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Antigenic drift

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927373/variation-in-loss-of-immunity-shapes-influenza-epidemics-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#1
Rutger G Woolthuis, Jacco Wallinga, Michiel van Boven
BACKGROUND: Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. METHODS: We developed a range of mathematical transmission models to investigate the effect of variable duration of immunity on the size of seasonal epidemics...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925296/vaccine-approaches-conferring-cross-protection-against-influenza-viruses
#2
Sai V Vemula, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
Annual vaccination is one of the most efficient and cost-effective strategies to prevent and control influenza epidemics. Most of the currently available influenza vaccines are strong inducers of antibody responses against viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), but are poor inducers of cell-mediated immune responses against conserved internal proteins. Moreover, due to the high variability of viral surface proteins because of antigenic drift or antigenic shift, many of the currently licensed vaccines confer little or no protection against drift or shift variants...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899494/intranasal-co-administration-of-1-8-cineole-with-influenza-vaccine-provide-cross-protection-against-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Yun Li, Yu-Ling Xu, Yan-Ni Lai, Shang-Hui Liao, Ni Liu, Pei-Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most efficient means for protection against influenza. However, the various vaccines have low efficacy to protect against pandemic strains because of antigenic drift and recombination of influenza virus. Adjuvant therapy is one of the attempts to improve influenza vaccine effective cross-protection against influenza virus infection. Our previous study confirmed that 1,8-cineole inhibits the NF-κB, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines, and relieves the pathological changes of viral pneumonia in mice infected with influenza virus...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877235/genetic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-influenza-a-h3n2-in-cameroon-during-the-2014-2016-influenza-seasons
#4
Gwladys C Monamele, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Mohammed R Njankouo, Kathleen Victoir, Jane Francis Akoachere, Damian Anong, Richard Njouom
The first outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) occurred in 1968 and caused the third flu pandemic of the 20th century. It has affected multiple countries over time. The best strategy to reduce the burden of influenza is through vaccination whose efficacy varies with respect to the circulating strains. This study was performed to better understand the molecular evolution of influenza A(H3N2) and assess vaccine efficacy in Cameroon. Complete sequences of three gene segments were obtained from 2014 to 2016 influenza seasons in Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872136/generation-of-escape-variants-of-neutralizing-influenza-virus-monoclonal-antibodies
#5
Paul E Leon, Teddy John Wohlbold, Wenqian He, Mark J Bailey, Carole J Henry, Patrick C Wilson, Florian Krammer, Gene S Tan
Influenza viruses exhibit a remarkable ability to adapt and evade the host immune response. One way is through antigenic changes that occur on the surface glycoproteins of the virus. The generation of escape variants is a powerful method in elucidating how viruses escape immune detection and in identifying critical residues required for antibody binding. Here, we describe a protocol on how to generate influenza A virus escape variants by utilizing human or murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the viral hemagglutinin (HA)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866291/a-single-dose-and-long-lasting-vaccine-against-pandemic-influenza-through-the-controlled-release-of-a-heterospecies-tandem-m2-sequence-embedded-within-detoxified-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles
#6
Hannah C Watkins, Catalina L Pagan, Hannah R Childs, Sara Posada, Annie Chau, Jose Rios, Cassandra Guarino, Matthew P DeLisa, Gary R Whittaker, David Putnam
The influenza A virus undergoes genetic drift and shift, leaving the general population susceptible to emerging pandemic strains, despite seasonal flu vaccination. Here we describe a single dose influenza vaccine derived from recombinant outer membrane vesicles (rOMVs) that display an antigen-mapped heterospecies tandem sequence of the M2 protein from the influenza A virus, released over 30days from poly(lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles. Four weeks post vaccination, BALB/c mice developed high anti-M2e IgG titers that were equivalent to those generated at 8weeks in a typical prime/boost vaccine regimen...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857677/is-seasonal-vaccination-a-contributing-factor-to-the-selection-of-influenza-epidemic-variants
#7
Yong Chong, Hideyuki Ikematsu
Influenza A/H3N2 viruses are the most common and virulent subtypes for humans. Antigenic drift, changes in antigenicity through the accumulation of mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is chiefly responsible for the continuing circulation of A/H3N2 viruses, resulting in frequent updates of vaccine strains based on new variant analyses. In humans, these drift-related mutations are considered to be primarily caused by the immune pressure elicited by natural infection. Whether or not the immune pressure elicited by vaccination (vaccine pressure) can have a certain effect on drift-related mutations is unclear...
August 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855633/first-genome-report-and-analysis-of-chicken-h7n9-influenza-viruses-with-poly-basic-amino-acids-insertion-in-the-hemagglutinin-cleavage-site
#8
Jidang Chen, Jipei Zhang, Wanjun Zhu, Yishan Zhang, Hualong Tan, Minfang Liu, Mingsheng Cai, Jiaren Shen, Hinh Ly, Jianhong Chen
We report the full-length sequence of two chicken source influenza A (H7N9) viruses found in Guangdong live poultry market (LPM) during the most recent wave of human infections (from October 2016 to the present time). These viruses carry insertion of poly-basic amino acids (KGKRTAR/G) at the protease cleavage site of the HA protein, which were previously found in the highly pathogenic (HP) human influenza A (H7N9) [IAV(H7N9)] strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these two novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) suggested that their genomes reassorted between the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Pearl River Delta (PRD) clades...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844407/novel-hemagglutinin-nanoparticle-influenza-vaccine-with-matrix-m%C3%A2-adjuvant-induces-hemagglutination-inhibition-neutralizing-and-protective-responses-in-ferrets-against-homologous-and-drifted-a-h3n2-subtypes
#9
Gale Smith, Ye Liu, David Flyer, Michael J Massare, Bin Zhou, Nita Patel, Larry Ellingsworth, Maggie Lewis, James F Cummings, Greg Glenn
Influenza viruses frequently acquire mutations undergoing antigenic drift necessitating annual evaluation of vaccine strains. Highly conserved epitopes have been identified in the hemagglutinin (HA) head and stem regions, however, current influenza vaccines induce only limited responses to these conserved sites. Here, we describe a novel seasonal recombinant HA nanoparticle influenza vaccine (NIV) formulated with a saponin-based adjuvant, Matrix-M™. NIV induced hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralizing (MN) antibodies against a broad range of influenza A(H3N2) subtypes...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827718/broadly-protective-murine-monoclonal-antibodies-against-influenza-b-virus-target-highly-conserved-neuraminidase-epitopes
#10
Teddy John Wohlbold, Kira A Podolsky, Veronika Chromikova, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Veronica Falconieri, Philip Meade, Fatima Amanat, Jessica Tan, Benjamin R tenOever, Gene S Tan, Sriram Subramaniam, Peter Palese, Florian Krammer
A substantial proportion of influenza-related childhood deaths are due to infection with influenza B viruses, which co-circulate in the human population as two antigenically distinct lineages defined by the immunodominant receptor binding protein, haemagglutinin. While broadly cross-reactive, protective monoclonal antibodies against the haemagglutinin of influenza B viruses have been described, none targeting the neuraminidase, the second most abundant viral glycoprotein, have been reported. Here, we analyse a panel of five murine anti-neuraminidase monoclonal antibodies that demonstrate broad binding, neuraminidase inhibition, in vitro antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and in vivo protection against influenza B viruses belonging to both haemagglutinin lineages and spanning over 70 years of antigenic drift...
August 21, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783708/preferential-induction-of-cross-group-influenza-a-hemagglutinin-stem-specific-memory-b-cells-after-h7n9-immunization-in-humans
#11
Sarah F Andrews, M Gordon Joyce, Michael J Chambers, Rebecca A Gillespie, Masaru Kanekiyo, Kwanyee Leung, Eun Sung Yang, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Adam K Wheatley, Michelle C Crank, Jeffrey C Boyington, Madhu S Prabhakaran, Sandeep R Narpala, Xuejun Chen, Robert T Bailer, Grace Chen, Emily Coates, Peter D Kwong, Richard A Koup, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Julie E Ledgerwood, Adrian B McDermott
Antigenic drift and shift of influenza strains underscore the need for broadly protective influenza vaccines. One strategy is to design immunogens that elicit B cell responses against conserved epitopes on the hemagglutinin (HA) stem. To better understand the elicitation of HA stem-targeted B cells to group 1 and group 2 influenza subtypes, we compared the memory B cell response to group 2 H7N9 and group 1 H5N1 vaccines in humans. Upon H7N9 vaccination, almost half of the HA stem-specific response recognized the group 1 and group 2 subtypes, whereas the response to H5N1 was largely group 1-specific...
July 14, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758634/the-genomic-evolution-of-h1-influenza-a-viruses-from-swine-detected-in-the-united-states-between-2009-and-2016
#12
Shibo Gao, Tavis K Anderson, Rasna R Walia, Karin S Dorman, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Amy L Vincent
Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from humans to swine occurs with relative frequency and is a critical contributor to swine IAV diversity. Subsequent to the introduction of these human seasonal lineages, there is often reassortment with endemic viruses and antigenic drift. To address whether particular genome constellations contributed to viral persistence following the introduction of the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic virus to swine in the USA, we collated and analysed 616 whole genomes of swine H1 isolates...
August 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756116/selection-of-antigenic-variants-of-an-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-vaccinated-chickens
#13
Lam Thanh Nguyen, Tatsuya Nishi, Shintaro Shichinohe, Duc-Huy Chu, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Vaccination-primed immunity in poultry has been suggested for selection of antigenically drifted highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs). In this study, we performed two consecutive passage studies of an H5N1 HPAIV in vaccinated chickens, namely, study-I and study-II, to select antigenic variants under immune pressure from the vaccination. In study-I, nine consecutive passages of a wild-type H5N1 HPAIV were carried out in chickens vaccinated with the homologous challenge strain. Antigenically drifted variants with mutations at position 179 in the hemagglutinin (HA) were selected after three passages...
October 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740382/dual-linker-gold-nanoparticles-as-adjuvanting-carriers-for-multivalent-display-of-recombinant-influenza-hemagglutinin-trimers-and-flagellin-improve-the-immunological-responses-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#14
Chao Wang, Wandi Zhu, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccination is the most cost-effective means of infectious disease control. Although current influenza vaccines are effective in battling closely matched strains, such vaccines have major limitations such as the requirement to produce new vaccines every season, an egg-dependent production system, long production periods, uncertainty in matching the vaccine to circulating strains, and the inability to react to new influenza pandemics resulting from genetic drift or shift. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of the conventional influenza vaccine, we have designed dual-linker gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) conjugated with both recombinant trimetric A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2), hemagglutinin (HA) and TLR5 agonist flagellin (FliC) as a novel vaccine approach...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739438/pathogenicity-of-the-egyptian-a-h5n1-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chickens
#15
A A Azab, A Arafa, A Selim, M K Hassan, A I Bazid, A H Sultan, H A Hussein, E M Abdelwhab
Long-term circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 in Egyptian poultry since February 2006 resulted in the evolution of two distinct clades: 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic-drift variants isolated from vaccinated poultry and 2.2.1.2 that caused the newest upsurge in birds and humans in 2014/2015. In the present study, nine isolates were collected from chickens, ducks and turkeys representing the commercial and backyard sectors during the period 2009-2015. The subtyping was confirmed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, RT-qPCR and sequence analysis...
July 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#16
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708860/charged-amino-acid-variability-related-to-n-glyco-sylation-and-epitopes-in-a-h3n2-influenza-hem-agglutinin-and-neuraminidase
#17
Zhong-Zhou Huang, Liang Yu, Ping Huang, Li-Jun Liang, Qing Guo
BACKGROUND: The A/H3N2 influenza viruses circulated in humans have been shown to undergo antigenic drift, a process in which amino acid mutations result from nucleotide substitutions. There are few reports regarding the charged amino acid mutations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relations between charged amino acids, N-glycosylation and epitopes in hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). METHODS: A total of 700 HA genes (691 NA genes) of A/H3N2 viruses were chronologically analyzed for the mutational variants in amino acid features, N-glycosylation sites and epitopes since its emergence in 1968...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692701/molecular-features-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-prevalent-in-mexico-during-winter-seasons-2012-2014
#18
Rocío Arellano-Llamas, Luis Alfaro-Ruiz, Cristian Arriaga Canon, Ivan Imaz Rosshandler, Alfredo Cruz-Lagunas, Joaquín Zúñiga, Rosa Rebollar Vega, Christopher W Wong, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Sandra Romero Córdoba, Edison T Liu, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda, Joel A Vázquez-Pérez
Since the emergence of the pandemic H1N1pdm09 virus in Mexico and California, biannual increases in the number of cases have been detected in Mexico. As observed in previous seasons, pandemic A/H1N1 09 virus was detected in severe cases during the 2011-2012 winter season and finally, during the 2013-2014 winter season it became the most prevalent influenza virus. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the whole viral genome are necessary to determine the antigenic and pathogenic characteristics of influenza viruses that cause severe outcomes of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663210/is-it-possible-to-develop-a-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine-outflanking-antibody-immunodominance-on-the-road-to-universal-influenza-vaccination
#19
Davide Angeletti, Jonathan W Yewdell
Influenza remains a major human pathogen despite seasonal vaccination. At long last, there is energy and resources to develop influenza vaccines that provide more predictable and durable protection. Vaccines based on inducing antibodies to the conserved stem of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) have emerged as leading candidates for broadening population immunity and ultimately limiting antigenic drift. Here, we discuss the knowns and unknowns of HA-specific B-cell and antibody responses. In particular, we focus on how immunodominance sculpts antibody responses and drives antigenic drift...
June 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663209/is-it-possible-to-develop-a-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine-toward-a-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine-potential-target-antigens-and-critical-aspects-for-vaccine-development
#20
Florian Krammer, Adolfo García-Sastre, Peter Palese
Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics as well as pandemics and are a significant concern for human health. Current influenza virus vaccines show efficacy when they are antigenically well matched to circulating strains. Seasonal influenza viruses undergo antigenic drift at a high rate and, therefore, current vaccines have to be reformulated and readministered on an annual basis. Mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains frequently occur, significantly decreasing vaccine efficacy. In addition, current seasonal influenza virus vaccines have limited efficacy against newly emerging pandemic viruses...
June 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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