viruses such as HIV can cause chronic infections by evolving as quickly as the adaptive immune system, forming an evolutionary arms race. Here we introduce a mathematical framework to study the coevolutionary dynamics between antibodies and antigens within a host. We focus on changes in the binding interactions between the antibody and antigen populations, which result from the underlying stochastic evolution of genotype frequencies driven by mutation, selection, and drift...
July 2016: PLoS Genetics
Joshua G Petrie, Suzanne E Ohmit, Emily T Martin, Ryan E Malosh, Caroline K Cheng, Adam S Lauring, Lois Lamerato, Katherine C Reyes, Heather Lipkovich, Brendan Flannery, Jill M Ferdinands, Arnold S Monto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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