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Antigenic drift

Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Aitor Nogales, Michael S Piepenbrink, Jiong Wang, Sandra Ortega, Madhubanti Basu, Christopher F Fucile, John J Treanor, Alexander F Rosenberg, Martin S Zand, Michael C Keefer, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, James J Kobie
Influenza's propensity for antigenic drift and shift, and to elicit predominantly strain specific antibodies (Abs) leaves humanity susceptible to waves of new strains with pandemic potential for which limited or no immunity may exist. Subsequently new clinical interventions are needed. To identify hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes that if targeted may confer universally protective humoral immunity, we examined plasmablasts from a subject that was immunized with the seasonal influenza inactivated vaccine, and isolated a human monoclonal Ab (mAb), KPF1...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Houshun Zhu, Andrew C Y Lee, Can Li, Winger W N Mak, Yetta Y Chen, Kwok-Hung Chan, Anna J X Zhang, Wai-Fong Fung, Rui-Qi Zhang, Yim-Fong Fung, Rosana W S Poon, Joy-Yan Lam, Sidney Tam, Ivan F N Hung, Honglin Chen, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Kelvin K W To
The 2017 Hong Kong influenza A(H3N2) summer season was unexpectedly severe. However, antigenic characterization of the 2017 circulating A(H3N2) viruses using ferret antisera did not show significant antigenic drift. We analyzed the hemagglutinin amino acid sequences of A(H3N2) virus circulating in Hong Kong in 2017, and found that viruses with hemagglutinin N121K substitution, which was rare before 2017, emerged rapidly and dominated in 2017 (52.4% of A[H3N2] virus in 2017 contains N121K substitution). Microneutralization assay using archived human sera collected from mid-2017 showed that the geometric mean microneutralization titer was 3...
March 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Haiyun Jin, Wan Wang, Xueqin Yang, Hailong Su, Jiawen Fan, Rui Zhu, Shifeng Wang, Huoying Shi, Xiufan Liu
BACKGROUND: Vaccines constitute a unique selective pressure, different from natural selection, drives the evolution of influenza virus. In this study, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (H9N2) was continually passaged in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs with or without selective pressures from antibodies induced by homologous maternal antibodies. Genetic mutations, antigenic drift, replication, and pathogenicity of the passaged virus were evaluated. RESULTS: Antigenic drift of the passaged viruses occurred in the 47th generation (vF47) under selective pressure on antibodies and in the 52nd generation (nF52) without selective pressure from antibodies...
March 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Han Sol Lee, Ji Yun Noh, Joon Young Song, Hee Jin Cheong, Won Suk Choi, Hye Won Jeong, Seong-Heon Wie, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza A viruses are classified under the Orthomyxoviridae family, and consist of several subtypes, based on their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) composition. In some cases, reassortment of the 8 viral RNA segments may occur if different influenza viruses infect the same host, thereby generating new viral strains (antigenic shift). Mutations in the genes of influenza A viruses are enhanced by the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes; in particular, substitutions in the HA protein alter the viral antigenic epitopes sufficiently to avoid the host immune response (antigenic drift)...
February 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ishanu Chattopadhyay, Emre Kiciman, Joshua W Elliott, Jeffrey L Shaman, Andrey Rzhetsky
Using several longitudinal datasets describing putative factors affecting influenza incidence and clinical data on the disease and health status of over 150 million human subjects observed over a decade, we investigated the source and the mechanistic triggers of influenza epidemics. We conclude that the initiation of a pan-continental influenza wave emerges from the simultaneous realization of a complex set of conditions. The strongest predictor groups are as follows, ranked by importance: (1) the host population's socio- and ethno-demographic properties; (2) weather variables pertaining to specific humidity, temperature, and solar radiation; (3) the virus' antigenic drift over time; (4) the host populations land-based travel habits, and; (5) recent spatio-temporal dynamics, as reflected in the influenza wave auto-correlation...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Daniela S Rajão, Daniel R Pérez
Influenza virus infections pose a significant threat to public health due to annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza is also associated with significant economic losses in animal production. The most effective way to prevent influenza infections is through vaccination. Current vaccine programs rely heavily on the vaccine's ability to stimulate neutralizing antibody responses to the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. One of the biggest challenges to an effective vaccination program lies on the fact that influenza viruses are ever-changing, leading to antigenic drift that results in escape from earlier immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P Muller, Stephen J Russell
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3-4 months, SMa79), average (3...
2018: PloS One
Nicole A P Lieberman, Kole DeGolier, Kristen Haberthur, Harrison Chinn, Kara W Moyes, Myriam N Bouchlaka, Kirsti L Walker, Christian M Capitini, Courtney A Crane
Recent advances in cellular therapies for patients with cancer, including checkpoint blockade and ex vivo -expanded, tumor-specific T cells, have demonstrated that targeting the immune system is a powerful approach to the elimination of tumor cells. Clinical efforts have also demonstrated limitations, however, including the potential for tumor cell antigenic drift and neoantigen formation, which promote tumor escape and recurrence, as well as rapid onset of T cell exhaustion in vivo . These findings suggest that antigen unrestricted cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, may be beneficial for use as an alternative to or in combination with T cell based approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yo Han Jang, Joo Young Kim, Young Ho Byun, Ahyun Son, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Yoon Jae Lee, Jun Chang, Baik Lin Seong
Influenza virus infections continually pose a major public health threat with seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics worldwide. While currently licensed influenza vaccines provide only strain-specific protection, antigenic drift and shift occasionally render the viruses resistant to the host immune responses, which highlight the need for a vaccine that provides broad protection against multiple subtypes. In this study, we suggest a vaccination strategy using cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccines (CAIVs) to provide a broad, potent, and safe cross-protection covering antigenically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) groups 1 and 2 influenza viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Helen T Groves, Jacqueline U McDonald, Pinky Langat, Ekaterina Kinnear, Paul Kellam, John McCauley, Joanna Ellis, Catherine Thompson, Ruth Elderfield, Lauren Parker, Wendy Barclay, John S Tregoning
Influenza virus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The surface antigens of influenza virus change over time blunting both naturally acquired and vaccine induced adaptive immune protection. Viral antigenic drift is a major contributing factor to both the spread and disease burden of influenza. The aim of this study was to develop better infection models using clinically relevant, influenza strains to test vaccine induced protection. CB6F1 mice were infected with a range of influenza viruses and disease, inflammation, cell influx, and viral load were characterized after infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Diego Garzón-Ospina, Sindy P Buitrago, Andrea E Ramos, Manuel A Patarroyo
Parasite antigen genetic diversity represents a great obstacle when designing a vaccine against malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax. Selecting vaccine candidate antigens has been focused on those fulfilling a role in invasion and which are conserved, thus avoiding specific-allele immune responses. Most antigens described to date belong to the blood stage, thereby blocking parasite development within red blood cells, whilst studying antigens from other stages has been quite restricted. Antigens from different parasite stages are required for developing a completely effective vaccine; thus, pre-erythrocyte stage antigens able to block the first line of infection becoming established should also be taken into account...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Alireza Heidari, Irene Righetto, Francesco Filippini
Avian influenza virus is a zoonotic agent that significantly impacts public health and the poultry industry. Monitoring viral evolution and spread is crucial for surveillance and tracing programmes, which are currently based on serological or DNA sequencing-phylogenetics analysis. However, virus-host interactions, antigenic drift and spreading of viral clades strongly depend on variation in the surface features of capsid proteins. We report here that in silico comparative structural analysis of haemagglutinin can reveal relevant evolutionary fingerprints, particularly when integrated with sequence-based analyses...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyunsuh Kim, Robert G Webster, Richard J Webby
Numerous modern technological and scientific advances have changed the vaccine industry. However, nearly 70 years of influenza vaccine usage have passed without substantial changes in the underlying principles of the vaccine. The challenge of vaccinating against influenza lies in the constantly changing nature of the virus itself. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic evolution through antigenic drift and shift in their surface glycoproteins. This has forced frequent updates of vaccine antigens to ensure that the somewhat narrowly focused vaccine-induced immune responses defend against circulating strains...
January 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
Sarder Mohammed Asaduzzaman, Junling Ma, P van den Driessche
To determine the cross-immunity between influenza strains, we design a novel statistical method, which uses a theoretical model and clinical data on attack rates and vaccine efficacy among school children for two seasons after the 1968 A/H3N2 influenza pandemic. This model incorporates the distribution of susceptibility and the dependence of cross-immunity on the antigenic distance of drifted strains. We find that the cross-immunity between an influenza strain and the mutant that causes the next epidemic is 88%...
January 25, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Giuseppe A Sautto, Greg A Kirchenbaum, Ted M Ross
Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates...
January 19, 2018: Virology Journal
Meghan O Altman, Davide Angeletti, Jonathan W Yewdell
Influenza A virus (IAV) imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on humanity. Vaccination is effective in only 60% of individuals, even under optimal circumstances. The difficulty stems from the remarkable ability of IAV to evade existing immunity. IAV's error prone polymerase enables the rapid antigenic evolution of the two virion surface glycoproteins, neuraminidase and hemagglutinin (HA). Since the most potent antibodies (Abs) at neutralizing viral infectivity are directed the head of the HA, amino acid substitutions in this region enable IAV to evade Ab-based immunity...
January 22, 2018: Viral Immunology
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
January 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pinky Langat, Jayna Raghwani, Gytis Dudas, Thomas A Bowden, Stephanie Edwards, Astrid Gall, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Rodney Daniels, Colin Russell, Oliver G Pybus, John McCauley, Paul Kellam, Simon J Watson
The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study influenza B viruses...
December 28, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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