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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684791/the-role-of-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-in-steatosis-associated-hepatic-tumors-related-to-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#1
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phase to seroclearance, appeared as a lipo-metabolic switch linking HBsAg-induced steatosis (lipogenesis) to HBsAg-lost fat-burning hepatocarcinogenesis (lipolysis)...
April 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684756/modulation-of-th1-tc1-and-th17-tc17-responses-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-il-20-subfamily-of-cytokines
#2
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Subash Babu
Although IL-10 is known to be an important cytokine in the immune response to TB, very little is known about the role of IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in the host response to TB. To identify the role of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells producing IL-20 subfamily of cytokines in human TB, we enumerated the frequencies of IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following Mtb-specific antigen stimulation of cells from individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) and latent TB (LTB). We first demonstrated that Mtb-specific antigen induce an expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24 in PTB and LTB individuals, with frequencies being significantly higher in PTB...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684617/association-of-diabetes-mellitus-with-prostate-cancer-grade-and-prostate-specific-antigen-in-chinese-biopsy-population
#3
Ming Chen, Yili Luo, Shaoling Yang, Lu Xu, Nan Li, Hong Li, Shen Qu
AIMS: To investigate the association of diabetes mellitus with prostate cancer (PCa) grade and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in Chinese biopsy population. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 2032 patients who underwent prostate biopsies from 2010-2016 at our hospital. All diabetes cases were divided into sub-groups according to HbA1c (< 6.5%, 6.5%-7.49% and ≥ 7.5%) and diabetes duration (0-5 years, 6-10 years and > 10 years). RESULTS: Among 2032 men, 467 (23...
April 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684607/effect-of-immunization-of-rohu-labeo-rohita-with-inactivated-germinated-zoospores-in-providing-protection-against-aphanomyces-invadans
#4
Pravata K Pradhan, Neeraj Sood, Manoj K Yadav, Pooja Arya, Dharmendra K Chaudhary, Uday Kumar, Chandra Bhushan Kumar, T R Swaminathan, Gaurav Rathore
Infection with Aphanomyces invadans is one of the most destructive diseases of freshwater fishes. Indian major carps, the dominant cultured species in the Indian sub-continent are highly susceptible to this disease. Till date, there is no effective treatment for control of this disease and immunization can be one of the strategies to reduce disease-related losses. In the present study, inactivated germinated zoospores of A. invadans were evaluated as antigen in conjunction with and without adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG, for assessing their efficacy in rendering protection against A...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684430/development-of-an-rna-based-kit-for-easy-generation-of-tcr-engineered-lymphocytes-to-control-t-cell-assay-performance
#5
Nicole Bidmon, Sonja Kind, Marij J P Welters, Deborah Joseph-Pietras, Karoline Laske, Dominik Maurer, Sine Reker Hadrup, Gerty Schreibelt, Richard Rae, Ugur Sahin, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Cedrik M Britten, Sjoerd H van der Burg
Cell-based assays to monitor antigen-specific T-cell responses are characterized by their high complexity and should be conducted under controlled conditions to lower multiple possible sources of assay variation. However, the lack of standard reagents makes it difficult to directly compare results generated in one lab over time and across institutions. Therefore TCR-engineered reference samples (TERS) that contain a defined number of antigen-specific T cells and continuously deliver stable results are urgently needed...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684428/validation-of-a-cd1b-tetramer-assay-for-studies-of-human-mycobacterial-infection-or-vaccination
#6
Erik D Layton, Krystle K Q Yu, Malisa T Smith, Thomas J Scriba, Stephen C De Rosa, Chetan Seshadri
CD1 tetramers loaded with lipid antigens facilitate the identification of rare lipid-antigen specific T cells present in human blood and tissue. Because CD1 proteins are structurally non-polymorphic, these tetramers can be applied to genetically diverse human populations, unlike MHC-I and MHC-II tetramers. However, there are no standardized assays to quantify and characterize lipid antigen-specific T cells present within clinical samples. We incorporated CD1b tetramers loaded with the mycobacterial lipid glucose monomycolate (GMM) into a multi-parameter flow cytometry assay...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684427/relationship-between-the-frequency-of-influenza-vaccination-and-cell-mediated-immunity
#7
Naruhito Otani, Masayuki Shima, Takashi Ueda, Kaoru Ichiki, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Yoshio Takesue, Kenta Honjo, Natsuko Yoshida, Sayo Kawata, Toshiomi Okuno
Despite established guidelines for population-level assessments of immunity after vaccination, standard methods for individual-level analyses have not been established, limiting the ability to optimize vaccination strategies within a particular season. In this study, we evaluated changes in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with respect to the number of influenza vaccine doses. In particular, the influenza vaccine was administered to 21 adults during the 2015-2016 season. IFN-γ production induced by the influenza vaccine antigens [A (H1N1), A (H3N2), B (Yamagata lineage), and B (Victoria lineage)] increased after the first dose of vaccination in 11, 10, 10, and 11 subjects, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684413/continue-to-focus-clinical-decision-making-on-the-antigen-recognition-domain-for-the-present
#8
REVIEW
Carolyn Katovich Hurley, Jennifer Ng
Next generation DNA sequencing has facilitated the routine characterization of complete HLA gene sequences. These data complement structural and functional studies of HLA elements encoded outside of the exons specifying the antigen recognition domain. This commentary is focused on evaluating whether the interpretation of HLA clinical typing results should expand the region of the HLA gene considered in the assignment from the exon(s) encoding the antigen recognition domain to the full gene sequence. Our recommendation is that, at present, there is insufficient data to support considering variation in the regions outside of the antigen recognition domain in clinical decision making...
April 20, 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684409/effects-of-hypervariable-regions-in-spike-protein-on-pathogenicity-tropism-and-serotypes-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#9
Dan Shan, Shouguo Fang, Zongxi Han, Hui Ai, Wenjun Zhao, Yuqiu Chen, Lei Jiang, Shengwang Liu
To study the roles of hypervariable regions (HVRs) in receptor-binding subunit S1 of the spike protein, we manipulated the genome of the IBV Beaudette strain using a reverse genetics system to construct seven recombinant strains by separately or simultaneously replacing the three HVRs of the Beaudette strain with the corresponding fragments from a QX-like nephropathogenic isolate ck/CH/LDL/091022 from China. We characterized the growth properties of these recombinant IBVs in Vero cells and embryonated eggs, and their pathogenicity, tropism, and serotypes in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens...
April 20, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684398/semiquantitative-dot-blot-with-the-gra8-antigen-to-differentiate-the-stages-of-toxoplasmosis-infection
#10
Juan Gabriel Costa, María Julia Vilariño
In this work we present a novel methodology to differentiate the phases of toxoplasmosis infection: the "semiquantitative Dot Blot". It is a simple technique that does not require expensive equipment, does not involve a long technique development, and can be used in a low-complexity laboratory. In this study, two recombinant sequences of Toxoplasma gondii GRA8 antigen were used, and specific IgG antibodies were detected in selected patient samples. This method makes it possible to obtain a score for each serum and define whether the patient is in the acute or chronic phase of the infection...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684362/characterization-of-the-small-intestinal-lesion-in-celiac-disease-by-label-free-quantitative-mass-spectrometry
#11
Astrid E V Tutturen, Siri Dørum, Trevor Clancy, Henrik M Reims, Asbjørn Christophersen, Knut E A Lundin, Ludvig M Sollid, Gustavo A de Souza, Jorunn Stamnaes
Global characterization of tissue proteomes from small amounts of biopsy material has become feasible due to advances in mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. In celiac disease (CD), dietary gluten induces an immune response which is accompanied by pronounced remodeling of the small intestine. Removal of gluten from the diet abrogates the immune response and the tissue architecture normalizes. In this study differences in global protein expression of small intestinal biopsies from CD patients were quantified by analyzing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry and label-free protein quantitation...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684356/clinical-laboratorial-and-immunological-aspects-of-severe-malaria-in-children-from-guinea-bissau
#12
Janine Domingos, Anaxore Casimiro, Daniela Portugal-Calisto, Luís Varandas, Fátima Nogueira, Marcelo Sousa Silva
Malaria is a parasitic disease of which Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of the disease. The immune response against Plasmodium spp. is complex and remains unclear. The present report aimed to better understand the humoral immune response in severe malaria and analyse new immunodominant antigen candidates as possible serological marker in severe malaria in children. This study included children aged 0-16 years from Guinea-Bissau with clinical signs of severe malaria. Serological and immunochemical characterisation of different anti-P...
April 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684336/pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-mediates-propofol-induced-long-term-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#13
Yu Zhong, Jing Chen, Li Li, Yi Qin, Yi Wei, Shining Pan, Yage Jiang, Jialin Chen, Yubo Xie
Studies have found that propofol can induce widespread neuroapoptosis in developing brains, which leads to cause long-term learning and memory abnormalities. However, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying propofol-induced neuroapoptosis remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in propofol-induced long-term learning and memory impairment during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly assigned to control, intralipid and three treatment groups (n = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684277/immunopet-imaging-of-endogenous-and-transfected-prolactin-receptor-tumor-xenografts
#14
Sarah M Cheal, Shutian Ruan, Darren R Veach, Valerie A Longo, Blesida J Punzalan, Jiong Wu, Edward K Fung, Marcus P Kelly, Jessica R Kirshner, Jason T Giurleo, George Ehrlich, Amy Q Han, Gavin Thurston, William C Olson, Pat B Zanzonico, Steven M Larson, Jorge A Carrasquillo
OBJECTIVE: Antibodies labeled with positron-emitting isotopes have been used for tumor detection, predicting which patients may respond to tumor antigen-directed therapy, and assessing pharmacodynamic effects of drug interventions. Prolactin receptor (PRLR) is overexpressed in breast and prostate cancers and is a new target for cancer therapy. We evaluated REGN2878, an anti-PRLR monoclonal antibody, as an immunoPET reagent. METHODS: REGN2878 was labeled with Zr-89 after conjugation with desferrioxamine B or labeled with I-131/I-124...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684274/preclinical-development-of-novel-psma-targeting-radioligands-modulation-of-albumin-binding-properties-to-improve-prostate-cancer-therapy
#15
Christoph A Umbricht, Martina Benesova, Roger Schibli, Cristina Müller
The treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains challenging with current treatment options. The development of more effective therapies is, therefore, urgently needed. Targeted radionuclide therapy with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting ligands has revealed promising clinical results. In an effort to optimize this concept, it was the aim of this study to design and investigate PSMA ligands comprising different types of albumin binders. PSMA-ALB-53 and PSMA-ALB-56 were designed by combining the glutamate-urea PSMA-binding entity, a DOTA chelator and an albumin binder based on the 4-(p-iodophenyl)-moiety or p-(tolyl)-moiety...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684106/urine-antigen-detection-as-an-aid-to-diagnose-invasive-aspergillosis
#16
Kieren A Marr, Kausik Datta, Seema Mehta, Darin B Ostrander, Michelle Rock, Jesse Francis, Marta Feldmesser
Background: Establishing rapid diagnoses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is priority, given poor outcomes of late therapy. Non-culture based tests that detect galactomannan and β-D glucan are available, but are technically cumbersome and rely on invasive sampling (blood or bronchoalveolar lavage). Methods: We optimized a lateral flow dipstick assay using the galactofuranose -specific monoclonal antibody (mAb476), which was previously shown to recognize urine antigens after Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in an`imals...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684057/serum-galactomannan-antigen-as-a-prognostic-and-diagnostic-marker-for-invasive-aspergillosis-in-heterogeneous-medicine-icu-patient-population
#17
Yubhisha Dabas, Anant Mohan, Immaculata Xess
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to get a complete clinical and mycological picture of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in respiratory medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: From the cohort of 235 patients only one had proven IA. Based on AspICU algorithm, 21 had putative IA (8.9%), 12 were colonised (5.1%). RESULTS: Adjusting the confounding factors, significant risk factors for IA were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), temperature of ≥38°C, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684046/intranasal-administration-of-a-two-dose-adjuvanted-multi-antigen-tmv-subunit-conjugate-vaccine-fully-protects-mice-against-francisella-tularensis-lvs-challenge
#18
Alison A McCormick, Aisha Shakeel, Chris Yi, Hardeep Kaur, Ahd M Mansour, Chandra Shekhar Bakshi
Tularemia is a fatal human disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative encapsulated coccobacillus bacterium. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of aerosolized transmission, and lethal effects, the CDC lists F. tularensis as a Category A pathogen, the highest level for a potential biothreat agent. Previous vaccine studies have been conducted with live attenuated, inactivated, and subunit vaccines, which have achieved partial or full protection from F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge, but no vaccine has been approved for human use...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683856/seroconversion-on-prep-a-case-report-with-segmental-hair-analysis-for-timed-adherence-determination
#19
Joshua T Thaden, Monica Gandhi, Hideaki Okochi, Christopher B Hurt, Mehri S McKellar
OBJECTIVE: We describe the third case report of seroconversion with multidrug resistant (MDR)-HIV despite pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil (TDF). DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: PrEP adherence was assessed via self-report, pharmacy records, and measuring TFV/FTC levels with liquid-chromatography/tandem-mass-spectrometry in plasma and hair. Segmental hair analysis was performed to assess PrEP adherence over prior months...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683844/circulating-inflammatory-monocytes-contribute-to-impaired-influenza-vaccine-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants
#20
Varghese K George, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Lesley de Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Li Pan, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: Antibody responses are often impaired in old age and in HIV+ infection despite virologic control with antiretroviral therapy but innate immunologic determinants are not well understood. DESIGN: Monocytes and natural killer cells were examined for relationships to age, HIV infection and influenza vaccine responses. METHODS: Virologically suppressed HIV+ (n = 139) and HIV- (n = 137) participants classified by age as young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were evaluated preinfluenza and postinfluenza vaccination...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
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