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Antigenic drift

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408121/effectiveness-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-children-during-the-2014-2015-season
#1
Huong Q McLean, Herve Caspard, Marie R Griffin, Katherine A Poehling, Manjusha Gaglani, Edward A Belongia, H Keipp Talbot, Timothy R Peters, Kempapura Murthy, Christopher S Ambrose
BACKGROUND: A clinical study found that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was superior to inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) against drifted A(H3N2) viruses in children. During the 2014-2015 influenza season, widespread circulation of antigenically and genetically drifted A(H3N2) viruses provided an opportunity to evaluate subtype-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of quadrivalent LAIV (LAIV4) and IIV in children. METHODS: Children (2-17years) with febrile acute respiratory illness <5days' duration were enrolled at 4 outpatient sites in the United States during the 2014-2015 influenza season...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401407/molecular-analysis-of-amantadine-resistant-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-isolated-from-slum-dwellers-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#2
Mozibur Rahman, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Mohammad Ariful Islam, Sabita Rezwana Rahman
Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection associated with excessive hospitalizations and deaths throughout the world. Continuous antigenic shift and drift is not only responsible for this devastating effect of influenza but also causes ineffectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of ribavirin, oseltamivir, and amantadine drugs in vitro against nine influenza A isolates collected during June 2012-August 2013 from different slums in Dhaka city. The effectiveness of these drugs was determined by measuring the inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect on MDCK cells through MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)...
April 11, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370432/antigenic-diversity-of-h5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-of-clade-2-3-4-4-isolated-in-asia
#3
Ayako Ohkawara, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Makoto Ozawa, Duc-Huy Chu, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds since the late 2003. The continued circulation of HPAIVs in poultry in several regions of the world has led to antigenic drift. In this study, we analyzed the antigenic properties of H5 HPAIVs isolated in Asia using four neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing the hemagglutinin, which were established using A/chicken/Kumamoto/1-7/2014 (H5N8), belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 and also using polyclonal antibodies...
March 30, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356529/antigenic-drift-defines-a-new-d4-subgenotype-of-measles-virus
#4
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P Muller, Stephen J Russell
Measles virus hemagglutinin (MeV-H) protein is the main target of protective neutralizing antibodies. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize known major antigenic sites in MeV-H, we identified a D4 genotype variant that escapes neutralization by mAbs targeting the neutralizing epitope (NE) antigenic site. By site-directed mutagenesis, L249P was identified as the critical mutation disrupting the NE in this D4 variant. Forty-two available D4 genotype gene sequences were subsequently analyzed and divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of the L249P MeV-H mutation...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356526/chimeric-hemagglutinin-constructs-induce-broad-protection-against-influenza-b-virus-challenge-in-the-mouse-model
#5
Megan Ermler, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Weina Sun, Rong Hai, Fatima Amanat, Veronika Chromikova, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer
Seasonal influenza virus epidemics represent a significant public health burden. Approximately 25% of all influenza virus infections are caused by type B viruses and these infections can be severe, especially in children. Current influenza virus vaccines are an effective prophylaxis against infection but are impacted by rapid antigenic drift which can lead to mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains. Here, we describe a broadly protective vaccine candidate based on chimeric hemagglutinins consisting of globular head domains from exotic influenza A viruses and stalk domains from influenza B viruses...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332643/virus-mutations-and-their-impact-on-vaccination-against-infectious-bursal-disease-gumboro-disease
#6
A Boudaoud, B Mamache, W Tombari, A Ghram
Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331993/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-human-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-iran-during-the-2014-2015-season
#7
Elham Moasser, Farida Behzadian, Afagh Moattari, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Amir Rahimi, Hassan Zaraket, Seyed Younes Hosseini
Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322695/characterization-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-a-h5n6-japan-november-2016
#8
Masatoshi Okamatsu, Makoto Ozawa, Kosuke Soda, Hiroki Takakuwa, Atsushi Haga, Takahiro Hiono, Aya Matsuu, Yuko Uchida, Ritsuko Iwata, Keita Matsuno, Masakazu Kuwahara, Toshiyo Yabuta, Tatsufumi Usui, Hiroshi Ito, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Takehiko Saito, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Hiroshi Kida
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) A(H5N6) were concurrently introduced into several distant regions of Japan in November 2016. These viruses were classified into the genetic clade 2.3.4.4c and were genetically closely related to H5N6 HPAIVs recently isolated in South Korea and China. In addition, these HPAIVs showed further antigenic drift.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292661/genetic-evolution-of-equine-influenza-virus-strains-h3n8-isolated-in-france-from-1967-to-2015-and-the-implications-of-several-potential-pathogenic-factors
#9
Stéphanie Fougerolle, Loïc Legrand, Fanny Lecouturier, Corinne Sailleau, Romain Paillot, Aymeric Hans, Stéphane Pronost
Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major respiratory pathogen of horses despite the availability of equine influenza vaccines. This study aimed to determine genetic evolution of EIV strains in France between 1967 to present. A whole genome comparative analysis was also conducted on recent French strains in order to identify potential factors of pathogenicity. Comparison of French EIV sequences with vaccine and worldwide epidemic strains revealed amino acid substitutions in both haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, especially within the antigenic sites and/or close to receptor binding sites (HA)...
March 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284614/characterization-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-mink-influenza-viruses-in-eastern-china
#10
Wenming Jiang, Suchun Wang, Chuanmei Zhang, Jinping Li, Guangyu Hou, Cheng Peng, Jiming Chen, Hu Shan
Members of the H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a great threat to both poultry and humans with severe consequences for both industry and public health sectors. Here, we isolated and characterized two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in deceased mink from eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G15 and XB15 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1e, respectively. Both of these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. They were also shown to exhibit moderate to high pathogenicity in mice without pre-adaptation...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274236/isolation-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-2-2-1-2a-h5n1-virus-from-a-vaccinated-meat-turkeys-flock-in-egypt
#11
Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S Abd El-Hamid, Timm C Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Hafez M Hafez, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
BACKGROUND: Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades. Clade 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic drift variants in vaccinated commercial poultry while clade 2.2.1.2 variants are detected in humans and backyard poultry. Little is known about H5N1 infection in vaccinated turkeys under field conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe an HPAI H5N1 outbreak in a vaccinated meat-turkey flock in Egypt...
March 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216325/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutic-antibodies
#12
REVIEW
R Nachbagauer, F Krammer
BACKGROUND: Current influenza virus vaccines are effective when well matched to the circulating strains. Unfortunately, antigenic drift and the high diversity of potential emerging zoonotic and pandemic viruses make it difficult to select the right strains for vaccine production. This problem causes vaccine mismatches, which lead to sharp drops in vaccine effectiveness and long response times to manufacture matched vaccines in case of novel pandemic viruses. AIMS: To provide an overview of universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies in preclinical and clinical development...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208721/evolution-and-divergence-of-h3n8-equine-influenza-viruses-circulating-in-the-united-kingdom-from-2013-to-2015
#13
Adam Rash, Rachel Morton, Alana Woodward, Olivia Maes, John McCauley, Neil Bryant, Debra Elton
Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are a major cause of acute respiratory disease in horses worldwide and occasionally also affect vaccinated animals. Like other influenza A viruses, they undergo antigenic drift, highlighting the importance of both surveillance and virus characterisation in order for vaccine strains to be kept up to date. The aim of the work reported here was to monitor the genetic and antigenic changes occurring in EIV circulating in the UK from 2013 to 2015 and to identify any evidence of vaccine breakdown in the field...
February 8, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192913/identification-of-lewis-and-blood-group-carbohydrate-epitopes-by-ion-mobility-tandem-mass-spectrometry-fingerprinting
#14
Johanna Hofmann, Alexandra Stuckmann, Max Crispin, David J Harvey, Kevin Pagel, Weston B Struwe
Glycans have several elements that contribute to their structural complexity, involving a range of monosaccharide building blocks, configuration of linkages between residues and various degrees of branching on a given structure. Their analysis remains challenging and resolving minor isomeric variants can be difficult, in particular terminal fucosylated Lewis and blood group antigens present on N- and O-glycans. Accurately characterizing these isomeric structures by current techniques is not straightforward and typically requires a combination of methods and/or sample derivatization...
February 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188832/experimental-guillain-barre-syndrome-induced-by-immunization-with-gangliosides-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-is-required-for-disease-triggering
#15
Samanta C Funes, María Eugenia Chiari, Romina Comín, Fernando J Irazoqui, Gustavo A Nores
An experimental model of Guillain-Barré Syndrome has been established in recent years. Rabbits develop disease upon immunization with a single dose of an emulsion containing bovine brain gangliosides, KLH and complete Freund's adjuvant. Within a period of four to ten weeks after immunization, they began to produce anti-ganglioside IgG-antibodies first, and to show clinical signs of neuropathy afterwards. In addition to gangliosides, KLH is a requirement for antibody production and disease triggering. Although KLH is commonly used as an immunological carrier protein, an anti-KLH-specific immune response was necessary for induction of both events...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182419/expeditious-lead-optimization-of-isoxazole-containing-influenza-a-virus-m2-s31n-inhibitors-using-the-suzuki-miyaura-cross-coupling-reaction
#16
Fang Li, Yanmei Hu, Yuanxiang Wang, Chunlong Ma, Jun Wang
The existence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses, coupled with the continuously antigenic shift and antigenic drift of influenza viruses, necessitates the development of the next-generation of influenza antivirals. As the AM2-S31N mutant persists in more than 95% of current circulating influenza A viruses, targeting the AM2-S31N proton channel appears to be a logical and valid approach to combating drug resistance. Starting from compound 1, an isoxazole compound with potent AM2-S31N channel blockage and antiviral activity, in this study we report an expeditious synthetic strategy that allows us to promptly explore the structure-activity relationships of isoxazole-containing AM2-S31N inhibitors...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141862/vaccination-has-minimal-impact-on-the-intrahost-diversity-of-h3n2-influenza-viruses
#17
Kari Debbink, John T McCrone, Joshua G Petrie, Rachel Truscon, Emileigh Johnson, Emily K Mantlo, Arnold S Monto, Adam S Lauring
While influenza virus diversity and antigenic drift have been well characterized on a global scale, the factors that influence the virus' rapid evolution within and between human hosts are less clear. Given the modest effectiveness of seasonal vaccination, vaccine-induced antibody responses could serve as a potent selective pressure for novel influenza variants at the individual or community level. We used next generation sequencing of patient-derived viruses from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vaccine efficacy to characterize the diversity of influenza A virus and to define the impact of vaccine-induced immunity on within-host populations...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117657/rules-of-co-occurring-mutations-characterize-the-antigenic-evolution-of-human-influenza-a-h3n2-a-h1n1-and-b-viruses
#18
Haifen Chen, Xinrui Zhou, Jie Zheng, Chee-Keong Kwoh
BACKGROUND: The human influenza viruses undergo rapid evolution (especially in hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus), which enables the virus population to constantly evade the human immune system. Therefore, the vaccine has to be updated every year to stay effective. There is a need to characterize the evolution of influenza viruses for better selection of vaccine candidates and the prediction of pandemic strains. Studies have shown that the influenza hemagglutinin evolution is driven by the simultaneous mutations at antigenic sites...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098157/antibody-responses-to-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-health-care-personnel-previously-vaccinated-and-vaccinated-for-the-first-time
#19
Kuan-Ying A Huang, Shih-Cheng Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin
Inactivated influenza vaccination induces a hemagglutinin-specific antibody response to the strain used for immunization. Annual vaccination is strongly recommended for health care personnel. However, it is debatable if repeated vaccination would affect the antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine through the time. We enrolled health care personnel who had repeated and first trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in 2005-2008. Serological antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093338/a-virus-like-particle-vaccination-strategy-expands-its-tolerance-to-h3n2-antigenic-drift-by-enhancing-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-stalk
#20
Ji-Rong Yang, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Chao-Hua Lin, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Fu-Ting Wu, Yu-Chih Yang, Chia-Ying Wu, Ming-Tsan Liu, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Seasonal influenza viruses impact public health annually due to their continual evolution. However, the current inactivated seasonal vaccines provide poor protection against antigenically drifted viruses and require periodical reformulation through hit-and-miss predictions about which strains will circulate during the next season. To reduce the impact caused by vaccine mismatch, we investigated the drift-tolerance of virus-like particles (VLP) as an improved vaccine candidate. The cross-protective humoral immunity elicited by the H3N2-VLP vaccine constructed for the 2011-2012 season was examined against viruses isolated from 2010 to 2015 in Taiwan evolving chronologically through clades 1, 4, 5, 3B and 3C, as well as viruses that were circulating globally in 2005, 2007 and 2009...
April 2017: Antiviral Research
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