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Antigenic drift

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292661/genetic-evolution-of-equine-influenza-virus-strains-h3n8-isolated-in-france-from-1967-to-2015-and-the-implications-of-several-potential-pathogenic-factors
#1
Stéphanie Fougerolle, Loïc Legrand, Fanny Lecouturier, Corinne Sailleau, Romain Paillot, Aymeric Hans, Stéphane Pronost
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major respiratory pathogen of horses despite the availability of equine influenza vaccines. This study aimed to determine genetic evolution of EIV strains in France between 1967 to present. A whole genome comparative analysis was also conducted on recent French strains in order to identify potential factors of pathogenicity. Comparison of French EIV sequences with vaccine and worldwide epidemic strains revealed amino acid substitutions in both haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, especially within the antigenic sites and/or close to receptor binding sites (HA)...
March 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284614/characterization-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-mink-influenza-viruses-in-eastern-china
#2
Wenming Jiang, Suchun Wang, Chuanmei Zhang, Jinping Li, Guangyu Hou, Cheng Peng, Jiming Chen, Hu Shan
Members of the H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a great threat to both poultry and humans with severe consequences for both industry and public health sectors. Here, we isolated and characterized two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in deceased mink from eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G15 and XB15 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1e, respectively. Both of these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. They were also shown to exhibit moderate to high pathogenicity in mice without pre-adaptation...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274236/isolation-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-2-2-1-2a-h5n1-virus-from-a-vaccinated-meat-turkeys-flock-in-egypt
#3
Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S Abd El-Hamid, Timm C Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Hafez M Hafez, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
BACKGROUND: Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades. Clade 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic drift variants in vaccinated commercial poultry while clade 2.2.1.2 variants are detected in humans and backyard poultry. Little is known about H5N1 infection in vaccinated turkeys under field conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe an HPAI H5N1 outbreak in a vaccinated meat-turkey flock in Egypt...
March 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216325/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutic-antibodies
#4
REVIEW
Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
BACKGROUND: Current influenza virus vaccines are effective when well matched to the circulating strains. Unfortunately, antigenic drift and the high diversity of potential emerging zoonotic and pandemic viruses make it difficult to select the right strains for vaccine production. This problem causes vaccine mismatches which lead to sharp drops in vaccine effectiveness and long response times in case of novel pandemic viruses. AIMS: To provide an overview of universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies in pre-clinical and clinical development...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208721/evolution-and-divergence-of-h3n8-equine-influenza-viruses-circulating-in-the-united-kingdom-from-2013-to-2015
#5
Adam Rash, Rachel Morton, Alana Woodward, Olivia Maes, John McCauley, Neil Bryant, Debra Elton
Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field...
February 8, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192913/identification-of-lewis-and-blood-group-carbohydrate-epitopes-by-ion-mobility-tandem-mass-spectrometry-fingerprinting
#6
Johanna Hofmann, Alexandra Stuckmann, Max Crispin, David J Harvey, Kevin Pagel, Weston B Struwe
Glycans have several elements that contribute to their structural complexity, involving a range of monosaccharide building blocks, configuration of linkages between residues and various degrees of branching on a given structure. Their analysis remains challenging and resolving minor isomeric variants can be difficult, in particular terminal fucosylated Lewis and blood group antigens present on N- and O-glycans. Accurately characterizing these isomeric structures by current techniques is not straightforward and typically requires a combination of methods and/or sample derivatization...
February 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188832/experimental-guillain-barre-syndrome-induced-by-immunization-with-gangliosides-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-is-required-for-disease-triggering
#7
Samanta C Funes, María Eugenia Chiari, Romina Comín, Fernando J Irazoqui, Gustavo A Nores
An experimental model of Guillain-Barré Syndrome has been established in recent years. Rabbits develop disease upon immunization with a single dose of an emulsion containing bovine brain gangliosides, KLH and complete Freund's adjuvant. Within a period of four to ten weeks after immunization, they began to produce anti-ganglioside IgG-antibodies first, and to show clinical signs of neuropathy afterwards. In addition to gangliosides, KLH is a requirement for antibody production and disease triggering. Although KLH is commonly used as an immunological carrier protein, an anti-KLH-specific immune response was necessary for induction of both events...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182419/expeditious-lead-optimization-of-isoxazole-containing-influenza-a-virus-m2-s31n-inhibitors-using-the-suzuki-miyaura-cross-coupling-reaction
#8
Fang Li, Yanmei Hu, Yuanxiang Wang, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang
The existence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses, coupled with the continuously antigenic shift and antigenic drift of influenza viruses, necessitates the development of the next-generation of influenza antivirals. As the AM2-S31N mutant persists in more than 95% of current circulating influenza A viruses, targeting the AM2-S31N proton channel appears to be a logical and valid approach to combating drug resistance. Starting from compound 1, an isoxazole compound with potent AM2-S31N channel blockage and antiviral activity, in this study we report an expeditious synthetic strategy that allows us to promptly explore the structure-activity relationships of isoxazole-containing AM2-S31N inhibitors...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141862/vaccination-has-minimal-impact-on-the-intrahost-diversity-of-h3n2-influenza-viruses
#9
Kari Debbink, John T McCrone, Joshua G Petrie, Rachel Truscon, Emileigh Johnson, Emily K Mantlo, Arnold S Monto, Adam S Lauring
While influenza virus diversity and antigenic drift have been well characterized on a global scale, the factors that influence the virus' rapid evolution within and between human hosts are less clear. Given the modest effectiveness of seasonal vaccination, vaccine-induced antibody responses could serve as a potent selective pressure for novel influenza variants at the individual or community level. We used next generation sequencing of patient-derived viruses from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vaccine efficacy to characterize the diversity of influenza A virus and to define the impact of vaccine-induced immunity on within-host populations...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117657/rules-of-co-occurring-mutations-characterize-the-antigenic-evolution-of-human-influenza-a-h3n2-a-h1n1-and-b-viruses
#10
Haifen Chen, Xinrui Zhou, Jie Zheng, Chee-Keong Kwoh
BACKGROUND: The human influenza viruses undergo rapid evolution (especially in hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus), which enables the virus population to constantly evade the human immune system. Therefore, the vaccine has to be updated every year to stay effective. There is a need to characterize the evolution of influenza viruses for better selection of vaccine candidates and the prediction of pandemic strains. Studies have shown that the influenza hemagglutinin evolution is driven by the simultaneous mutations at antigenic sites...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098157/antibody-responses-to-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-health-care-personnel-previously-vaccinated-and-vaccinated-for-the-first-time
#11
Kuan-Ying A Huang, Shih-Cheng Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin
Inactivated influenza vaccination induces a hemagglutinin-specific antibody response to the strain used for immunization. Annual vaccination is strongly recommended for health care personnel. However, it is debatable if repeated vaccination would affect the antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine through the time. We enrolled health care personnel who had repeated and first trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in 2005-2008. Serological antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093338/a-virus-like-particle-vaccination-strategy-expands-its-tolerance-to-h3n2-antigenic-drift-by-enhancing-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-stalk
#12
Ji-Rong Yang, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Chao-Hua Lin, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Fu-Ting Wu, Yu-Chih Yang, Chia-Ying Wu, Ming-Tsan Liu, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Seasonal influenza viruses impact public health annually due to their continual evolution. However, the current inactivated seasonal vaccines provide poor protection against antigenically drifted viruses and require periodical reformulation through hit-and-miss predictions about which strains will circulate during the next season. To reduce the impact caused by vaccine mismatch, we investigated the drift-tolerance of virus-like particles (VLP) as an improved vaccine candidate. The cross-protective humoral immunity elicited by the H3N2-VLP vaccine constructed for the 2011-2012 season was examined against viruses isolated from 2010 to 2015 in Taiwan evolving chronologically through clades 1, 4, 5, 3B and 3C, as well as viruses that were circulating globally in 2005, 2007 and 2009...
April 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067290/chimeric-virus-like-particles-containing-influenza-ha-antigen-and-gpi-ccl28-induce-long-lasting-mucosal-immunity-against-h3n2-viruses
#13
Teena Mohan, Zachary Berman, Yuan Luo, Chao Wang, Shelly Wang, Richard W Compans, Bao-Zhong Wang
Influenza virus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with worldwide seasonal epidemics. The duration and quality of humoral immunity and generation of immunological memory to vaccines is critical for protective immunity. In the current study, we examined the long-lasting protective efficacy of chimeric VLPs (cVLPs) containing influenza HA and GPI-anchored CCL28 as antigen and mucosal adjuvant, respectively, when immunized intranasally in mice. We report that the cVLPs induced significantly higher and sustainable levels of virus-specific antibody responses, especially IgA levels and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, more than 8-month post-vaccination compared to influenza VLPs without CCL28 or influenza VLPs physically mixed with sCCL28 (soluble) in mice...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062014/novel-variants-of-clade-2-3-2-1-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-migratory-waterfowl-of-hongze-lake
#14
Wenming Jiang, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Cheng Peng, Suchun Wang, Jiming Chen
Wild birds are known to play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of the avian influenza viruses (AIVs). More specifically, the waterfowl are thought to be the natural reservoirs of AIVs. Here, we conducted a survey in 2015 at the Hongze Lake and characterized 11 H5N1 highly pathogenic AIVs isolated from wild waterfowls which were found to belong to clade 2.3.2.1. In contrast, the 11 variants of H5N1 viruses did not align with the three previously defined monophyletic subclades. Antigenicity analysis revealed that antigenic drift occurred in these H5N1 variants...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024225/evolutionary-dynamic-of-antigenic-residues-on-influenza-b-hemagglutinin
#15
Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Khwansiri Ninpan, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Kanyarat Ruangrung, Prasert Auewarakul
Hemagglutinin (HA) of seasonal influenza virus evolves under positive selection pressure exerted by host immunity. It was previously shown that antigenic drift in different influenza B sublineages during different time periods distributed unevenly among different epitopes, and that more recent viruses up to 2007 might have their antigenic drift more focused on certain epitope. We further analyzed whether more recent influenza B viruses up to 2016 followed that same pattern of antigenic evolution. By using Shannon entropy and relative entropy to characterize HA antigenic epitopes, the most recent viruses of both Victoria and Yamagata lineages had residues with high relative entropy located most frequently on the 120-loop region...
February 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003481/shifting-clade-distribution-reassortment-and-emergence-of-new-subtypes-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5-viruses-collected-from-vietnamese-poultry-from-2012-to-2015
#16
Diep T Nguyen, Yunho Jang, Tho D Nguyen, Joyce Jones, Samuel S Shepard, Hua Yang, Nancy Gerloff, Thomas Fabrizio, Long V Nguyen, Ken Inui, Genyan Yang, Adrian Creanga, Li Wang, Duong T Mai, Sharmi Thor, James Stevens, Thanh L To, David E Wentworth, Tung Nguyen, Dong V Pham, Juliet E Bryant, C Todd Davis
Whole-genome sequences of representative highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) viruses from Vietnam were generated, comprising samples from poultry outbreaks and active market surveillance collected from January 2012 to August 2015. Six hemagglutinin gene clades were characterized. Clade 1.1.2 was predominant in southern Mekong provinces throughout 2012 and 2013 but gradually disappeared and was not detected after April 2014. Clade 2.3.2.1c viruses spread rapidly during 2012 and were detected in the south and center of the country...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918208/investigational-hemagglutinin-targeted-influenza-virus-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Li-Yan Zeng, Jie Yang, Shuwen Liu
Seasonal influenza and pandemic outbreaks typically result in high mortality and morbidity associated with severe economic burdens. Vaccines and anti-influenza drugs have made great contributions to control the infection. However, antigenic drifts and shifts allow influenza viruses to easily escape immune neutralization and antiviral drug activity. Hemagglutinin (HA)is an important envelope protein for the entry of influenza viruses into host cells, thus, HA-targeted agents may be potential anti-influenza drugs...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914742/influenza-virus-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytoxicity-induced-by-vaccination-or-natural-infection
#18
Rory D de Vries, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Mark Pronk, Erwin de Bruin, Geert Leroux-Roels, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, Rob S van Binnendijk, Florian Krammer, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Influenza viruses are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infection, however due to antigenic drift of the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA), annual influenza virus vaccination is required. In addition to seasonal viruses, certain (avian) influenza A viruses of other subtypes, like H5N1 or H7N9, cause sporadic zoonotic infections. Therefore, the availability of game-changing novel vaccines that induce "universal" immune responses to a wide variety of influenza A virus subtypes is highly desirable...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902350/novel-reassortant-h9n2-viruses-in-pigeons-and-evidence-for-antigenic-diversity-of-h9n2-viruses-isolated-from-quails-in-egypt
#19
Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Asmaa Maatouq, Yassmin Moatasim, Zhipeng Cai, Pamela McKenzie, Richard Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed Ahmed Ali
The endemicity of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) among Egyptian poultry represents a public health risk. Co-circulation of low pathogenic AIV H9N2 subtype with highly pathogenic AIV H5N1 subtype in Egyptian farms potentiates the possibility to generate novel reassortant viruses. Herein, the genetic characteristics of surface glycoproteins of 59 Egyptian H9N2 viruses, isolated between 2013 and 2015, were analyzed. To elucidate the potential of genetic reassortment, 10 H9N2 isolates were selected based on different avian hosts (chickens, ducks, pigeons and quails) and conducted for phylogenetic analyses of full genome sequences...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902339/progressive-glycosylation-of-the-haemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-modulates-virus-replication-virulence-and-chicken-to-chicken-transmission-without-significant-impact-on-antigenic-drift
#20
El-Sayed M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Kerstin Tauscher, Mario Ziller, Christian Grund, Mohamed K Hassan, Momtaz Shaheen, Timm C Harder, Jens Teifke, Jürgen Stech, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry and continues to pose a pandemic threat. Studying the progressive genetic changes in A/H5N1 after long-term circulation in poultry may help us to better understand A/H5N1 biology in birds. A/H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 antigenic drift viruses have been isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry in Egypt. They exhibit a peculiar stepwise accumulation of glycosylation sites (GS) in the haemagglutinin (HA) with viruses carrying, beyond the conserved 5 GS, additional GS at amino acid residues 72, 154, 236 and 273 resulting in 6, 7, 8 or 9 GS in the HA...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
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