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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213870/molecular-characterization-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-from-moldovan-dairy-cattle
#1
Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Piotr Kubiś, Svetlana Balov, Roman Moskalik, Bhudipa Choudhury, Jacek Kuźmak
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213560/identification-of-putative-substrates-of-sec2-a-chloroplast-inner-envelope-translocase
#2
Yubing Li, Jonathan R Martin, Giovanni A Aldama, Donna E Fernandez, Kenneth Cline
Most chloroplast proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into chloroplasts. Many imported proteins are further targeted to the thylakoid membrane and lumen by the SEC1, TAT or SRP/ALB3 translocases. Others are targeted to the inner chloroplast envelope membrane by un-described translocase(s). Recently, a second SEC system (SEC2) consisting of SCY2, SECE2, and SECA2 was found in the chloroplast envelope. Null mutants of SCY2 in Arabidopsis exhibit a severe embryo lethal phenotype. To investigate the function of SEC2 system in plants, we used inducible RNAi to knockdown SCY2 in Arabidopsis...
February 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213514/peripheral-membrane-interactions-boost-the-engagement-by-an-anti-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibody
#3
Edurne Rujas, José M M Caaveiro, Sara Insausti, Miguel García-Porras, Kouhei Tsumoto, José L Nieva
The 4E10 antibody displays an extreme breadth of HIV-1 neutralization and therefore constitutes a suitable model system for structure- guided vaccine design and immunotherapeutics against AIDS. In this regard, the relevance of auto- reactivity with membrane lipids for the biological function of this antibody is still a subject of controversy. To address this dispute, herein we have compared the membrane-partitioning ability of the 4E10 antibody and several of its variants, which were mutated at the region of the paratope surface in contact with the membrane-interface...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212503/lactobacillus-buchneri-s-layer-as-carrier-for-an-ara-h-2-derived-peptide-for-peanut-allergen-specific-immunotherapy
#4
Julia Anzengruber, Merima Bublin, Eva Bönisch, Bettina Janesch, Angelika Tscheppe, Matthias L Braun, Eva-Maria Varga, Christine Hafner, Heimo Breiteneder, Christina Schäffer
Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated severe hypersensitivity disorder. The lack of a treatment of this potentially fatal allergy has led to intensive research on vaccine development. Here, we describe the design and initial characterization of a carrier-bound peptide derived from the most potent peanut allergen, Ara h 2, as a candidate vaccine. Based on the adjuvant capability of bacterial surface (S-) layers, a fusion protein of the S-layer protein SlpB from Lactobacillus buchneri CD034 and the Ara h 2-derived peptide AH3a42 was produced...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212428/a-novel-hemagglutinin-protein-produced-in-bacteria-protects-chickens-against-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-by-inducing-h5-subtype-specific-neutralizing-antibodies
#5
Violetta Sączyńska, Agnieszka Romanik, Katarzyna Florys, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska, Małgorzata Kęsik-Brodacka, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Monika Olszewska, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Zenon Minta, Bogusław Szewczyk, Grażyna Płucienniczak, Andrzej Płucienniczak
The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212150/desensitization-strategies-in-the-patient-awaiting-heart-transplantation
#6
David H Chang, Jon A Kobashigawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of antibody sensitization on heart transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: We will discuss the current state of antibody identification, antibody strength and potential antibody pathogenicity. The prevalence of antibody sensitization has increased with increased utilization of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Data on MCS-related antibody sensitization are reviewed. Important considerations to minimize the prozone effect in antibody testing will be discussed...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211542/identification-of-the-core-regulators-of-the-hla-i-peptide-binding-process
#7
Yu-Hang Zhang, Zhihao Xing, Chenglin Liu, ShaoPeng Wang, Tao Huang, Yu-Dong Cai, Xiangyin Kong
During the display of peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -I complex for further immune recognition, the cleaved and transported antigenic peptides have to bind to HLA-I protein and the binding affinity between peptide epitopes and HLA proteins directly influences the immune recognition ability in human beings. Key factors affecting the binding affinity during the generation, selection and presentation processes of HLA-I complex have not yet been fully discovered. In this study, a new method describing the HLA class I-peptide interactions was proposed...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211541/antibody-controlled-actuation-of-dna-based-molecular-circuits
#8
Wouter Engelen, Lenny H H Meijer, Bram Somers, Tom F A de Greef, Maarten Merkx
DNA-based molecular circuits allow autonomous signal processing, but their actuation has relied mostly on RNA/DNA-based inputs, limiting their application in synthetic biology, biomedicine and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce a generic method to translate the presence of an antibody into a unique DNA strand, enabling the use of antibodies as specific inputs for DNA-based molecular computing. Our approach, antibody-templated strand exchange (ATSE), uses the characteristic bivalent architecture of antibodies to promote DNA-strand exchange reactions both thermodynamically and kinetically...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211521/computer-aided-designing-of-immunosuppressive-peptides-based-on-il-10-inducing-potential
#9
Gandharva Nagpal, Salman Sadullah Usmani, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Harpreet Kaur, Sandeep Singh, Meenu Sharma, Gajendra P S Raghava
In the past, numerous methods have been developed to predict MHC class II binders or T-helper epitopes for designing the epitope-based vaccines against pathogens. In contrast, limited attempts have been made to develop methods for predicting T-helper epitopes/peptides that can induce a specific type of cytokine. This paper describes a method, developed for predicting interleukin-10 (IL-10) inducing peptides, a cytokine responsible for suppressing the immune system. All models were trained and tested on experimentally validated 394 IL-10 inducing and 848 non-inducing peptides...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208616/immunoinformatics-features-linked-to-leishmania-vaccine-development-data-integration-of-experimental-and-in-silico-studies
#10
Rory C F Brito, Frederico G Guimarães, João P L Velloso, Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira, Jeronimo C Ruiz, Alexandre B Reis, Daniela M Resende
Leishmaniasis is a wide-spectrum disease caused by parasites from Leishmania genus. There is no human vaccine available and it is considered by many studies as apotential effective tool for disease control. To discover novel antigens, computational programs have been used in reverse vaccinology strategies. In this work, we developed a validation antigen approach that integrates prediction of B and T cell epitopes, analysis of Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks and metabolic pathways. We selected twenty candidate proteins from Leishmania tested in murine model, with experimental outcome published in the literature...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208230/emerging-role-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-in-the-pathobiology-of-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma
#11
Claudio Agostinelli, Silvia Carloni, Francesco Limarzi, Simona Righi, Maria Antonella Laginestra, Gerardo Musuraca, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Roberta Napolitano, Antonio Cuneo, Daniele Vergara, Pier Luigi Zinzani, Sabattini Elena, Stefano A Pileri, Serena De Matteis
AIMS: GSK-3β is a serine/threonine kinase involved in glycogen metabolism, cell cycle progression, differentiation, embryogenesis, migration, metabolism, survival and cellular senescence. Its main biological function is to inhibit β-catenin by sequestration and promotion of its proteasomal degradation in the Wnt canonical pathway, however GSK-3β interacts with multiple signaling pathways and aberrant expression of the enzyme was reported in many solid neoplasms. This study aimed to investigate the biological relevance of GSK-3β in classical Hodgkin Lymphomas (cHL)...
February 16, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208072/identification-of-triosephosphate-isomerase-as-a-novel-allergen-in-octopus-fangsiao
#12
Yang Yang, Zhong-Wei Chen, Barry K Hurlburt, Gui-Ling Li, Yong-Xia Zhang, Dan-Xia Fei, Hai-Wang Shen, Min-Jie Cao, Guang-Ming Liu
Octopus is an important mollusk in human dietary for its nutritional value, however it also causes allergic reactions in humans. Major allergens from octopus have been identified, while the knowledge of novel allergens remains poor. In the present study, a novel allergen with molecular weight of 28kDa protein was purified from octopus (Octopus fangsiao) and identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) by mass spectrometry. TIM aggregated beyond 45°C, and its IgE-binding activity was affected under extreme pH conditions due to the altered secondary structure...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207910/a-single-mutation-in-the-envelope-protein-modulates-flavivirus-antigenicity-stability-and-pathogenesis
#13
Leslie Goo, Laura A VanBlargan, Kimberly A Dowd, Michael S Diamond, Theodore C Pierson
The structural flexibility or 'breathing' of the envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses allows virions to sample an ensemble of conformations at equilibrium. The molecular basis and functional consequences of virus conformational dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we identified a single mutation at residue 198 (T198F) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein domain I-II hinge that regulates virus breathing. The T198F mutation resulted in a ~70-fold increase in sensitivity to neutralization by a monoclonal antibody targeting a cryptic epitope in the fusion loop...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207632/are-we-ready-for-epitope-based-hla-matching-in-clinical-organ-transplantation
#14
Rene J Duquesnoy
This overview describes recent developments demonstrating the significance of epitopes in HLA antibody responses and matching for organ transplantation. HLA epitopes are defined by molecular modeling and amino acid comparisons between HLA alleles and the HLAMatchmaker algorithm considers eplets as essential components. Each allele represents a distinct string of eplets and matching is done by aligning donor and recipient strings. Evidence is summarized how mismatched eplet loads affect antibody responses and transplant outcomes...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#15
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#16
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207485/antigp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-antibodies-and-the-art-of-using-the-membrane-for-neutralization
#17
Nichole Cerutti, Juan Luis Loredo-Varela, Christophe Caillat, Winfried Weissenhorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the latest research on the progress to understand the neutralizing epitopes present within the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41 contains a highly conserved sequence that is essential for membrane fusion and targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies such as 2F5, 4E10, Z13e1, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize a linear gp41 epitope with high affinity, but require additional hydrophobic sequences present in their heavy chain CDR3 for neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206680/an-ssdna-aptamer-against-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan-enhances-anti-tuberculosis-activity-of-macrophages-through-downregulation-of-lipid-sensing-nuclear-receptor-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression
#18
Qin Pan, Jiamin Yan, Qi Liu, Chunhui Yuan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is an immunomodulatory epitope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We previously generated an aptamer (ZXL1) that specifically binds to ManLAM from the virulent Mtb H37Rv strain and reported that ZXL1 functioned as an antagonist, inhibiting the ManLAM-induced immunosuppression of dendritic cells (DCs). In the present study, we found that ZXL1 inhibited Mtb entry into murine macrophages. ZXL1 enhanced IL-1β and IL-12 mRNA expression and cytokine production in ManLAM-treated macrophages but decreased IL-10 production...
February 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205175/membrane-extraction-of-hmg-coa-reductase-as-determined-by-susceptibility-of-lumenal-epitope-to-in-vitro-protease-digestion
#19
Lindsey L Morris, Russell A DeBose-Boyd
Although many aspects of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway have been elucidated, methods to detect and examine intermediate steps in the process are lacking. Here, we describe the use of a protease protection assay to study the metabolically regulated ERAD substrate HMG CoA reductase. Studies utilizing this assay reveal that ubiquitinated reductase becomes extracted across the ER membrane prior to its cytosolic release and proteasomal degradation through reactions mediated by distinct AAA-ATPases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203642/epitopes-within-recombinant-%C3%AE-actinin-protein-is-serodiagnostic-target-for-trichomonas-vaginalis-sexually-transmitted-infections
#20
J F Alderete
To date there is no commercially-available serodiagnostic for women and men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. Thirteen epitopes of the immunogenic T. vaginalis α-actinin (106.2-kDa) are detected by sera of women patients, and 5 epitopes, a subset of the 13, are detected by sera of men. A truncated recombinant protein called ACT-P2 (63.5-kDa) encoding the 5 epitopes is used for screening by ELISA for antibody in sera of women and men. Because ACT-P2 is poorly expressed in E. coli, we wanted alternative recombinant α-actinin proteins as serodiagnostic targets...
January 2017: Heliyon
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