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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926989/targeting-gm-csf-in-epithelial-and-vascular-remodeling-in-experimental-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
Eóin N McNamee, Kathryn A Biette, Juliet Hammer, Rachel Harris, Heather Miyazawa, James J Lee, Glenn T Furuta, Joanne C Masterson
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen-mediated clinicopathologic disease of the esophagus characterized by an eosinophil-predominant inflammatory infiltrate. A clinical hallmark is extensive tissue remodeling including basal zone hyperplasia, fibrosis and angiogenesis. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for these processes are not fully defined. We hypothesized that targeting GM-CSF (an agonist cytokine linked with eosinophil survival and activation) would be protective in a pre-clinical model of EoE...
December 7, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926921/schistosoma-mansoni-infection-can-jeopardize-the-duration-of-protective-levels-of-antibody-responses-to-immunizations-against-hepatitis-b-and-tetanus-toxoid
#2
Diana K Riner, Eric M Ndombi, Jennifer M Carter, Amos Omondi, Nupur Kittur, Emmy Kavere, Harrison K Korir, Briana Flaherty, Diana Karanja, Daniel G Colley
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926918/evaluation-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis-in-three-senegalese-districts-treated-for-onchocerciasis-with-ivermectin
#3
Nana O Wilson, Alioune Badara Ly, Vitaliano A Cama, Paul T Cantey, Daniel Cohn, Lamine Diawara, Abdel Direny, Mawo Fall, Karla R Feeser, LeAnne M Fox, Achille Kabore, Amadou F Seck, Ngayo Sy, Daouda Ndiaye, Christine Dubray
In Africa, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are co-endemic in many areas. Current efforts to eliminate both diseases are through ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA). Years of ivermectin distribution for onchocerciasis may have interrupted LF transmission in certain areas. The Kédougou region, Senegal, is co-endemic for LF and onchocerciasis. Though MDA for onchocerciasis started in 1988, in 2014 albendazole had not yet been added for LF. The objective of this study was to assess in an integrated manner the LF and onchocerciasis status in the three districts of the Kédougou region after ≥10 years of ivermectin-based MDA...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926855/temporally-programmed-cd8%C3%AE-dc-activation-enhances-combination-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
Alice Tzeng, Monique J Kauke, Eric F Zhu, Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Nicole J Yang, Naveen Mehta, Ryan L Kelly, Gregory L Szeto, Willem W Overwijk, Darrell J Irvine, K Dane Wittrup
Numerous synergistic cancer immunotherapy combinations have been identified, but the effects of relative dose timing are rarely considered. In established syngeneic mouse tumor models, we found that staggering interferon-α (IFNα) administration after, rather than before or simultaneously with, serum-persistent interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor-specific antibody significantly increased long-term survival. Successful combination therapy required IFNα-induced activation of cross-presenting CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) following the release of antigenic tumor debris by the IL-2- and antibody-mediated immune response...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926784/preoperative-characteristics-and-cytological-features-of-136-histologically-confirmed-pancreatic-mucinous-cystic-neoplasms
#5
Aristana Scourtas, Jonathan C Dudley, William R Brugge, Abdurrahman Kadayifci, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Martha B Pitman
BACKGROUND: Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas present a management conundrum. The majority are benign but all are resected due to their malignant potential. Recent studies have recommended nonsurgical management. In the current study, the authors analyzed the preoperative imaging, cytology, and cyst fluid characteristics of 136 histologically confirmed MCNs to assess predictors of a high-risk (HR) cyst for surgical triage. METHODS: MCNs resected at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2014 formed the study cohort...
December 7, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926665/clinicopathological-analysis-and-risk-factors-of-advanced-colorectal-neoplasms-incidentally-detected-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#6
Seung Min Chung, Kyeong Ok Kim, Ihn Ho Cho, Tae Nyeun Kim
BACKGROUND: As the clinical use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-computed tomography (F-FDG PET-CT) has increased, the incidental finding of F-FDG uptake with subsequent diagnosis of advanced neoplasm at colorectum has increased. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of advanced colorectal neoplasm incidentally detected by F-FDG PET-CT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent colonoscopy because of an incidental finding of F-FDG uptake at the colorectum from January 2006 to January 2015 at Yeungnam University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926538/effect-of-spirogyra-neglecta-on-the-early-stages-of-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colon-carcinogenesis-in-rats
#7
Sirinya Taya, Tarika Thumvijit, Teera Chewonarin, Charatda Punvittayagul, Rawiwan Wongpoomchai
This study focused on the chemopreventive effects of Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE) and dried S. neglecta mixed diet on the early stages of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with DMH to initiate aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation. In the initiation stage, SNE significantly decreased the number of ACF in the colon of DMH-treated rats. Rats that received a low dose of SNE showed enhanced activity of several detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. In the postinitiation stage, a low dose of SNE significantly decreased the number of ACF in the colon of DMH-treated rats...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926486/novel-epstein-barr-virus-like-particles-incorporating-gh-gl-ebna1-or-gb-lmp2-induce-high-neutralizing-antibody-titers-and-ebv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-immunized-mice
#8
Elizabeth M Perez, Joslyn Foley, Timelia Tison, Rute Silva, Javier Gordon Ogembo
Previous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prophylactic vaccines based on the major surface glycoprotein gp350/220 as an immunogen have failed to block viral infection in humans, suggesting a need to target other viral envelope glycoproteins. In this study, we reasoned that incorporating gH/gL or gB, critical glycoproteins for viral fusion and entry, on the surface of a virus-like particle (VLP) would be more immunogenic than gp350/220 for generating effective neutralizing antibodies to prevent viral infection of both epithelial and B cell lines...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925894/prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-its-complications-from-clinical-evidence-to-real-life-experience
#9
Giovanni Gabutti, Paolo Bonanni, Michele Conversano, Guido Fanelli, Elisabetta Franco, Donato Greco, Giancarlo Icardi, Marzia Lazzari, Alessandro Rossi, Silvestro Scotti, Antonio Volpi
Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash with unilateral distribution, which can also result in severe complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. The estimate incidence in Europe ranges between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, with a sharp increase in >50 year-old subjects. Currently, treatment options for HZ are only partially effective in limiting the acute phase, while the management of complications is complex and often unsatisfactory...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925844/a-two-dose-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-eliciting-sustained-immune-responses-to-ebola-zaire-could-support-a-preventive-strategy-for-future-outbreaks
#10
Georgi Shukarev, Benoit Callendret, Kerstin Luhn, Macaya Douoguih, The Ebovac Consortium
The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination programme for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925665/viral-oncoprotein-antibodies-as-a-marker-for-recurrence-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-a-prospective-validation-study
#11
Kelly G Paulson, Christopher W Lewis, Mary W Redman, William T Simonson, Aaron Lisberg, Deborah Ritter, Chihiro Morishima, Kathleen Hutchinson, Lola Mudgistratova, Astrid Blom, Jayasri Iyer, Ata S Moshiri, Erica S Tarabadkar, Joseph J Carter, Shailender Bhatia, Masaoki Kawasumi, Denise A Galloway, Mark H Wener, Paul Nghiem
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a recurrence rate of >40%. Of the 2000 MCC cases per year in the United States, most are caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Antibodies to MCPyV oncoprotein (T-antigens) have been correlated with MCC tumor burden. The present study assesses the clinical utility of MCPyV-oncoprotein antibody titers for MCC prognostication and surveillance. METHODS: MCPyV-oncoprotein antibody detection was optimized in a clinical laboratory...
December 7, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925658/pro-b-cells-propagated-in-stromal-cell-free-cultures-reconstitute-functional-b-cell-compartments-in-immunodeficient-mice
#12
Lilly von Muenchow, Panagiotis Tsapogas, Llucia Albertí-Servera, Giuseppina Capoferri, Marianne Doelz, Hannie Rolink, Nabil Bosco, Rhodri Ceredig, Antonius G Rolink
Up to now long-term in vitro growth of pro-B cells was thought to require stromal cells. However, here we show that fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (BM) derived pro-B cells can be propagated long-term in stromal cell-free cultures supplemented with interleukin-7 (IL-7), stem cell factor and FLT3 ligand. Within a week, most cells expressed surface CD19, CD79A, λ5 and VpreB antigens and had rearranged immunoglobulin D-J heavy chain genes. Both FL and BM pro-B cells reconstituted the B-cell compartments of immuno-incompetent Rag2-deficient mice, with FL pro-B cells generating follicular, marginal zone (MZB) and B1a B cells, and BM pro-B cells giving rise mainly to MZB cells...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925405/animal-to-human-dose-translation-of-obiltoxaximab-for-treatment-of-inhalational-anthrax-under-the-us-fda-animal-rule
#13
C F Nagy, J Mondick, N Serbina, L S Casey, S E Carpenter, J French, R Guttendorf
Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Animal Rule. The human dose was selected and justified by comparing observed obiltoxaximab exposures in healthy and infected New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques to observed exposures in healthy humans, to simulated exposures in healthy and infected humans, and to serum PA levels in infected animals. In humans, at 16 mg/kg intravenous, obiltoxaximab AUC was >2 times that in animals, while maximum serum concentrations were comparable to those in animals and were maintained in excess of the concentration required for PA neutralization in infected animals for 2-3 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925349/hepatitis-c-viremia-reversibly-maintains-subset-of-antigen-specific-t-bet-tissue-like-memory-b-cells
#14
Li-Yuan Chang, Yonghai Li, David E Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Chronic antigen exposure and/or aging increases the frequency of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet)-expressing B-lymphocytes in mice. The frequency and significance of B-cell T-bet expression during chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection in human subjects has never been described. METHODS: Healthy controls, cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic HCV-infected patients, and non-HCV patients with cirrhosis were recruited. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were phenotyped for expression of T-bet and related markers by flow cytometry...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925318/total-synthesis-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dideoxymycobactin-838-and-stereoisomers-diverse-cd1a-restricted-t-cells-display-a-common-hierarchy-of-lipopeptide-recognition
#15
Janice Cheng, Ligong Liu, Daniel Pellicci, Scott Jj Reddiex, Rachel Cotton, Tan-Yun Cheng, David Young, Ildiko Van Rhijn, Branch Moody, Jamie Rossjohn, David Fairlie, Dale Godfrey, Spencer John Williams
Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces dideoxymycobactin-838 (DDM-838), a lipopeptide that potently activates T cells upon binding to the MHC-like antigen-presenting molecule CD1a. M. tuberculosis produces DDM-838 in only trace amounts and a previous solid-phase synthesis provided sub-milligram quantities. We describe a high yielding solution-phase synthesis of DDM-838 that features a Mitsunobu substitution that avoids yield-limiting epimerization at lysine during esterification, and amidation conditions that prevent double-bond isomerization of the Z-C20:1 acyl chain, and provides material with equivalent antigenicity to natural DDM-838...
December 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925187/depletion-of-cd52-positive-cells-inhibits-the-development-of-cns-autoimmune-disease-but-deletes-an-immune-tolerance-promoting-cd8-t-cell-population-implications-for-secondary-autoimmunity-of-alemtuzumab-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Stephanie von Kutzleben, Gareth Pryce, Gavin Giovannoni, David Baker
The objective was to determine whether CD52 lymphocyte depletion can act to promote immunological tolerance induction via intravenous antigen administration such that it could be used to either: improve efficiency of inhibition of MS or to inhibit secondary autoimmunities that may occur following alemtuzumab use in multiple sclerosis. Relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in ABH mice and immune cell depletion was therapeutically applied using mouse CD52 or CD4 (in conjunction with CD8 or CD20) depleting monoclonal antibodies...
December 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925177/t-cell-diversification-reflects-antigen-selection-in-the-blood-of-patients-on-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-and-may-be-exploited-as-liquid-biopsy-biomarker
#17
Nuray Akyüz, Anna Brandt, Alexander Stein, Simon Schliffke, Thorben Mährle, Julia Quidde, Eray Goekkurt, Sonja Loges, Thomas Haalck, Christopher Ford, Anne Marie Asemissen, Benjamin Thiele, Janina Radloff, Toni Thenhausen, Artus Krohn-Grimberghe, Carsten Bokemeyer, Mascha Binder
Cancer immunotherapy with antibodies targeting immune checkpoints, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), shows encouraging results, but reliable biomarkers predicting response to this costly and potentially toxic treatment approach are still lacking. To explore an immune signature predictive for response, we performed liquid biopsy immunoprofiling in 18 cancer patients undergoing PD-1 inhibition before and shortly after initiation of treatment by multicolor flow cytometry and next-generation T- and B-cell immunosequencing (TCRß/IGH)...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924983/detection-of-the-tuberculosis-antigenic-marker-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan-in-pretreated-serum-by-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#18
Alexis C Crawford, Lars B Laurentius, Timothy S Mulvihill, Jennifer H Granger, John S Spencer, Delphi Chatterjee, Kimberly E Hanson, Marc D Porter
The ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health care priority. This paper describes the development and preliminary assessment of the clinical accuracy of a heterogeneous immunoassay that integrates a serum pretreatment process with readout by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the low-level detection of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM). ManLAM is a major virulence factor in the infectious pathology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that has been found in the serum and other body fluids of infected patients...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924924/pleiotropic-effects-of-acarbose-on-atherosclerosis-development-in-rabbits-are-mediated-via-upregulating-ampk-signals
#19
Kuei-Chuan Chan, Meng-Hsun Yu, Ming-Cheng Lin, Chien-Ning Huang, Dai-Jung Chung, Yi-Ju Lee, Cheng-Hsun Wu, Chau-Jong Wang
Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, is reported to reduce the incidence of silent myocardial infarction and slow the progression of intima-media thickening in patients with glucose intolerance. Here we investigate other impacts of acarbose on atherosclerosis development and the underlying mechanisms of atherosclerosis initiation and progression in vivo and in vitro. Rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) were treated with acarbose (2.5-5.0 mg kg(-1)). Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Ras, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), IL-6, β-galactosidase, and p-AMPK in atherosclerotic lesions...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924822/il-21-dependent-expansion-of-memory-like-nk-cells-enhances-protective-immune-responses-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
S Venkatasubramanian, S Cheekatla, P Paidipally, D Tripathi, E Welch, A R Tvinnereim, R Nurieva, R Vankayalapati
Natural killer (NK) cells are traditionally considered as innate cells, but recent studies suggest that NK cells can distinguish antigens, and that memory NK cells expand and protect against viral pathogens. Limited information is available about the mechanisms involved in memory-like NK cell expansion, and their role in bacterial infections and vaccine-induced protective immune responses. In the current study, using a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB) infection, we found that interferon-gamma producing CD3-NKp46+CD27+KLRG1+ memory-like NK cells develop during Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, expand, and provide protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
December 7, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
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