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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933411/time-trends-in-dyspepsia-and-association-with-h-pylori-and-work-related-stress-an-observational-study-in-white-collar-employees-in-1996-and-2015
#1
Stefanie Braig, Simon Berger, David Rothenbacher, Stefanie Schmid, Thomas Seufferlein, Hermann Brenner, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Harald Gündel
PURPOSE: We aimed to describe time trends in functional dyspepsia and the association of dyspepsia-related factors, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and work-related stress with functional dyspepsia in white collar employees in 1996 and 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Repeat cross-sectional study conducted in 1996 (n = 190, response rate = 76.1) and 2015 (n = 195, response rate = 40.2) within a health insurance company in South-West Germany. Dyspeptic symptoms measured according to the Rome III criteria, effort-reward imbalance and further work- or dyspepsia-related factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933399/b-cell-clonal-lineage-alterations-upon-recombinant-hiv-1-envelope-immunization-of-rhesus-macaques
#2
Christina Yacoob, Miles Darnell Lange, Kristen Cohen, Kanan Lathia, Junli Feng, Jolene Glenn, Sara Carbonetti, Brian Oliver, Vladimir Vigdorovich, David Noah Sather, Leonidas Stamatatos
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutralizing antibodies. Env-based immunogens tested so far in various animal species and humans have elicited binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies but not bNAbs (with a few notable exceptions). The underlying reasons for this are not well understood despite intensive efforts to characterize the binding specificities of the elicited antibodies; mostly by employing serologic methodologies and monoclonal antibody isolation and characterization...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933397/human-tscm-cell-dynamics-in-vivo-are-compatible-with-long-lived-immunological-memory-and-stemness
#3
Pedro Costa Del Amo, Julio Lahoz Beneytez, Lies Boelen, Raya Ahmed, Kelly L Miners, Yan Zhang, Laureline Roger, Rhiannon E Jones, Silvia A Fuertes Marraco, Daniel E Speiser, Duncan M Baird, David A Price, Kristin Ladell, Derek Macallan, Becca Asquith
Adaptive immunity relies on the generation and maintenance of memory T cells to provide protection against repeated antigen exposure. It has been hypothesised that a self-renewing population of T cells, named stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells, are responsible for maintaining memory. However, it is not clear if the dynamics of TSCM cells in vivo are compatible with this hypothesis. To address this issue, we investigated the dynamics of TSCM cells under physiological conditions in humans in vivo using a multidisciplinary approach that combines mathematical modelling, stable isotope labelling, telomere length analysis, and cross-sectional data from vaccine recipients...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933387/nk-4-exerts-selective-regulatory-effects-on-the-activation-and-function-of-allergy-related-th2-cells
#4
Keizo Kohno, Satomi Koya-Miyata, Akira Harashima, Toshio Ariyasu, Shimpei Ushio
NK-4 is the main component of the antiallergic drug Lumin, which has been in popular usage since the early 1950s. In this study, we examined whether NK-4 exerts a regulatory effect on the activation and effector function of Th2 cells. NK-4 inhibited IL-4 production by anti-CD3ε mAb-stimulated BALB/c mouse spleen cells, whereas NK-4 had little effect on IFN-γ production. IL-4 and IL-5 secretion by anti-CD3ε mAb- or antigen-stimulated Th2 cells (D10.G4.1) was abrogated by NK-4 without affecting cell numbers, whereas IFN-γ secretion by activated Th1 cells was unchanged...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933385/testosterone-treatment-and-the-risk-of-aggressive-prostate-cancer-in-men-with-low-testosterone-levels
#5
Thomas J Walsh, Molly M Shores, Chloe A Krakauer, Christopher W Forsberg, Alexandra E Fox, Kathryn P Moore, Anna Korpak, Susan R Heckbert, Steven B Zeliadt, Chloe E Kinsey, Mary Lou Thompson, Nicholas L Smith, Alvin M Matsumoto
PURPOSE: Testosterone treatment of men with low testosterone is common and, although relatively short-term, has raised concern regarding an increased risk of prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the association between modest-duration testosterone treatment and incident aggressive CaP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective inception cohort study of male Veterans aged 40 to 89 years with a laboratory-defined low testosterone measurement from 2002 to 2011 and recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing; excluding those with recent testosterone treatment, prostate or breast cancer, high PSA or prior prostate biopsy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933102/elimination-of-melanoma-by-sortase-a-generated-tcr-like-antibody-drug-conjugates-tl-adcs-targeting-intracellular-melanoma-antigen-mart-1
#6
Jun Lai, Yun Wang, Shan-Shan Wu, Ding Ding, Ze-Yu Sun, Ying Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zhan Zhou, Ying-Chun Xu, Li-Qiang Pan, Shu-Qing Chen
Most tumor-associated proteins are located inside tumor cells and thus are not accessible to current marketed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies or their cytotoxic conjugates. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I can present peptides derived from intracellular tumor-associated proteins and somatically mutated proteins on the cell's surface, forming an HLA/peptide complex as tumor-specific antigens for T cell receptor (TCR) recognition. Therefore, HLA-mediated presentation of intracellular tumor antigen peptides provides a viable way to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells, which is important for broadening antigen selection, especially for antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) regarding their highly cytotoxic payload...
June 15, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933096/improved-bone-safety-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-compared-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-over-2-years-in-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection
#7
Wai-Kay Seto, Yasuhiro Asahina, Todd T Brown, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Carol Stanciu, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Fehmi Tabak, Tuan T Nguyen, Wan-Long Chuang, Tetsuro Inokuma, Fusao Ikeda, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, François Habersetzer, Alnoor Ramji, Audrey H Lau, Vithika Suri, John F Flaherty, Hongyuan Wang, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Shrikant Mukewar, Maurizia R Brunetto, Scott Fung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) reduces bone mineral density (BMD). Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, has shown non-inferior efficacy to TDF in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with improved bone effects at 48 weeks. We performed a randomized trial to evaluate the bone safety of TAF compared with TDF over 2 years, assessing baseline risk factors for bone loss, were evaluated after 2 years of treatment...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933078/multivalent-targeting-and-killing-of-her2-overexpressing-breast-carcinoma-cells-with-methotrexate-encapsulated-tetra-specific-non-overlapping-variable-domain-heavy-chain-anti-her2-antibody-peg-liposomes-in-vitro-proof-of-concept
#8
Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Davoud Ahmadvand, Seyed Moein Moghimi
The variable domain of the heavy chain antibodies (VHHs) is the smallest (15 kDa) intact single domain antigen-binding fragment. VHHs often exhibit sub-nanomolar affinity for their designated targets and therefore are receiving increasing attention in molecular targeting and nanomedicine engineering. We cloned and expressed four non-overlapping anti-HER2 VHHs in a prokaryotic expression system that yielded periplasmic expression of disulfide-bonded VHHs. Purified VHHs, before and after thiolation, were characterized by Western blot and their functionality against the ecto-domain of HER2 receptor was confirmed by ELISA and flow cytometry...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932979/assessment-of-structurally-modified-plant-virus-as-a-novel-adjuvant-in-toxicity-studies
#9
N A Nikitin, V A Zenin, E A Trifonova, E M Ryabchevskaya, O A Kondakova, A N Fedorov, J G Atabekov, O V Karpova
Spherical particles (SPs) generated by thermally denatured tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein can act as an adjuvant, as they are able to enhance the magnitude and longevity of immune responses to different antigens. Here, the toxicity of TMV SPs was assessed prior to it being offered as a universal safe adjuvant for the development of vaccine candidates. The evaluation included nonclinical studies of a local tolerance following the single administration of TMV SPs, and of the local and systemic effects following repeated administrations of TMV SPs...
June 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932929/development-and-evaluation-of-the-first-immunochromatographic-test-that-can-detect-specific-antibodies-against-cryptosporidium-parvum
#10
Ragab M Fereig, Hanan H Abdelbaky, Fumiaki Ihara, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhea among human and calves, resulting in severe health hazards and drastic economic losses, respectively. Although C. parvum infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and bovine calves, this infection remains a neglected disease. Currently available diagnostic tests for C. parvum are primarily based on detection of oocysts, DNA, or secreted antigens in fecal specimens. Demonstration of specific antibodies with a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) will be advantageous not only in providing a simple, rapid, accurate, and affordable tool but also in surveillance because of the ability to recognize recent and past infections...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932921/mir-455-3p-suppresses-renal-fibrosis-through-repression-of-rock2-expression-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
Jian Wu, Jibo Liu, Yaqin Ding, Mingying Zhu, Kan Lu, Jing Zhou, Xin Xie, Yi Xu, Xiaoyu Shen, Yiyue Chen, Xiaohong Shao, Chunling Zhu
Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a mediatory role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the function of the involved miRNAs is still incomplete. Here, we found that miR-455-3p was down-regulated in the human mesangial cells (HMC) and human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2) stimulated with high glucose (HG) or transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) was identified as a directed target of miR-455-3p...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932870/er%C3%AE-36-gene-silencing-promotes-tau-protein-phosphorylation-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#12
Hong-Bin Wang, Tao Li, Dong-Zhou Ma, Hua Zhi
Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants and the third most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER)-α36 gene silencing on tau protein phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with estrogen or left untreated, to investigate the effects of estrogen stimulation on ERα36 and the ERK/protein B kinase (AKT) signaling pathway...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932813/improving-the-recovery-of-clarification-process-of-recombinant-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-in-large-scale-by-optimizing-adsorption-desorption-parameters-on-aerosil-380
#13
Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini, Parisa Ghaisari, Shahram Sharifnia, Maryam Khatami, Amin Javidanbardan
In the downstream process of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg), nano-colloidal silica adsorbent (Aerosil-380) is one of the possible methods to separate the antigen from other main impurities partially. The current study aimed to maximize the adsorptive capacity of Aerosil-380 as well as rHBsAg recovery for large-scale production of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The experimental design methodology was used to optimize the eight critical parameters influencing the efficiency, rHBsAg recovery, of the adsorption-desorption process in the lab-scale...
June 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932463/a-clinically-applicable-adjuvant-for-an-atherosclerosis-vaccine-in-mice
#14
Kouji Kobiyama, Melanie Vassallo, Jessica Mitzi, Holger Winkels, Hong Pei, Takayuki Kimura, Jacqueline Miller, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Vaccination with MHC-II-restricted peptides from Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) is known to protect mice from atherosclerosis. This vaccination induces antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2c antibody responses and a robust CD4 T cell response in lymph nodes. However, CFA/IFA cannot be used in humans. To find a clinically applicable adjuvant, we tested the effect of vaccinating Apoe-deficient mice with ApoB peptide P6 (TGAYSNASSTESASY). In a broad screening experiment, Addavax, a squalene oil similar to MF59, was the only adjuvant that showed similar efficacy as CFA/IFA...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932446/human-oncoviruses-and-p53-tumor-suppressor-pathway-deregulation-at-the-origin-of-human-cancers
#15
REVIEW
Maria Lina Tornesello, Clorinda Annunziata, Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5 proteins have shown to directly bind to and degrade p53...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932335/engineering-dendritic-cells-based-vaccines-and-pd-1-blockade-in-self-assembled-peptide-nanofibrous-hydrogel-to-amplify-antitumor-t-cell-immunity
#16
Pengxiang Yang, Huijuan Song, Yibo Qin, Pingsheng Huang, Chuangnian Zhang, Deling Kong, Weiwei Wang
Dendritic cells (DCs) are increasingly used in cancer vaccines due to their ability to regulate T-cell immunity. Major limitations associated with the present DCs adoptive transfer immunotherapy are low cell viability and transient duration of transplanted DCs at the vaccination site, and the lack of recruitment of host DCs, leading to unsatisfactory T-cell immune response. Here, we developed a novel vaccine nodule comprising a simple physical mixture of the peptide nanofibrous hydrogel, DCs and tumor antigens...
June 22, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932253/glycosphingolipids-of-porcine-bovine-and-equine-pericardia-as-potential-immune-targets-in-bioprosthetic-heart-valve-grafts
#17
Angela Barone, John Benktander, Christy Whiddon, Chunsheng Jin, Cesare Galli, Susann Teneberg, Michael E Breimer
BACKGROUND: Pericardial tissue from various animal species is utilized for the production of the bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) used clinically. Experimental data show that the eventual breakdown of BHV is partly due to immunological interactions with carbohydrate tissue antigens. To understand these processes, we have examined the glycolipid-based carbohydrate antigens in naïve porcine, bovine, and equine pericardia. EXPERIMENTAL: Total non-acid and acid glycosphingolipid fractions were isolated from porcine, bovine, and equine pericardia, and individual glycolipid compounds were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays...
June 22, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932215/establishment-of-cos-jc-cells-persistently-producing-archetype-jc-polyomavirus
#18
Souichi Nukuzuma, Chiyoko Nukuzuma, Masanori Kameoka, Shigeki Sugiura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Takafumi Tasaki, Koushi Hidaka, Tsutomu Takegami
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients. Archetype JCPyV circulates in the human population. There have been several reports of archetype JCPyV replication in cultured cells, in which propagation was not enough to produce high titers of archetype JCPyV. In this study, we carried out cultivation of the transfected cells with archetype JCPyV DNA MY for more than two months to establish COS-7 cells (designated COS-JC cells) persistently producing archetype JCPyV...
June 22, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932208/treating-melanoma-in-situ-and-lentigo-maligna-with-mohs-micrographic-surgery-in-australia
#19
Glen C Foxton, Timothy G Elliott, Kelly A Litterick
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of Australian data on the use of Mohs micrographic surgery for treating melanoma in situ and lentigo maligna. We share an Australian centre's experience with the technique. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with 62 lesions of melanoma in situ and lentigo maligna referred for treatment between 2015 and 2017 comprised the study group. All melanomas were excised with Mohs micrographic surgery utilising melanoma-associated antigen recognised by T-cells (MART-1) immunostaining...
June 22, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932039/effect-of-prolonged-anti-hm1-imss-entamoeba-histolytica-antibody-activity-in-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-of-experimentally-induced-animal-model
#20
Swati Bagde, Vinod Singh
BACKGROUND: The Cellular immunity plays an important role in amoebic infections, whereas humoral immune responses have little influence on the outcome of the disease. Chronic infestation with E. histolytica, a common protozoan parasite, has been associated with autoimmune phenomena, including the appearance of antibodies to colonic epithelial cells. The mechanism whereby the protozoan parasite E. histolytica causes suppression of the immune response to allow it to survive in humans is unclear...
June 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
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