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Antigenic drift

Ya-Fang Wang, Chuan-Fa Chang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Chia-Yu Chi, Ih-Jen Su, Jen-Ren Wang
It is generally agreed that human influenza virus preferentially binds to α-2,6-linked sialic acid-containing receptors, and mutations that change the binding preference may alter virus infectivity and host tropism. Limited information is available on the glycan-binding specificity of epidemic influenza viruses. In this study, we systemically investigated the glycan-binding preferences of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated from 1999 to 2007 in Taiwan using a high-throughput carbohydrate array. The binding patterns of 37 H3N2 viruses were classified into three groups with significant binding-pattern variations...
2018: PloS One
Louise Piva Penteado, Cecília Susin Osório, Antônio Balbinotto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
In the 2014 - 2015 season, most influenza infections were due to A (H3N2) viruses. More than two-thirds of circulating A (H3N2) viruses are antigenically and genetically different (drifted) from the A (H3N2) vaccine component of 2014 - 2015 northern and southern Hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of seasonal influenza A non-H1N1 infection that occurred in June 2015 in an adult cystic fibrosis patient with severe lung disease previously vaccinated with the anti-flu trivalent vaccine...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Jajati Keshari Mohapatra, Biswajit Das, Manoranjan Rout, B P Sreenivasa, Saravanan Subramaniam, Aniket Sanyal, Bramhadev Pattnaik
'National foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control programme' is being implemented in India and therefore predicting vaccine match is a key surveillance task. Recently, a considerable proportion of field viruses (75.6%) showed antigenic drift from the existing serotype A vaccine strain A IND 40/2000 necessitating search for an alternate strain. Here, antigenic relationship ('r1 ' value) of 87 field viruses with each of the 8 candidate strains was estimated by virus neutralization test. A IND 27/2011 strain emerged to be the one with the widest spectrum of antigenic coverage showing 'r1 ' value of more than 0...
May 4, 2018: Vaccine
Giulietta Saletti, Thomas Gerlach, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Currently used inactivated influenza vaccines aim at the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies directed to the variable head domain of the viral hemagglutinin. Although these vaccines are effective against antigenically matching virus strains, they offer little protection against antigenically distinct drift variants or potentially pandemic viruses of alternative subtypes. In the last decades, the threat of novel influenza pandemics has sparked research efforts to develop vaccines that induce more broadly protective immunity...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Jessica Tan, Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar, Florian Krammer
The development of a broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccine is currently a public health priority worldwide. The vast majority of these efforts is exclusively focused on influenza A viruses. While influenza A viruses cause the majority of all influenza cases worldwide, influenza B viruses should not be ignored. Approximately 25% of all influenza cases are caused by influenza B viruses which circulate as two distinct B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineages. In contrast to popular belief, influenza B cases frequently cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in children...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Florian Krammer, Ron A M Fouchier, Maryna C Eichelberger, Richard J Webby, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Hongquan Wan, Patrick C Wilson, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou, Arnold S Monto
Neuraminidase is one of the two surface glycoproteins of influenza A and B viruses. It has enzymatic activity that cleaves terminal sialic acid from glycans, and that activity is essential at several points in the virus life cycle. While neuraminidase is a major target for influenza antivirals, it is largely ignored in vaccine development. Current inactivated influenza virus vaccines might contain neuraminidase, but the antigen quantity and quality are varied and not standardized. While there are data that show a protective role of anti-neuraminidase immunity, many questions remain unanswered...
April 3, 2018: MBio
Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Alita Kongchanagul, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Prasert Auewarakul
It was previously shown that the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus antigenic drift occurred at a slower rate than the seasonal H3N2 virus during the first decade of the 21 t h century. It was hypothesized that the slower antigenic evolution led to a decrease in average ages of infection, which in turn resulted in lower level of global viral circulation. It is unclear what caused the difference between the two viruses, but a plausible explanation may be related to the fact that the H1N1 virus had been in human population for much longer than the H3N2 virus...
March 30, 2018: Virus Research
Irina Isakova-Sivak, Daniil Korenkov, Tatiana Smolonogina, Tatiana Kotomina, Svetlana Donina, Victoria Matyushenko, Daria Mezhenskaya, Florian Krammer, Larisa Rudenko
The development of influenza vaccines that can provide broad protection against all drifted seasonal virus variants, zoonotic infections and emerging pandemic strains, has been a priority for two decades. Here we propose a strategy of inducing broadly-reactive anti-stalk antibody by sequential immunizations with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) expressing chimeric HAs (cHAs). These vaccines are designed to contain identical hemagglutinin stalk domains from H1N1 virus but antigenically unrelated globular head domains from avian influenza virus subtypes H5, H8 and H9...
March 22, 2018: Virology
Young Jae Lee, Ji Eun Yu, Paul Kim, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yu Cheol Cheong, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Antigenic variation in viral surface antigens is a strategy for escaping the host's adaptive immunity, whereas regions with pivotal functions for infection are less subject to antigenic variability. We hypothesized that genetically invariable and immunologically dormant regions of a viral surface antigen could be exposed to the host immune system and activated by rendering them susceptible to antigen-processing machinery in professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Considering the frequent antigen drift and shift in influenza viruses, we identified and used structural modeling to evaluate the conserved regions on the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) surface as potential epitopes...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Aitor Nogales, Michael S Piepenbrink, Jiong Wang, Sandra Ortega, Madhubanti Basu, Christopher F Fucile, John J Treanor, Alexander F Rosenberg, Martin S Zand, Michael C Keefer, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, James J Kobie
Influenza's propensity for antigenic drift and shift, and to elicit predominantly strain specific antibodies (Abs) leaves humanity susceptible to waves of new strains with pandemic potential for which limited or no immunity may exist. Subsequently new clinical interventions are needed. To identify hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes that if targeted may confer universally protective humoral immunity, we examined plasmablasts from a subject that was immunized with the seasonal influenza inactivated vaccine, and isolated a human monoclonal Ab (mAb), KPF1...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Houshun Zhu, Andrew C Y Lee, Can Li, Winger W N Mak, Yetta Y Chen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Anna J X Zhang, Wai-Fong Fung, Rui-Qi Zhang, Yim-Fong Fung, Rosana W S Poon, Joy-Yan Lam, Sidney Tam, Ivan F N Hung, Honglin Chen, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Kelvin K W To
The 2017 Hong Kong influenza A(H3N2) summer season was unexpectedly severe. However, antigenic characterization of the 2017 circulating A(H3N2) viruses using ferret antisera did not show significant antigenic drift. We analyzed the hemagglutinin amino acid sequences of A(H3N2) virus circulating in Hong Kong in 2017, and found that viruses with hemagglutinin N121K substitution, which was rare before 2017, emerged rapidly and dominated in 2017 (52.4% of A[H3N2] virus in 2017 contains N121K substitution). Microneutralization assay using archived human sera collected from mid-2017 showed that the geometric mean microneutralization titer was 3...
March 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Haiyun Jin, Wan Wang, Xueqin Yang, Hailong Su, Jiawen Fan, Rui Zhu, Shifeng Wang, Huoying Shi, Xiufan Liu
BACKGROUND: Vaccines constitute a unique selective pressure, different from natural selection, drives the evolution of influenza virus. In this study, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (H9N2) was continually passaged in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs with or without selective pressures from antibodies induced by homologous maternal antibodies. Genetic mutations, antigenic drift, replication, and pathogenicity of the passaged virus were evaluated. RESULTS: Antigenic drift of the passaged viruses occurred in the 47th generation (vF47) under selective pressure on antibodies and in the 52nd generation (nF52) without selective pressure from antibodies...
March 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Han Sol Lee, Ji Yun Noh, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Won Suk Choi, Hye Won Jeong, Seong-Heon Wie, Woo Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: The influenza virus is reportedly associated with 3-5 million cases of severe illness and 250 000-500 000 deaths annually worldwide. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the variation of influenza A virus in Korea and examined the association with death. METHODS: A total of 13 620 cases were enrolled in the Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity & Mortality surveillance system in Korea during 2011-2016. Among these cases, a total of 4725 were diagnosed with influenza using RT-PCR (influenza A; n = 3696, influenza B; n = 928, co-infection; n = 101)...
February 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ishanu Chattopadhyay, Emre Kiciman, Joshua W Elliott, Jeffrey L Shaman, Andrey Rzhetsky
Using several longitudinal datasets describing putative factors affecting influenza incidence and clinical data on the disease and health status of over 150 million human subjects observed over a decade, we investigated the source and the mechanistic triggers of influenza epidemics. We conclude that the initiation of a pan-continental influenza wave emerges from the simultaneous realization of a complex set of conditions. The strongest predictor groups are as follows, ranked by importance: (1) the host population's socio- and ethno-demographic properties; (2) weather variables pertaining to specific humidity, temperature, and solar radiation; (3) the virus' antigenic drift over time; (4) the host population'€™s land-based travel habits, and; (5) recent spatio-temporal dynamics, as reflected in the influenza wave auto-correlation...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Daniela S Rajão, Daniel R Pérez
Influenza virus infections pose a significant threat to public health due to annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza is also associated with significant economic losses in animal production. The most effective way to prevent influenza infections is through vaccination. Current vaccine programs rely heavily on the vaccine's ability to stimulate neutralizing antibody responses to the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. One of the biggest challenges to an effective vaccination program lies on the fact that influenza viruses are ever-changing, leading to antigenic drift that results in escape from earlier immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P Muller, Stephen J Russell
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3-4 months, SMa79), average (3...
2018: PloS One
Nicole A P Lieberman, Kole DeGolier, Kristen Haberthur, Harrison Chinn, Kara W Moyes, Myriam N Bouchlaka, Kirsti L Walker, Christian M Capitini, Courtney A Crane
Recent advances in cellular therapies for patients with cancer, including checkpoint blockade and ex vivo -expanded, tumor-specific T cells, have demonstrated that targeting the immune system is a powerful approach to the elimination of tumor cells. Clinical efforts have also demonstrated limitations, however, including the potential for tumor cell antigenic drift and neoantigen formation, which promote tumor escape and recurrence, as well as rapid onset of T cell exhaustion in vivo . These findings suggest that antigen unrestricted cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, may be beneficial for use as an alternative to or in combination with T cell based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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