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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916863/lipid-composition-of-oil-extracted-from-wasted-norway-lobster-nephrops-norvegicus-heads-and-comparison-with-oil-extracted-from-antarctic-krill-euphasia-superba
#1
Amaya Albalat, Lauren E Nadler, Nicholas Foo, James R Dick, Andrew J R Watts, Heather Philp, Douglas M Neil, Oscar Monroig
In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898754/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#2
Marcio P Arruda, Patrick Brown, Gina Brown-Guedira, Allison M Krill, Carrie Thurber, Keith R Merrill, Bradley J Foresman, Frederic L Kolb
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat ( L.) diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker-trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM) controlling for relatedness and population structure...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884466/linking-pollutant-exposure-of-humpback-whales-breeding-in-the-indian-ocean-to-their-feeding-habits-and-feeding-areas-off-antarctica
#3
Krishna Das, Govindan Malarvannan, Alin Dirtu, Violaine Dulau, Magali Dumont, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci
Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866569/computed-tomography-in-germany
#4
Roman Pokora, Lucian Krille, Steffen Dreger, Choonsik Lee, Christian Günster, Hajo Zeeb, Maria Blettner
BACKGROUND: In 2001, calculations in models based on atomic bomb survivors indicated that children exposed to ionizing radiation by computed tomography (CT) would be expected to have an increased risk of cancer. This led to the issuance of new recommendations in Germany concerning CT in children. METHODS: We analyzed data from the German pediatric CT cohort study together with data on children from a large general statutory health insurance provider (AOK) in order to characterize the secular trend in the use of CT in Germany...
October 28, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862466/role-of-ammonium-in-the-ionization-of-phosphatidylcholines-during-electrospray-mass-spectrometry
#5
Michael D Rush, Richard B van Breemen
RATIONALE: Electrospray mass spectrometry methods for the analysis of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) routinely include ammonium acetate or ammonium formate in the mobile phase. In an effort to justify and optimize the use of these additives, we investigated possible functions of ammonium compounds in the ionization of PCs. METHODS: Because PCs contain a quaternary amine, the role of ammonium in neutralizing the negatively charged phosphate group was investigated by using deuterated ammonium acetate, adjusting the pH, varying the organic solvent composition, and by comparing the additives ammonium acetate, ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate...
November 11, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817918/a-randomized-double-masked-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-two-forms-of-omega-3-supplements-for-treating-dry-eye-disease
#6
Laura A Deinema, Algis J Vingrys, Chinn Yi Wong, David C Jackson, Holly R Chinnery, Laura E Downie
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of 2 forms of oral long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplements, phospholipid (krill oil) and triacylglyceride (fish oil), for treating dry eye disease (DED). DESIGN: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted at a single site and involved 60 participants with mild to moderate DED who were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 groups: placebo (olive oil), krill oil, or fish oil supplements...
November 3, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812046/diversity-and-function-of-the-antarctic-krill-microorganisms-from-euphausia-superba
#7
Xiaoqiu Cui, Guoliang Zhu, Haishan Liu, Guoliang Jiang, Yi Wang, Weiming Zhu
The diversity and ecological function of microorganisms associated with Euphausia superba, still remain unknown. This study identified 75 microbial isolates from E. superba, that is 42 fungi and 33 bacteria including eight actinobacteria. And all the isolates showed NaF tolerance in conformity with the nature of the fluoride krill. The maximum concentration was 10%, 3% and 0.5% NaF for actinobacteria, bacteria and fungi, respectively. The results demonstrated that 82.4% bacteria, 81.3% actinobacteria and 12...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807955/-exposure-to-ionizing-radiation-from-computed-tomography-ct-in-childhood-and-cancer-risk
#8
Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo, Roman Pokora, Lucian Krille, Maria Blettner
A recent US cohort study estimated 500 cancer cases attributable to exposure to CT out of 600,000 children aged <15 years who underwent a computed tomography (CT) to head or abdomen. This review synthetizes the evidence on the association between exposure to ionizing radiation through CT and cancer risk. Five cohort studies were identified. Three studies show clear increases in cancer risk among children and adolescents who underwent at least one CT. All studies had methodological limits, among which the lack of an individual level estimate of dose-organ specific absorbed by patient and problems of statistical power...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728790/nutrient-cycling-are-antarctic-krill-a-previously-overlooked-source-in-the-marine-iron-cycle
#9
Lavenia Ratnarajah, Andrew R Bowie
Iron limits phytoplankton growth in large areas of the Southern Ocean. A new study shows that Antarctic krill play a crucial role in the recycling of iron in the iron-limited waters.
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719898/crystallization-and-melting-properties-of-mixtures-of-milk-fat-stearin-and-omega-3-rich-oils
#10
Bing-Zheng Li, Tuyen Truong, Bhesh Bhandari
Solid milk fat stearin (S25) can be a promising oxidation retarder due to its capacity to entrap liquid oils, especially for incorporating omega-3 (ω-3) rich oils into dairy products. Thermal properties of S25/ω-3 rich oil mixtures are necessary for such application. The effects of S25 on the crystallization and melting behaviours of ω-3 rich oils, namely fish oil (FO), linseed oil (LO) and krill oil (KO), were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermograms showed that with S25 concentration increasing, transitions of FO and LO shifted to lower and largely to higher temperatures, respectively, while crystallization temperature of KO slightly decreased...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717573/mercury-in-the-ecosystem-of-admiralty-bay-king-george-island-antarctica-occurrence-and-trophic-distribution
#11
Caio V Z Cipro, Rosalinda C Montone, Paco Bustamante
Mercury (Hg) can reach the environment through natural and human-related sources, threatening ecosystems all over the planet due to its well known deleterious effects. Therefore, Antarctic trophic webs, despite being relatively isolated, are not exempt of its influence. To evaluate Hg concentrations in an Antarctic ecosystem, different tissues from 2 species of invertebrates, 2 of fish, 8 of birds, 4 of pinnipeds and at least 5 of vegetation were investigated (n=176). For animals, values ranged from 0.018 to 48...
October 4, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711243/cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-inhibition-extends-the-upper-temperature-limit-of-stimulus-evoked-calcium-responses-in-motoneuronal-boutons-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#12
Jennifer L Krill, Ken Dawson-Scully
While the mammalian brain functions within a very narrow range of oxygen concentrations and temperatures, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has employed strategies to deal with a much wider range of acute environmental stressors. The foraging (for) gene encodes the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), has been shown to regulate thermotolerance in many stress-adapted species, including Drosophila, and could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hyperthermia in mammals. Whereas previous thermotolerance studies have looked at the effects of PKG variation on Drosophila behavior or excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), little is known about PKG effects on presynaptic mechanisms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701428/krill-oil-improves-mild-knee-joint-pain-a-randomized-control-trial
#13
Yoshio Suzuki, Minoru Fukushima, Keishoku Sakuraba, Keisuke Sawaki, Kazuaki Sekigawa
BACKGROUND: Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38-85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691963/evaluation-of-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-cataract-in-captive-macaroni-eudyptes-chrysolophus-and-rockhopper-penguins-eudyptes-chrysocome
#14
Sarah J Woodhouse, Edward L Peterson, Todd Schmitt
Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 Macaroni penguins ( Eudyptes chrysolophus ) and 90 Rockhopper penguins ( Eudyptes chrysocome ) at eight North American zoological institutions. Cataract prevalence in the Macaroni population was 46.5% (n = 74) of penguins and 42.3% (135/319) of eyes. Cataract prevalence in the Rockhopper population was 45.5% (n = 40) of penguins and 40.6% (73/180) of eyes. The mean age of Macaroni penguins without ocular disease was 7.4 ± 5.8 yr, while that of Rockhoppers was 9...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671639/direct-observation-of-grain-rotations-during-coarsening-of-a-semisolid-al-cu-alloy
#15
Jules M Dake, Jette Oddershede, Henning O Sørensen, Thomas Werz, J Cole Shatto, Kentaro Uesugi, Søren Schmidt, Carl E Krill
Sintering is a key technology for processing ceramic and metallic powders into solid objects of complex geometry, particularly in the burgeoning field of energy storage materials. The modeling of sintering processes, however, has not kept pace with applications. Conventional models, which assume ideal arrangements of constituent powders while ignoring their underlying crystallinity, achieve at best a qualitative description of the rearrangement, densification, and coarsening of powder compacts during thermal processing...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666966/kinematic-diversity-in-rorqual-whale-feeding-mechanisms
#16
David E Cade, Ari S Friedlaender, John Calambokidis, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Rorqual whales exhibit an extreme lunge filter-feeding strategy characterized by acceleration to high speed and engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water [1-4]. Although tagging studies have quantified the kinematics of lunge feeding, the timing of engulfment relative to body acceleration has been modeled conflictingly because it could never be directly measured [5-7]. The temporal coordination of these processes has a major impact on the hydrodynamics and energetics of this high-cost feeding strategy [5-9]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643849/microencapsulated-krill-and-tuna-oil-blend-raises-plasma-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-levels-compared-to-tuna-oil-with-similar-increases-in-ileal-contractility-in-rats
#17
Glen S Patten, Luz Sanguansri, Mary Ann Augustin, Mahinda Y Abeywardena, Anthony R Bird, Craig S Patch, Damien P Belobrajdic
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641768/zooplankton-gut-passage-mobilizes-lithogenic-iron-for-ocean-productivity
#18
Katrin Schmidt, Christian Schlosser, Angus Atkinson, Sophie Fielding, Hugh J Venables, Claire M Waluda, Eric P Achterberg
Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton, but low concentrations limit primary production and associated atmospheric carbon drawdown in large parts of the world's oceans [1, 2]. Lithogenic particles deriving from aeolian dust deposition, glacial runoff, or river discharges can form an important source if the attached iron becomes dissolved and therefore bioavailable [3-5]. Acidic digestion by zooplankton is a potential mechanism for iron mobilization [6], but evidence is lacking. Here we show that Antarctic krill sampled near glacial outlets at the island of South Georgia (Southern Ocean) ingest large amounts of lithogenic particles and contain 3-fold higher iron concentrations in their muscle than specimens from offshore, which confirms mineral dissolution in their guts...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622510/quantifying-the-escape-mortality-of-trawl-caught-antarctic-krill-euphausia-superba
#19
Bjørn A Krafft, Ludvig A Krag, Arill Engås, Sigve Nordrum, Inge Bruheim, Bent Herrmann
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is an abundant fishery resource, the harvest levels of which are expected to increase. However, many of the length classes of krill can escape through commonly used commercial trawl mesh sizes. A vital component of the overall management of a fishery is to estimate the total fishing mortality and quantify the mortality rate of individuals that escape from fishing gear. The methods for determining fishing mortality in krill are still poorly developed. We used a covered codend sampling technique followed by onboard observations made in holding tanks to monitor mortality rates of escaped krill...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589744/dynamic-layered-dual-cluster-heads-routing-algorithm-based-on-krill-herd-optimization-in-uwsns
#20
Peng Jiang, Yang Feng, Feng Wu, Shanen Yu, Huan Xu
Aimed at the limited energy of nodes in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) and the heavy load of cluster heads in clustering routing algorithms, this paper proposes a dynamic layered dual-cluster routing algorithm based on Krill Herd optimization in UWSNs. Cluster size is first decided by the distance between the cluster head nodes and sink node, and a dynamic layered mechanism is established to avoid the repeated selection of the same cluster head nodes. Using Krill Herd optimization algorithm selects the optimal and second optimal cluster heads, and its Lagrange model directs nodes to a high likelihood area...
2016: Sensors
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