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Antigenic drift

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145498/antigenicity-of-the-2015-2016-seasonal-h1n1-human-influenza-virus-ha-and-na-proteins
#1
Amelia M Clark, Marta L DeDiego, Christopher S Anderson, Jiong Wang, Hongmei Yang, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Martin S Zand, Mark Y Sangster, David J Topham
Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses) accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40%) of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015-2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015-2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#2
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138867/effect-of-xanthohumol-on-th1-th2-balance-in-a-breast-cancer-mouse-model
#3
Wenchao Zhang, Yanlong Pan, Panhong Gou, Cheng Zhou, Lianqing Ma, Qiming Liu, Yuping Du, Jinbo Yang, Qin Wang
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, exhibits a variety of biological activities. Numerous studies have reported that XN inhibits the growth of many types of cancer cells, but the effects of XN on tumor immunity have not yet been studied. We explored the effect of XN on Th1/Th2 balance and the underlying mechanism based on a BALB/c-4T1 breast cancer mouse model. The results showed that XN significantly slowed down tumor growth and inhibited expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 as well as breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3)...
November 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128083/evolution-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-epidemiology-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#4
REVIEW
Judith Didi-Kouko Coulibaly, Mireille Yeboua, Alphonsine Kouassi Mbengue, Emile Allah Kouadio, Henriette Anzouan-Kacou Kissi, Allah Yves-Omer Binan, Marie-Jeanne Lohoues Kouacou, Alain Attia, Dominique Yao N'Drin, Toussaint Toutou, Innocent Adoubi, Pascal Pineau
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major concern for Public health in West Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, the bulk of our knowledge stems from studies conducted decades ago. Our aim was, thus, to assess whether the epidemiological features of this tumor changed recently. METHODS: Records from 863 patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. RESULTS: We observed major drifts concerning hepatocellular carcinoma with regards to the 1970-1980 period...
November 8, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102112/refinement-of-the-equine-influenza-model-in-the-natural-host-a-meta-analysis-to-determine-the-benefits-of-individual-nebulisation-for-experimental-infection-and-vaccine-evaluation-in-the-face-of-decreased-strain-pathogenicity
#5
Dion Garrett, Fernando Montesso, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ilhan Birand, Manuelle De Bock, Chengjin M Huang, Loïc Legrand, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot
Equine Influenza (EI) is an important respiratory disease of horses caused by H3N8 equine influenza viruses (EIV). Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent or control this disease. However, EIV undergoes continuous antigenic drift and whilst numerous EI vaccines are commercially available worldwide, an accurate evaluation of their efficacy is frequently required through clinical trials conducted in the natural host. Room nebulisation is one of the chosen methods to challenge horses during EI vaccine studies...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100705/broad-cross-protective-anti-hemagglutination-responses-elicited-by-influenza-microconsensus-dna-vaccine
#6
Jian Yan, Matthew P Morrow, Jaemi S Chu, Trina Racine, Charles C Reed, Amir S Khan, Kate E Broderick, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
Despite the routine development and distribution of seasonal influenza vaccines, influenza remains an important pathogen contributing to significant human morbidity as well as mortality each year. The seasonal variability of influenza creates a significant issue for vaccine development of seasonal strains that can afford protection from infection or disease based on serotype matching. It is appreciated that the globular head of the HA antigen contained in the vaccines generates antibodies that result in HAI activity that are a major correlates of the protection against a particular strain...
October 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097696/natural-and-directed-antigenic-drift-of-the-h1-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-stalk-domain
#7
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
The induction of antibodies specific for the influenza HA protein stalk domain is being pursued as a universal strategy against influenza virus infections. However, little work has been done looking at natural or induced antigenic variability in this domain and the effects on viral fitness. We analyzed human H1 HA head and stalk domain sequences and found substantial variability in both, although variability was highest in the head region. Furthermore, using human immune sera from pandemic A/California/04/2009 immune subjects and mAbs specific for the stalk domain, viruses were selected in vitro containing mutations in both domains that partially contributed to immune evasion...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048990/site-specific-glycosylation-profile-of-influenza-a-h1n1-hemagglutinin-through-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Esteban Cruz, Joel Cain, Ben Crossett, Veysel Kayser
The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038656/unveiling-a-drift-resistant-cryptotope-within-marburgvirus-nucleoprotein-recognized-by-llama-single-domain-antibodies
#9
John Anthony Garza, Alexander Bryan Taylor, Laura Jo Sherwood, Peter John Hart, Andrew Hayhurst
Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever virus that is increasingly re-emerging in Africa, has been imported to both Europe and the US, and is also a Tier 1 bioterror threat. As a negative sense RNA virus, MARV has error prone replication which can yield progeny capable of evading countermeasures. To evaluate this vulnerability, we sought to determine the epitopes of 4 llama single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHH) specific for nucleoprotein (NP), each capable of forming MARV monoclonal affinity reagent sandwich assays...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020179/the-household-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-study-lack-of-antibody-response-and-protection-following-receipt-of-2014-2015-influenza-vaccine
#10
Joshua G Petrie, Ryan E Malosh, Caroline K Cheng, Suzanne E Ohmit, Emily T Martin, Emileigh Johnson, Rachel Truscon, Maryna C Eichelberger, Larisa V Gubareva, Alicia M Fry, Arnold S Monto
Background: Antigenically drifted A(H3N2) viruses circulated extensively during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was low and not significant among outpatients but in a hospitalized population was 43%. At least one study paradoxically observed increased A(H3N2) infection among those vaccinated 3 consecutive years. Methods: We followed a cohort of 1341 individuals from 340 households. VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza was estimated...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940727/whole-genome-sequencing-and-antigenic-analysis-of-the-first-equine-influenza-virus-identified-in-turkey
#11
Jacinta Gahan, Marie Garvey, Sarah Gildea, Gildea Gür, Anil Kagankaya, Ann Cullinane
BACKGROUND: In 2013 there was an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in racehorses in Turkey. The clinical signs were consistent with equine influenza (EI). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to confirm the cause of the outbreak and characterise the causal virus. METHODS: A pan-reactive influenza type A real time RT-PCR and a rapid antigen detection kit were used for confirmatory diagnosis of equine influenza virus (EIV). Immunological susceptibility to EIV was examined using Single Radial Haemolysis and ELISA...
September 21, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931689/vaccination-with-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-neuraminidase-protects-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-virus-challenge
#12
Alaina J Mooney, Jon D Gabbard, Zhuo Li, Daniel A Dlugolenski, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses along with other emerging influenza viruses continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enable the evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927373/variation-in-loss-of-immunity-shapes-influenza-epidemics-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#13
Rutger G Woolthuis, Jacco Wallinga, Michiel van Boven
BACKGROUND: Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. METHODS: We developed a range of mathematical transmission models to investigate the effect of variable duration of immunity on the size of seasonal epidemics...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925296/vaccine-approaches-conferring-cross-protection-against-influenza-viruses
#14
Sai V Vemula, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
Annual vaccination is one of the most efficient and cost-effective strategies to prevent and control influenza epidemics. Most of the currently available influenza vaccines are strong inducers of antibody responses against viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), but are poor inducers of cell-mediated immune responses against conserved internal proteins. Moreover, due to the high variability of viral surface proteins because of antigenic drift or antigenic shift, many of the currently licensed vaccines confer little or no protection against drift or shift variants...
November 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899494/intranasal-co-administration-of-1-8-cineole-with-influenza-vaccine-provide-cross-protection-against-influenza-virus-infection
#15
Yun Li, Yu-Ling Xu, Yan-Ni Lai, Shang-Hui Liao, Ni Liu, Pei-Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most efficient means for protection against influenza. However, the various vaccines have low efficacy to protect against pandemic strains because of antigenic drift and recombination of influenza virus. Adjuvant therapy is one of the attempts to improve influenza vaccine effective cross-protection against influenza virus infection. Our previous study confirmed that 1,8-cineole inhibits the NF-κB, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines, and relieves the pathological changes of viral pneumonia in mice infected with influenza virus...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877235/genetic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-influenza-a-h3n2-in-cameroon-during-the-2014-2016-influenza-seasons
#16
Gwladys C Monamele, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Mohammed R Njankouo, Kathleen Victoir, Jane Francis Akoachere, Damian Anong, Richard Njouom
The first outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) occurred in 1968 and caused the third flu pandemic of the 20th century. It has affected multiple countries over time. The best strategy to reduce the burden of influenza is through vaccination whose efficacy varies with respect to the circulating strains. This study was performed to better understand the molecular evolution of influenza A(H3N2) and assess vaccine efficacy in Cameroon. Complete sequences of three gene segments were obtained from 2014 to 2016 influenza seasons in Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872136/generation-of-escape-variants-of-neutralizing-influenza-virus-monoclonal-antibodies
#17
Paul E Leon, Teddy John Wohlbold, Wenqian He, Mark J Bailey, Carole J Henry, Patrick C Wilson, Florian Krammer, Gene S Tan
Influenza viruses exhibit a remarkable ability to adapt and evade the host immune response. One way is through antigenic changes that occur on the surface glycoproteins of the virus. The generation of escape variants is a powerful method in elucidating how viruses escape immune detection and in identifying critical residues required for antibody binding. Here, we describe a protocol on how to generate influenza A virus escape variants by utilizing human or murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the viral hemagglutinin (HA)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866291/a-single-dose-and-long-lasting-vaccine-against-pandemic-influenza-through-the-controlled-release-of-a-heterospecies-tandem-m2-sequence-embedded-within-detoxified-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles
#18
Hannah C Watkins, Catalina L Pagan, Hannah R Childs, Sara Posada, Annie Chau, Jose Rios, Cassandra Guarino, Matthew P DeLisa, Gary R Whittaker, David Putnam
The influenza A virus undergoes genetic drift and shift, leaving the general population susceptible to emerging pandemic strains, despite seasonal flu vaccination. Here we describe a single dose influenza vaccine derived from recombinant outer membrane vesicles (rOMVs) that display an antigen-mapped heterospecies tandem sequence of the M2 protein from the influenza A virus, released over 30days from poly(lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles. Four weeks post vaccination, BALB/c mice developed high anti-M2e IgG titers that were equivalent to those generated at 8weeks in a typical prime/boost vaccine regimen...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857677/is-seasonal-vaccination-a-contributing-factor-to-the-selection-of-influenza-epidemic-variants
#19
Yong Chong, Hideyuki Ikematsu
Influenza A/H3N2 viruses are the most common and virulent subtypes for humans. Antigenic drift, changes in antigenicity through the accumulation of mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is chiefly responsible for the continuing circulation of A/H3N2 viruses, resulting in frequent updates of vaccine strains based on new variant analyses. In humans, these drift-related mutations are considered to be primarily caused by the immune pressure elicited by natural infection. Whether or not the immune pressure elicited by vaccination (vaccine pressure) can have a certain effect on drift-related mutations is unclear...
August 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855633/first-genome-report-and-analysis-of-chicken-h7n9-influenza-viruses-with-poly-basic-amino-acids-insertion-in-the-hemagglutinin-cleavage-site
#20
Jidang Chen, Jipei Zhang, Wanjun Zhu, Yishan Zhang, Hualong Tan, Minfang Liu, Mingsheng Cai, Jiaren Shen, Hinh Ly, Jianhong Chen
We report the full-length sequence of two chicken source influenza A (H7N9) viruses found in Guangdong live poultry market (LPM) during the most recent wave of human infections (from October 2016 to the present time). These viruses carry insertion of poly-basic amino acids (KGKRTAR/G) at the protease cleavage site of the HA protein, which were previously found in the highly pathogenic (HP) human influenza A (H7N9) [IAV(H7N9)] strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these two novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) suggested that their genomes reassorted between the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Pearl River Delta (PRD) clades...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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