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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156741/screening-epitopes-on-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-autoantigens-with-a-peptide-array
#1
Lin Wang, Chenjun Hao, Yongqiu Deng, Yanbo Liu, Shiliang Hu, Yangang Peng, Manna He, Jinhu Fu, Ming Liu, Jia Chen, Xiaoming Chen
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease. Many autoantibodies are closely associated with SLE. However, the specific epitopes recognized and bound by these autoantibodies are still unclear. This study screened the binding epitopes of SLE-related autoantibodies using a high-throughput screening method. Epitope prediction on 12 SLE-related autoantigens was performed using the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) software. The predicted epitopes were synthesized into peptides and developed into a peptide array...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156505/cross-reactivity-of-polyclonal-antibodies-against-canavalia-ensiformis-jack-bean-urease-and-h-pylori-urease-subunit-a-fragments
#2
Zbigniew Jerzy Kaminski, Inga Relich, Iwona Konieczna, Wieslaw Kaca, Beata Kolesinska
Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted +/- 4 amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H...
November 20, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156294/phospholipase-a1-based-cross-reactivity-among-venoms-of-clinically-relevant-hymenoptera-from-neotropical-and-temperate-regions
#3
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Luís Gustavo Romani Fernandes, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Débora Moitinho Abram, Gabriel Hideki Izuka Moraes, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Henning Seismman, Mario Sergio Palma, Ricardo de Lima Zollner, Edzard Spillner, Márcia Regina Brochetto-Braga
Molecular cross-reactivity caused by allergen homology or cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) is a major challenge for diagnosis and immunotherapy of insect venom allergy. Venom phospholipases A1 (PLA1s) are classical, mostly non-glycosylated wasp and ant allergens that provide diagnostic benefit for differentiation of genuine sensitizations from cross-reactivity. As CCD-free molecules, venom PLA1s are not causative for CCD-based cross-reactivity. Little is known however about the protein-based cross-reactivity of PLA1 within vespid species...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155844/hypoxia-and-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-downregulate-antigen-presenting-mhc-class-i-molecules-limiting-tumor-cell-recognition-by-t-cells
#4
Shalini Sethumadhavan, Murillo Silva, Phaethon Philbrook, Thao Nguyen, Stephen M Hatfield, Akio Ohta, Michail V Sitkovsky
Human cancers are known to downregulate Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I expression thereby escaping recognition and rejection by anti-tumor T cells. Here we report that oxygen tension in the tumor microenvironment (TME) serves as an extrinsic cue that regulates antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules. In support of this view, hypoxia is shown to negatively regulate MHC expression in a HIF-dependent manner as evidenced by (i) lower MHC expression in the hypoxic TME in vivo and in hypoxic 3-dimensional (3D) but not 2-dimensional (2D) tumor cell cultures in vitro; (ii) decreased MHC in human renal cell carcinomas with constitutive expression of HIF due to genetic loss of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) function as compared with isogenically paired cells with restored VHL function, and iii) increased MHC in tumor cells with siRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155738/imaging-amyloid-tissues-stained-with-luminescent-conjugated-oligothiophenes-by-hyperspectral-confocal-microscopy-and-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#5
Sofie Nyström, Marcus Bäck, K Peter R Nilsson, Per Hammarström
Proteins that deposit as amyloid in tissues throughout the body can be the cause or consequence of a large number of diseases. Among these we find neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease afflicting primarily the central nervous system, and systemic amyloidosis where serum amyloid A, transthyretin and IgG light chains deposit as amyloid in liver, carpal tunnel, spleen, kidney, heart, and other peripheral tissues. Amyloid has been known and studied for more than a century, often using amyloid specific dyes such as Congo red and Thioflavin T (ThT) or Thioflavin (ThS)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155367/predicted-indirectly-recognizable-hla-epitopes-are-not-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Ming-Rui Huo, Dan Li, Ying-Jun Chang, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang
Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) provides an alternative method to cure patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases who lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched related or unrelated donor. HLA disparity between donor and patient was the main reason causing lots of clinical immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether indirect recognition of mismatched HLA could predict the clinical outcomes in haplo-SCT. The probability of indirect recognition was predicted by the Predicted Indirectly ReCognizable HLA Epitopes (PIRCHE) model...
November 16, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155303/therapeutic-vaccine-against-il-1%C3%AE-improved-glucose-control-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Yue Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yu, Jun Zha, Li-Zhen Mao, Jia-Qian Chai, Rui-Tian Liu
AIMS: Inflammation is strongly associated with the mechanisms of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Blockade of the key proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β has been implicated as a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we developed an IL-1β-targeted therapeutic vaccine consisting of an IL-1β epitope peptide (A1β) and assessed its efficacy on a diabetic KK-A(y) mouse model. MAIN METHODS: KK-A(y) mice were immunized with A1β for three injections at a 2-week interval...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154274/cognitive-decline-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-amyloid-beta-versus-tauopathy
#8
Colin M Huber, Connor Yee, Taylor May, Apoorva Dhanala, Cassie S Mitchell
 We perform a large-scale meta-analysis of 51 peer-reviewed 3xTg-AD mouse publications to compare Alzheimer's disease (AD) quantitative clinical outcome measures, including amyloid-β (Aβ), total tau, and phosphorylated tau (pTau), with cognitive performance in Morris water maze (MWM) and Novel Object Recognition (NOR). "High" levels of Aβ (Aβ40, Aβ42) showed significant but weak trends with cognitive decline (MWM: slope = 0.336, R2 = 0.149, n = 259, p < 0.001; NOR: slope = 0.156, R2 = 0...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153779/lambda-display-phage-as-a-mucosal-vaccine-delivery-vehicle-for-peptide-antigens
#9
Patricia González Cano, Lakshman N A Gamage, Kristen Marciniuk, Connie Hayes, Scott Napper, Sidney Hayes, Philip J Griebel
Bacteriophage are structurally stable in the gastro-intestinal tract and have favorable traits of safety, stability, ease of production, and immunogenicity. These attributes make them potential candidates as oral vaccine delivery vehicles but little is known about their capacity to induce mucosal immune responses in the small intestine. Whole body imaging of mice confirmed lambda bacteriophage (LP) were distributed throughout the gastro-intestinal tract 24 h after oral delivery. In newborn calves, targeted delivery of LP within the small intestine confirmed LP were immunogenic in a dose-dependent manner and were taken up by Peyer's patches...
November 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152878/potency-determination-of-inactivated-h7-influenza-vaccines-using-monoclonal-antibody-based-elisa-and-biolayer-interferometry-assays
#10
Anupama Vasudevan, Amy Woerner, Falko Schmeisser, Swati Verma, Ollie Williams, Jerry P Weir
BACKGROUND: The single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, the accepted method for determining potency of inactivated influenza vaccines, measures an immunogenic form of the influenza hemagglutinin. Nevertheless, alternative methods for measuring vaccine potency have been explored in order to address some of the weaknesses of the SRID assay, including limited sensitivity and the requirement for large amounts of standardized reagents. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based potency assays also have the ability to detect and measure relevant immunogenic forms of HA...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151181/screening-hcv-genotype-specific-epitope-peptides-based-on-conserved-sequence-analysis-and-b-cell-epitope-prediction-in-hcv-e2-region
#11
Rui Hua, Xiaoyu Jiang, Lingxia Qi, Shanshan Guan, Ziyu Kuai, Yongbo Qiao, Yan Xu, Xin Gong, Yuhua Shi, Wei Kong, Junqi Niu, Hao Zhang, Yaming Shan
The high mutation rate of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome increases the genotype diversity and renders the detection of the virus more difficult. Therefore, prediction and assessment of highly conserved and strongly antigenic epitope polypeptide sequences have become a focus of current research. The E2 region is the target binding region of neutralizing antibodies. HCV genomics, especially the high mutation rate of E2 region sequence, makes its genotyping more and more diverse, and the detection of HCV and genotype is becoming more and more strict...
November 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150903/phylogenetic-and-genetic-variation-analyses-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-isolated-from-china
#12
S Yang, S Yin, Y Shang, B Liu, L Yuan, M U Zafar Khan, X Liu, J Cai
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a causative agent of PCV2-associated disease, which is a growing problem in the swine industry worldwide. High nucleotide substitution occurs in the capsid (Cap) gene of PCV2, which allows the continuous evolution and the emergence of novel PCV2 strains. In this study, we sequenced 24 Chinese PCV2 strains collected from healthy and diseased pigs between 2013 and 2015. Analyses of the genome, Cap and phylogeny classified the 24 Chinese PCV2 strains as PCV-2a (four of 24), PCV-2b (five of 24) and PCV-2d (15 of 24)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150600/mapping-tenascin-c-interaction-with-toll-like-receptor-4-reveals-a-new-subset-of-endogenous-inflammatory-triggers
#13
Lorena Zuliani-Alvarez, Anna M Marzeda, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Fiona E McCann, Brian D Marsden, Anna M Piccinini, Kim S Midwood
Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150558/branched-pectic-galactan-in-phloem-sieve-element-cell-walls-implications-for-cell-mechanics
#14
Thomas A Torode, Rachel E O'Neill, Susan E Marcus, Valerie Cornuault, Sara Pose-Albacete, Rebecca P Lauder, Stjepan Kresimir Kracun, Maja Gro Rydahl, Mathias C F Andersen, William George Tycho Willats, Siobhan Ariel Braybrook, Belinda J Townsend, Mads H Clausen, J Paul Knox
A major question in plant biology concerns the specification and functional differentiation of cell types. This is in the context of constraints imposed by networks of cell walls that both adhere cells and contribute to the form and function of developing organs. Here, we report the identification of a glycan epitope that is specific to phloem sieve element cell walls in several systems. A monoclonal antibody, designated LM26, binds to the cell wall of phloem sieve elements in stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, Miscanthus x giganteus and notably sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) roots where phloem identification is an important factor for the study of phloem unloading of sucrose...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150334/a-routinely-used-protein-staining-dye-acts-as-an-inhibitor-of-wild-type-and-mutant-alpha-synuclein-aggregation-and-modulator-of-neurotoxicity
#15
Nuzhat Ahsan, Ibrar Ahmed Siddique, Sarika Gupta, Avadhesha Surolia
Inhibition of amyloid formation along with modulation of toxicity employing small molecules is emerging as a potential therapeutic approach for protein misfolding disorders which includes Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Multiple System Atrophy etc. Countless current interventional strategies for treating α-synucleinopathies consider using peptidic and non-peptidic inhibitors for arresting fibrillisation, disrupting existing fibrils and reducing associated toxicity. One group of molecules less exploited in this regard are triphenylmethane dyes...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150238/a-t-cell-receptor-locus-harbors-a-malaria-specific-immune-response-gene
#16
Natalija Van Braeckel-Budimir, Stephanie Gras, Kristin Ladell, Tracy M Josephs, Lecia Pewe, Stina L Urban, Kelly L Miners, Carine Farenc, David A Price, Jamie Rossjohn, John T Harty
Immune response (Ir) genes, originally proposed by Baruj Benacerraf to explain differential antigen-specific responses in animal models, have become synonymous with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We discovered a non-MHC-linked Ir gene in a T cell receptor (TCR) locus that was required for CD8(+) T cell responses to the Plasmodium berghei GAP5040-48 epitope in mice expressing the MHC class I allele H-2D(b). GAP5040-48-specific CD8(+) T cell responses emerged from a very large pool of naive Vβ8...
November 10, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150096/flexible-roles-for-proteoglycan-sulfation-and-receptor-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Panpan Yu, Craig S Pearson, Herbert M Geller
Proteoglycans (PGs) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) play vital roles in axon growth and navigation, plasticity, and regeneration of injured neurons. Different classes of PGs may support or inhibit cell growth, and their functions are determined in part by highly specific structural features. Among these, the pattern of sulfation on the PG sugar chains is a paramount determinant of a diverse and flexible set of outcomes. Recent studies of PG sulfation illustrate the challenges of attributing biological actions to specific sulfation patterns, and suggest ways in which highly similar molecules may exert opposing effects on neurons...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148719/effect-of-antigen-retrieval-methods-on-non-specific-binding-of-anti-body-metal-nanoparticle-conjugates-on-ffpe-tissue
#18
Yuying Zhang, Xinping Wang, Sven Perner, Ágnes Bánkfalvi, Sebastian Schlücker
Immunohistochemical analysis of FFPE tissues provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in pathology. Metal nanoparticles (NPs) and in particular surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags as a new class of labelling reagents are promising to be used for multiplexed protein profiling on tissue sections. However, non-specific binding of NPs onto the tissue specimens greatly hampers their clinical applications. In this study, we found that the antigen retrieval method strongly influences the extent of non-specific binding of the antibody-SERS NP conjugates to the tissue...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148062/flagellar-incorporation-of-proteins-follows-at-least-two-different-routes-in-trypanosomes
#19
Laetitia Vincensini, Thierry Blisnick, Eloïse Bertiaux, Sebastian Hutchinson, Christina Georgikou, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Philippe Bastin
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are sophisticated organelles composed of several hundreds of proteins that need to be incorporated at the right time and the right place during assembly. RESULTS: Two methods were used to investigate this process in the model protist Trypanosoma brucei: inducible expression of epitope-tagged labelled proteins and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of fluorescent fusion proteins. This revealed that skeletal components of the radial spokes (RSP3), the central pair (PF16) and the outer dynein arms (DNAI1) are incorporated at the distal end of the growing flagellum...
November 16, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147686/lipoprotein-a-associated-molecules-are-prominent-components-in-plasma-and-valve-leaflets-in-calcific-aortic-valve-stenosis
#20
Michael Torzewski, Amir Ravandi, Calvin Yeang, Andrea Edel, Rahul Bhindi, Stefan Kath, Laura Twardowski, Jens Schmid, Xiaohong Yang, Ulrich F W Franke, Joseph L Witztum, Sotirios Tsimikas
The LPA gene is the only monogenetic risk factor for calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) and lysophosphatidic acid generated by autotaxin (ATX) from OxPL are pro-inflammatory. Aortic valve leaflets were categorized pathologically from Both ATX-apoB and ATX-apo(a) were measureable in plasma. Lp(a), autotaxin, OxPL and MDA epitopes progressively increased in immunostaining (p<0.001 for all). Six species of OxPL and LysoPA were identified following extraction from valve leaflets...
June 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
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