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Rag da Silva, C P Churchward, A V Karlyshev, O Eleftheriadou, A K Snabaitis, M R Longman, A Ryan, R Griffin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The level of cell surface expression of the meningococcal vaccine antigen, Factor H binding protein (FHbp) varies between and within strains and this limits the breadth of strains that can be targeted by FHbp-based vaccines. The molecular pathway dictating expression of FHbp at the cell surface, including its lipidation, sorting to the outer membrane and export, and the potential regulation of this pathway have not been investigated until now. This knowledge will aid our evaluation of FHbp vaccines...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Jie Liang, Hsin-I Huang, Fernanda P Benzatti, Amelia B Karlsson, Junyi J Zhang, Nourhan Youssef, Averil Ma, Laura P Hale, Gianna E Hammer
Normal dynamics between microbiota and dendritic cells (DCs) support modest numbers of T cells, yet these do not cause inflammation. The DCs that induce inflammatory T cells and the signals that drive this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that small intestine DCs lacking the signaling attenuator A20 induce inflammatory T cells and that the signals perceived and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions are unique for different DC subsets. Thus, although CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs exclusively instruct IFNγ(+) T cells, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs exclusively instruct IL-17(+) T cells...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
T J Mai, R Ma, Z Li, S C Bi
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation, which competes with CD28 for B7.1/B7.2 binding, and which has a greater affinity. Fusion of specific antigens to extracellular domain of CTLA4 represents a promising approach to increase the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In this study, we evaluated this interesting approach for CTLA4 enhancement on prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific immune responses and its anti-tumor effects in a prostate cancer mouse model...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Ines Rama, Ines Llaudó, Pere Fontova, Gema Cerezo, Carlos Soto, Casimiro Javierre, Miguel Hueso, Nuria Montero, Alberto Martínez-Castelao, Juan Torras, Josep M Grinyó, Josep M Cruzado, Nuria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation...
2016: PloS One
Jung Jae Park, Byung Kwan Park
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v. 2 (PI-RADSv2) in triaging patients with prostate cancer according to Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2014, 456 patients with biopsy-proven cancer underwent multiparametric 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T2 -weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequences, and then radical prostatectomy...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms, and organism-shedding time. However, In India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp is becoming a major issue as these strains are non-typeable by conventional serotyping...
October 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Margaret Peggy Adamo, Jessica A Boten, Linda M Coyle, Kathleen A Cronin, Clara J K Lam, Serban Negoita, Lynne Penberthy, Jennifer L Stevens, Kevin C Ward
BACKGROUND: Researchers have used prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values collected by central cancer registries to evaluate tumors for potential aggressive clinical disease. An independent study collecting PSA values suggested a high error rate (18%) related to implied decimal points. To evaluate the error rate in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, a comprehensive review of PSA values recorded across all SEER registries was performed. METHODS: Consolidated PSA values for eligible prostate cancer cases in SEER registries were reviewed and compared with text documentation from abstracted records...
October 26, 2016: Cancer
Pooja Arora, Monika Malik, Ruchi Sachdeva, Latika Saxena, Joy Das, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Rahul Pal
While apoptotic debris is believed to constitute the original antigenic insult in lupus (which is characterized by a time-dependent diversification of autoreactivity), whether such debris and autoantibodies specifically recognizing its constituents, mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in lupus-prone mice is currently unknown. Apoptotic blebs (as opposed to cellular lysate), preferentially enhanced the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) from bone marrow precursors drawn from lupus-prone mice...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Mira Tout, Anne-Laure Gagez, Stéphane Leprêtre, Valérie Gouilleux-Gruart, Nicolas Azzopardi, Alain Delmer, Mélanie Mercier, Loïc Ysebaert, Kamel Laribi, Hugo Gonzalez, Gilles Paintaud, Guillaume Cartron, David Ternant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody approved in the first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Rituximab pharmacokinetics shows a time dependency possibly related to changes in the target antigen amount over time. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of both CD20 antigenic mass and the FcγRIIIA genetic polymorphism on rituximab pharmacokinetics in CLL. METHODS: Rituximab pharmacokinetics was described in 118 CLL patients using a semi-mechanistic model including a latent target antigen turnover, which allowed the estimation of rituximab target-mediated elimination in addition to the endogenous clearance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
I V Chekhonin, O I Gurina, S A Cherepanov, M A Abakumov, K P Ionova, D K Zhigarev, A V Makarov, V P Chekhonin
We obtained the morphologically, cytofluorometrically, and functionally mature dendritic cells from rats that were pulsed with antigens of the C6 glioma tissue extract. The concentrations of angiogenesis antigens (VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2) and periglioma zone proteins (GFAP, connexin 43, and BSAT1) in the pulsing extract were measured by ELISA. Our results drove us to a conclusion that despite mature phenotype of pulsed dendritic cell, the antigenic composition of glioma tissue extracts should be modified...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
S V Podlesnykh, E A Kolosova, D N Shcherbakov, A A Shaidurov, D S Anisimov, M A Ryazanov, S A Johnston, Ya N Shoikhet, V D Petrova, A F Lazarev, A I Chapoval
The blood serum of tumor patients contains antibodies recognizing tumor-associated antigens and other molecular products of tumor growth. We studied the interaction of blood antibodies from breast cancer patients with synthetic peptides that were applied on the microchip surface. The serum from healthy volunteers and breast cancer patients was shown to contain antibodies that interact with various peptides. Statistically significant between-group differences were observed in the level of binding with 122 informative peptides (0...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Marcelo Piaia, Carolina Bonet Bub, Guilherme de Menezes Succi, Margareth Torres, Thiago Henrique Costa, Fabricio Costa Pinheiro, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga
According to the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplants, in 2015, 19,408 bone transplants were performed in Brazil, over 90% by Dental Surgeons. The surgical technique itself has a respectable number of reports regarding its clinical efficacy, as measured by long-term survival of dental implants in grafted areas. Uncertainty remains, however, as to whether fresh frozen grafts from human bone donors remain immunologically innocuous in the body of the host. Six male with no previous medical history of note, including systemic diseases, surgery or blood transfusion were selected...
October 25, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Madhav P Yadav, Sanjana Ballal, Madhavi Tripathi, Nishikant A Damle, Ranjit K Sahoo, Amlesh Seth, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617, a urea-based compound, binds to the extracellular domain of prostate-specific membrane antigen, thus providing an effective target for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Before its therapeutic use, it is necessary that the radiation dosimetry of this radiopharmaceutical be studied to determine the safe activity that can be administered in patients to prevent haematological, renal and liver toxicity. The present study thus aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of Lu-DKFZ-PSMA-617 in CRPC patients...
October 25, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Jake S O'Donnell, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
Anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) immunotherapies are among the most effective anti-cancer immunotherapies available; however, a large number of patients present with or develop resistance to them. Unfortunately, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of resistance to such therapies. A recent study sought to identify mutations associated with resistance to anti-PD1 therapy. Results from this study demonstrated that mutations which affected the sensitivity of tumor cells to T-cell-derived interferons, and mutations limiting tumor-cell antigen presentation, could cause acquired resistance...
October 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
Soodabeh Iranpour, Vahid Nejati, Nowruz Delirezh, Pouria Biparva, Sadegh Shirian
BACKGROUND: Developing safe and effective cancer vaccine formulations is a primary focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DC) are currently employed as cellular vaccine in clinical trials of tumor immunotherapy. Recognizing the critical role of DCs in initiating anti-tumor immunity has resulted in the development of several strategies that target vaccine antigens to DCs to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. To increase the efficiency of antigen delivery systems for anti-tumor vaccines, encapsulation of tumor-associated antigens in polymer nanoparticles (NPs) has been established...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Sheng-Jou Hung, Yi-Lin Chen, Chia-Hung Chu, Chuan-Chun Lee, Wan-Li Chen, Ya-Lan Lin, Ming-Ching Lin, Chung-Liang Ho, Tsunglin Liu
BACKGROUND: T cells and B cells are essential in the adaptive immunity via expressing T cell receptors and immunoglogulins respectively for recognizing antigens. To recognize a wide variety of antigens, a highly diverse repertoire of receptors is generated via complex recombination of the receptor genes. Reasonably, frequencies of the recombination events have been shown to predict immune diseases and provide insights into the development of immunity. The field is further boosted by high-throughput sequencing and several computational tools have been released to analyze the recombined sequences...
October 26, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Peter Garred, Ninette Genster, Katrine Pilely, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Anne Rosbjerg, Ying Jie Ma, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin-10, collectin-11, and the ficolins (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3) are soluble pattern recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. These proteins act as mediators of host defense and participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. They bind to conserved pathogen-specific structures and altered self-antigens and form complexes with the pentraxins to modulate innate immune functions. All molecules exhibit distinct expression in different tissue compartments, but all are found to a varying degree in the circulation...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
João Luiz Silva-Filho, Celso Caruso-Neves, Ana Acacia Sá Pinheiro
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 (AT1R), an important effector axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), have been demonstrated to regulate T-cell responses. However, these studies characterized Ang II and AT1R effects using pharmacological tools, which do not target only Ang II/AT1R axis. The specific role of AT1R expressed by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells is unknown. Then we immunized transgenic mice expressing a T-cell receptor specific for SIINFEKL epitope (OT-I mice) with sporozoites of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei expressing the cytotoxic epitope SIINFEKL...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Migalska, A Sebastian, M Konczal, P Kotlík, J Radwan
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the adaptive immune response and is the most polymorphic gene family in vertebrates. Although high-throughput sequencing has increasingly been used for genotyping families of co-amplifying MHC genes, its potential to facilitate early steps in the characterisation of MHC variation in nonmodel organism has not been fully explored. In this study we evaluated the usefulness of de novo transcriptome assembly in characterisation of MHC sequence diversity...
October 26, 2016: Heredity
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