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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471567/targeting-hepatitis-d
#1
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471566/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-chronic-inflammatory-liver-disease
#2
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
The broadening field of microbiome research has led to a substantial reappraisal of the gut-liver axis and its role in chronic liver disease. The liver is a central immunologic organ that is continuously exposed to food and microbial-derived antigens from the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the human liver and can be activated by inflammatory cytokines and microbial antigens. In chronic inflammatory liver disease, MAIT cells are depleted suggesting an impaired MAIT cell-dependent protection against bacterial infections...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471517/the-role-of-the-ground-glass-opacity-ratio-in-resected-lung-adenocarcinoma
#3
Tsai-Wang Huang, Kuan-Hsun Lin, Hsu-Kai Huang, Yi-I Chen, Kai-Hsiung Ko, Cheng-Kuang Chang, Hsian-He Hsu, Hung Chang, Shih-Chun Lee
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the ground-glass opacity (GGO) ratio in lung adenocarcinoma in predicting surgical outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical resection for pulmonary adenocarcinoma between January 2004 and December 2013 were reviewed. The clinical data, imaging characteristics of nodules, surgical approaches and outcomes were analysed with a mean follow-up of 87 months. RESULTS: Of 789 enrolled patients, 267 cases were categorized as having a GGO ratio ≥0...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471464/poor-immunogenicity-not-vaccine-strain-egg-adaptation-may-explain-the-low-h3n2-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-2012-13
#4
Sarah Cobey, Sigrid Gouma, Kaela Parkhouse, Benjamin S Chambers, Hildegund C Ertl, Kenneth E Schmader, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Timothy B Stockwell, Suman R Das, Emily Landon, Vera Tesic, Ilan Youngster, Benjamin A Pinsky, David E Wentworth, Scott E Hensley, Yonatan H Grad
Background: Influenza vaccination aims to prevent infection by influenza virus and reduce associated morbidity and mortality; however, vaccine effectiveness (VE) can be modest, especially for subtype A(H3N2). Low VE has been attributed to mismatches between the vaccine and circulating influenza strains and to the vaccine's elicitation of protective immunity in only a subset of the population. The low H3N2 VE in the 2012-2013 season was attributed to egg-adaptive mutations that created antigenic mismatch between the actual vaccine strain (IVR-165) and both the intended vaccine strain (A/Victoria/361/2011) and the predominant circulating strains (clades 3C...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471387/heavy-cannabis-use-associated-with-reduction-in-activated-and-inflammatory-immune-cell-frequencies-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#5
Jennifer A Manuzak, Toni M Gott, Jay S Kirkwood, Ernesto Coronado, Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Charlene Miller, Ryan K Cheu, Ann C Collier, Nicholas T Funderburg, Jeffery N Martin, Michael C Wu, Nina Isoherranen, Peter W Hunt, Nichole R Klatt
Background: Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined. Methods: The impact of cannabis use on peripheral immune cell frequency, activation, and function was assessed in 198 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-treated individuals by flow cytometry...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471356/characterization-of-p57-a-stage-specific-antigen-of-pneumocystis-murina
#6
Lisa R Bishop, A Sally Davis, Kaitlynn Bradshaw, Monica Gamez, Ousmane H Cisse, Honghui Wang, Liang Ma, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis has a large multi-copy gene family encoding proteins related to the major surface glycoprotein (Msg) whose functions are largely unknown. We expressed one such protein of P. murina, p57, that is encoded by 3 highly conserved genes, and demonstrated by immunoblot that immunocompetent mice immunized with crude Pneumocystis antigens or that had cleared Pneumocystis infection developed antibodies to p57. Using hyper-immune anti-p57 serum combined with immunolabeling, we found that small trophic forms as well as intracystic bodies expressed p57, while it was not expressed on larger trophic forms or externally by cysts...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471289/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-facilitated-down-regulation-of-the-cohesin-stromal-antigen-1-implications-for-colorectal-cancer-racial-disparities
#7
Somenath Datta, Richard M Sherva, Mart De La Cruz, Michelle T Long, Priya Roy, Vadim Backman, Sanjib Chowdhury, Hemant K Roy
The biological underpinnings for racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence remain to be elucidated. We have previously reported that the cohesin SA-1 down-regulation is an early event in colon carcinogenesis which is dramatically accentuated in African-Americans. In order to investigate the mechanism, we evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with SA-1-related outcomes followed by gene editing of candidate SNP. We observed that rs34149860 SNP was significantly associated with a lower colonic mucosal SA-1 expression and evaluation of public databases showed striking racial discordance...
February 19, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471282/aunps-cnos-swcnts-chitosan-nanocomposite-modified-electrochemical-sensor-for-the-label-free-detection-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen
#8
Mohammad Rizwan, Syazwani Elma, Syazana Abdullah Lim, Minhaz Uddin Ahmed
In this work, a nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), carbon nano-onions (CNOs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chitosan (CS) (AuNPs/CNOs/SWCNTs/CS) was prepared for the development of highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), clinical tumor marker. Firstly, layer-by-layer fabrication of the CEA-immunosensors was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). By combining the advantages of large surface area and electronic properties of AuNPs, CNOs, SWCNTs, and film forming properties of CS, AuNPs/CNOs/SWCNTs/CS-nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode showed a 200% increase in effective surface area and electronic conductivity...
February 14, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471137/mucosal-and-systemic-responses-of-immunogenic-vaccines-candidates-against-enteric-escherichia-coli-infections-in-ruminants-a-review
#9
REVIEW
A Lawan, F F A Jesse, U H Idris, M N Odhah, M Arsalan, N A Muhammad, K R Bhutto, Innocent Damudu Peter, G A Abraham, A H Wahid, M L Mohd-Azmi, M Zamri-Saad
Innumerable Escherichia coli of animal origin are identified, which are of economic significance, likewise, cattle, sheep and goats are the carrier of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, which are less pathogenic, and can spread to people by way of direct contact and through the contamination of foodstuff or portable drinking water, causing serious illness. The immunization of ruminants has been carried out for ages and is largely acknowledged as the most economical and maintainable process of monitoring E. coli infection in ruminants...
February 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471052/revisiting-rabies-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-through-infecting-balb-c-mice-with-live-rabies-virus
#10
Yunlong Qin, Todd G Smith, Felix Jackson, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Clint N Morgan, Victoria Olson, Christina L Hutson, Xianfu Wu
This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA)...
February 19, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471037/butyrophilins-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#11
REVIEW
Siyi Gu, Marta Borowska, Christopher T Boughter, Erin J Adams
Despite playing critical roles in the immune response and having significant potential in immunotherapy, γδ T cells have garnered little of the limelight. One major reason for this paradox is that their antigen recognition mechanisms are largely unknown, limiting our understanding of their biology and our potential to modulate their activity. One of the best-studied γδ subsets is the human Vγ9Vδ2 T cell population, which predominates in peripheral blood and can combat both microbial infections and cancers...
February 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471005/mir-155-5p-controls-colon-cancer-cell-migration-via-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-human-antigen-r-hur
#12
Amr Al-Haidari, Anwar Algaber, Raed Madhi, Ingvar Syk, Henrik Thorlacius
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and a significant cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Metastasis is the worst prognostic factor for patients with CRC. HuR (ELAVL1) is overexpressed in CRC and has been reported to promote colon cancer growth by targeting RNA in the cell cytoplasm. Herein, the role of miR-155-5p in regulating HuR expression and cell migration was examined in colon cancer cells. MiR-155-5p knockdown in serum-starved colon cancer cells decreased both colon cancer cell chemotaxis and cytoplasmic expression of HuR...
February 19, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470999/mast-cells-regulate-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-absence-of-antigen-presentation
#13
Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Timm Heinbokel, Hirofumi Uehara, Virginia Camacho, Koichiro Minami, Yeqi Nian, Suresh Koduru, Rachid El Fatimy, Ionita Ghiran, Alexander J Trachtenberg, Miguel A de la Fuente, Haruhito Azuma, Omid Akbari, Stefan G Tullius, Anju Vasudevan, Abdallah Elkhal
BACKGROUND: Given their unique capacity for antigen uptake, processing, and presentation, antigen presenting cells (APCs) are critical for initiating and regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. We have previously shown the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) in T cell differentiation independently of the cytokine milieu, while the precise mechanisms remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to further dissect the mechanism of actions of NAD+ , and to determine the impact of APCs on NAD+ -mediated T cell activation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470994/a-virus-like-particle-vaccine-protects-mice-against-coxsackievirus-a10-lethal-infection
#14
Yu Zhou, Chao Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has emerged worldwide as one of the main pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in recent years. However, there is currently no commercial vaccine available to prevent CVA10 infection. Here we report the development of a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) based candidate vaccine for CVA10. Co-expression of the capsid protein precursor P1 and the protease 3CD of CVA10 in Pichia pastoris resulted in cleavage of P1 into three capsid subunit proteins VP0, VP1, and VP3. These three subunit proteins co-assembled into CVA10 VLPs, which were visualized as spherical particles with a diameter of ∼30 nm under electron microscope...
February 19, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470974/a-step-towards-standardization-a-method-for-end-point-titer-determination-by-fluorescence-index-of-an-automated-microscope-end-point-titer-determination-by-fluorescence-index
#15
Teresa Carbone, Michele Gilio, Maria Carmela Padula, Giuseppina Tramontano, Salvatore D'Angelo, Vito Pafundi
OBJECTIVES: Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) is widely considered the Gold Standard for Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) screening. However, the high inter-reader variability remains the major disadvantage associated with ANA testing and the main reason for the increasing demand of the computer-aided immunofluorescence microscope. Previous studies proposed the quantification of the fluorescence intensity as an alternative for the classical end-point titer evaluation. However, the different distribution of bright/dark light linked to the nature of the self-antigen and its location in the cells result in different mean fluorescence intensities...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470858/genes-affecting-progression-of-bacteriophage-p22-infection-in-salmonella-identified-by-transposon-and-single-gene-deletion-screens
#16
Kaitlynne Bohm, Steffen Porwollik, Weiping Chu, John A Dover, Eddie B Gilcrease, Sherwood R Casjens, Michael McClelland, Kristin N Parent
Bacteriophages rely on their hosts for replication, and many host genes critically determine either viral progeny production or host success via phage resistance. A random insertion transposon library of 240,000 mutants in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used to monitor effects of individual bacterial gene disruptions on bacteriophage P22 lytic infection. These experiments revealed candidate host genes that alter the timing of phage P22 propagation. Using a False Discovery Rate of <0.1, mutations in 235 host genes either blocked or delayed progression of P22 lytic infection, including many genes for which this role was previously unknown...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470620/dengue-viruses-and-promising-envelope-protein-domain-iii-based-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470572/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-locally-advanced-recurrent-and-metastatic-prostate-cancer-reply
#18
Liza Lindenberg, Baris Turkbey, Peter Choyke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470569/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-locally-advanced-recurrent-and-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#19
Marlon Perera, Declan Murphy, Nathan Lawrentschuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470558/hic1-links-retinoic-acid-signalling-to-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cell-dependent-regulation-of-intestinal-immunity-and-homeostasis
#20
Kyle Burrows, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Michael Bramhall, Vladimir Korinek, T Michael Underhill, Colby Zaph
The intestinal immune system must be able to respond to a wide variety of infectious organisms while maintaining tolerance to non-pathogenic microbes and food antigens. The Vitamin A metabolite all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) has been implicated in the regulation of this balance, partially by regulating innate lymphoid cell (ILC) responses in the intestine. However, the molecular mechanisms of atRA-dependent intestinal immunity and homeostasis remain elusive. Here we define a role for the transcriptional repressor Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1, ZBTB29) in the regulation of ILC responses in the intestine...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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