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Antigenic drift

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305582/publisher-correction-natural-and-directed-antigenic-drift-of-the-h1-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-stalk-domain
#1
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
January 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284042/genome-wide-evolutionary-dynamics-of-influenza-b-viruses-on-a-global-scale
#2
Pinky Langat, Jayna Raghwani, Gytis Dudas, Thomas A Bowden, Stephanie Edwards, Astrid Gall, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Rodney Daniels, Colin Russell, Oliver G Pybus, John McCauley, Paul Kellam, Simon J Watson
The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study influenza B viruses...
December 28, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281104/antigenic-characterization-of-a-novel-recombinant-gii-p16-gii-4-sydney-norovirus-strain-with-minor-sequence-variation-leading-to-antibody-escape
#3
Lisa C Lindesmith, Paul D Brewer-Jensen, Michael L Mallory, Kari Debbink, Excel W Swann, Jan Vinjé, Ralph S Baric
Background: Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Strains of the GII.4 genotype cause pandemic waves associated with viral evolution and subsequent antigenic drift and ligand binding modulation. In November 2015, a novel GII.4 Sydney recombinant variant (GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney) emerged and replaced GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney as the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis in the 2016-2017 season in the United States. Methods: Virus-like particles of GII...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278832/an-epidemic-surge-of-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-at-the-end-of-the-2016-2017-season-in-taiwan-with-an-increased-viral-genetic-heterogeneity
#4
Ji-Rong Yang, Shu-Zhen Hsu, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Teng-Yung Huang, Hsiao-Chi Wang, Ming-Tsan Liu
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of the 2016-2017 influenza season in Taiwan started early with moderate activity and was predominated by the influenza A(H3N2) virus. However, the influenza activity increased dramatically during the late stage of the 2016-2017 season. OBJECTIVES: The genetic and antigenic characteristics of the influenza A(H3N2) virus circulating in Taiwan during the 2016-2017 season were investigated. The relationship between virus clades and the patients' 2016-2017 vaccination histories was determined...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242836/vaccination-with-a-recombinant-h7-hemagglutinin-based-influenza-virus-vaccine-induces-broadly-reactive-antibodies-in-humans
#5
Daniel Stadlbauer, Arvind Rajabhathor, Fatima Amanat, Daniel Kaplan, Abusaleh Masud, John J Treanor, Ruvim Izikson, Manon M Cox, Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
Human influenza virus infections with avian subtype H7N9 viruses are a major public health concern and have encouraged the development of effective H7 prepandemic vaccines. In this study, baseline and postvaccination serum samples of individuals aged 18 years and older who received a recombinant H7 hemagglutinin vaccine with and without an oil-in-water emulsion (SE) adjuvant were analyzed using a panel of serological assays. While only a small proportion of individuals seroconverted to H7N9 as measured by the conventional hemagglutination inhibition assay, our data show strong induction of anti-H7 hemagglutinin antibodies as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237998/neutralization-antibody-response-to-booster-priming-immunization-with-new-equine-influenza-vaccine-in-japan
#6
Takashi Yamanaka, Manabu Nemoto, Hiroshi Bannai, Koji Tsujimura, Tomio Matsumura, Hiroshi Kokado, Sarah Gildea, Ann Cullinane
Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Florida sub-lineage Clade (Fc) 2 virus, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10). We investigated the virus neutralization (VN) antibody response to Fc2 viruses currently circulating in Europe, after booster or primary immunization with the new vaccine...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216030/update-influenza-activity-united-states-october-1-november-25-2017
#7
Vivien G Dugan, Lenee Blanton, Anwar Isa Abd Elal, Noreen Alabi, John Barnes, Lynnette Brammer, Erin Burns, Charisse N Cummings, Todd Davis, Brendan Flannery, Alicia M Fry, Shikha Garg, Rebecca Garten, Larisa Gubareva, Yunho Jang, Krista Kniss, Natalie Kramer, Stephen Lindstrom, Desiree Mustaquim, Alissa O'Halloran, Sonja J Olsen, Wendy Sessions, Calli Taylor, Susan Trock, Xiyan Xu, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline Katz, Daniel Jernigan
Influenza activity in the United States was low during October 2017, but has been increasing since the beginning of November. Influenza A viruses have been most commonly identified, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. Several influenza activity indicators were higher than is typically seen for this time of year. The majority of influenza viruses characterized during this period were genetically or antigenically similar to the 2017-18 Northern Hemisphere cell-grown vaccine reference viruses. These data indicate that currently circulating viruses have not undergone significant antigenic drift; however, circulating A(H3N2) viruses are antigenically less similar to egg-grown A(H3N2) viruses used for producing the majority of influenza vaccines in the United States...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212934/influenza-a-virus-reassortment-is-limited-by-anatomical-compartmentalization-following-co-infection-via-distinct-routes
#8
Mathilde Richard, Sander Herfst, Hui Tao, Nathan T Jacobs, Anice C Lowen
Exchange of gene segments through reassortment is a major feature of influenza A virus evolution and frequently contributes to the emergence of novel epidemic, pandemic and zoonotic strains. It has long been evident that viral diversification through reassortment is constrained by genetic incompatibility between divergent parental viruses. In contrast, the role of virus-extrinsic factors in determining the likelihood of reassortment has remained unclear. To evaluate the impact of such factors in the absence of confounding effects of segment mismatch, we previously reported an approach in which reassortment between wild-type (wt) and genetically tagged variant (var) viruses of the same strain is measured...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182146/immunoproteasome-functions-explained-by-divergence-in-cleavage-specificity-and-regulation
#9
Michael B Winter, Florencia La Greca, Shirin Arastu-Kapur, Francesco Caiazza, Peter Cimermancic, Tonia J Buchholz, Janet L Anderl, Matthew Ravalin, Markus F Bohn, Andrej Sali, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Charles S Craik
The immunoproteasome (iP) has been proposed to perform specialized roles in MHC class I antigen presentation, cytokine modulation, and T cell differentiation and has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for autoimmune disorders and cancer. However, divergence in function between the iP and the constitutive proteasome (cP) has been unclear. A global peptide library-based screening strategy revealed that the proteasomes have overlapping but distinct substrate specificities. Differing iP specificity alters the quantity of production of certain MHC I epitopes but does not appear to be preferentially suited for antigen presentation...
November 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168447/a-brief-summary-of-the-epidemiology-and-genetic-relatedness-of-avian-influenza-h9n2-virus-in-birds-and-mammals-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#10
A Nagy, T C Mettenleiter, E M Abdelwhab
H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145498/antigenicity-of-the-2015-2016-seasonal-h1n1-human-influenza-virus-ha-and-na-proteins
#11
Amelia M Clark, Marta L DeDiego, Christopher S Anderson, Jiong Wang, Hongmei Yang, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Martin S Zand, Mark Y Sangster, David J Topham
Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses) accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40%) of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015-2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015-2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#12
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138867/effect-of-xanthohumol-on-th1-th2-balance-in-a-breast-cancer-mouse-model
#13
Wenchao Zhang, Yanlong Pan, Panhong Gou, Cheng Zhou, Lianqing Ma, Qiming Liu, Yuping Du, Jinbo Yang, Qin Wang
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, exhibits a variety of biological activities. Numerous studies have reported that XN inhibits the growth of many types of cancer cells, but the effects of XN on tumor immunity have not yet been studied. We explored the effect of XN on Th1/Th2 balance and the underlying mechanism based on a BALB/c-4T1 breast cancer mouse model. The results showed that XN significantly slowed down tumor growth and inhibited expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 as well as breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3)...
November 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128083/evolution-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-epidemiology-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#14
REVIEW
Judith Didi-Kouko Coulibaly, Mireille Yeboua, Alphonsine Kouassi Mbengue, Emile Allah Kouadio, Henriette Anzouan-Kacou Kissi, Allah Yves-Omer Binan, Marie-Jeanne Lohoues Kouacou, Alain Attia, Dominique Yao N'Drin, Toussaint Toutou, Innocent Adoubi, Pascal Pineau
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major concern for Public health in West Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, the bulk of our knowledge stems from studies conducted decades ago. Our aim was, thus, to assess whether the epidemiological features of this tumor changed recently. METHODS: Records from 863 patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. RESULTS: We observed major drifts concerning hepatocellular carcinoma with regards to the 1970-1980 period...
November 8, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102112/refinement-of-the-equine-influenza-model-in-the-natural-host-a-meta-analysis-to-determine-the-benefits-of-individual-nebulisation-for-experimental-infection-and-vaccine-evaluation-in-the-face-of-decreased-strain-pathogenicity
#15
Dion Garrett, Fernando Montesso, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ilhan Birand, Manuelle De Bock, Chengjin M Huang, Loïc Legrand, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot
Equine Influenza (EI) is an important respiratory disease of horses caused by H3N8 equine influenza viruses (EIV). Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent or control this disease. However, EIV undergoes continuous antigenic drift and whilst numerous EI vaccines are commercially available worldwide, an accurate evaluation of their efficacy is frequently required through clinical trials conducted in the natural host. Room nebulisation is one of the chosen methods to challenge horses during EI vaccine studies...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100705/broad-cross-protective-anti-hemagglutination-responses-elicited-by-influenza-microconsensus-dna-vaccine
#16
Jian Yan, Matthew P Morrow, Jaemi S Chu, Trina Racine, Charles C Reed, Amir S Khan, Kate E Broderick, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
Despite the routine development and distribution of seasonal influenza vaccines, influenza remains an important pathogen contributing to significant human morbidity as well as mortality each year. The seasonal variability of influenza creates a significant issue for vaccine development of seasonal strains that can afford protection from infection or disease based on serotype matching. It is appreciated that the globular head of the HA antigen contained in the vaccines generates antibodies that result in HAI activity that are a major correlates of the protection against a particular strain...
October 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097696/natural-and-directed-antigenic-drift-of-the-h1-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-stalk-domain
#17
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
The induction of antibodies specific for the influenza HA protein stalk domain is being pursued as a universal strategy against influenza virus infections. However, little work has been done looking at natural or induced antigenic variability in this domain and the effects on viral fitness. We analyzed human H1 HA head and stalk domain sequences and found substantial variability in both, although variability was highest in the head region. Furthermore, using human immune sera from pandemic A/California/04/2009 immune subjects and mAbs specific for the stalk domain, viruses were selected in vitro containing mutations in both domains that partially contributed to immune evasion...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048990/site-specific-glycosylation-profile-of-influenza-a-h1n1-hemagglutinin-through-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Esteban Cruz, Joel Cain, Ben Crossett, Veysel Kayser
The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038656/unveiling-a-drift-resistant-cryptotope-within-marburgvirus-nucleoprotein-recognized-by-llama-single-domain-antibodies
#19
John Anthony Garza, Alexander Bryan Taylor, Laura Jo Sherwood, Peter John Hart, Andrew Hayhurst
Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever virus that is increasingly re-emerging in Africa, has been imported to both Europe and the US, and is also a Tier 1 bioterror threat. As a negative sense RNA virus, MARV has error prone replication which can yield progeny capable of evading countermeasures. To evaluate this vulnerability, we sought to determine the epitopes of 4 llama single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHH) specific for nucleoprotein (NP), each capable of forming MARV monoclonal affinity reagent sandwich assays...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020179/the-household-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-study-lack-of-antibody-response-and-protection-following-receipt-of-2014-2015-influenza-vaccine
#20
Joshua G Petrie, Ryan E Malosh, Caroline K Cheng, Suzanne E Ohmit, Emily T Martin, Emileigh Johnson, Rachel Truscon, Maryna C Eichelberger, Larisa V Gubareva, Alicia M Fry, Arnold S Monto
Background: Antigenically drifted A(H3N2) viruses circulated extensively during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was low and not significant among outpatients but in a hospitalized population was 43%. At least one study paradoxically observed increased A(H3N2) infection among those vaccinated 3 consecutive years. Methods: We followed a cohort of 1341 individuals from 340 households. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was estimated...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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