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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915418/purification-identification-and-molecular-mechanism-of-two-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-antarctic-krill-euphausia-superba-protein-hydrolysate
#1
Wei Ji, Chaohua Zhang, Hongwu Ji
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) played an important role in blood glucose regulation. Inhibition of DPP-IV may improve glycemic control in diabetics by preventing the rapid breakdown of incretin hormones and prolonging their physiological action. In this study, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) protein was hydrolyzed using animal proteolytic enzymes. The hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900242/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-as-lysophosphatidylcholine-but-not-as-free-acid-enriches-brain-dha-and-improves-memory-in-adult-mice
#2
Dhavamani Sugasini, Riya Thomas, Poorna C R Yalagala, Leon M Tai, Papasani V Subbaiah
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is uniquely concentrated in the brain, and is essential for its function, but must be mostly acquired from diet. Most of the current supplements of DHA, including fish oil and krill oil, do not significantly increase brain DHA, because they are hydrolyzed to free DHA and are absorbed as triacylglycerol, whereas the transporter at blood brain barrier is specific for phospholipid form of DHA. Here we show that oral administration of DHA to normal adult mice as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (40 mg DHA/kg) for 30 days increased DHA content of the brain by >2-fold...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898957/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-krill-from-the-bellingshausen-south-scotia-and-weddell-seas
#3
Cristóbal J Galbán-Malagón, Gema Hernán, Esteban Abad, Jordi Dachs
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) reach Antarctica through atmospheric transport, oceanic currents, and to minor extent, by migratory animals. The Southern Ocean is a net sink for many POPs, with a key contribution of the settling fluxes of POPs bound to organic matter (biological pump). However, little is known about POP transfer through the food web in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters, where krill is an important ecological node. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the Bellingshausen, South Scotia and Weddell Seas around the Antarctic Peninsula...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812592/widely-used-marine-seismic-survey-air-gun-operations-negatively-impact-zooplankton
#4
Robert D McCauley, Ryan D Day, Kerrie M Swadling, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Reg A Watson, Jayson M Semmens
Zooplankton underpin the health and productivity of global marine ecosystems. Here we present evidence that suggests seismic surveys cause significant mortality to zooplankton populations. Seismic surveys are used extensively to explore for petroleum resources using intense, low-frequency, acoustic impulse signals. Experimental air gun signal exposure decreased zooplankton abundance when compared with controls, as measured by sonar (~3-4 dB drop within 15-30 min) and net tows (median 64% decrease within 1 h), and caused a two- to threefold increase in dead adult and larval zooplankton...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812326/effect-of-dietary-components-from-antarctic-krill-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#5
Cinzia Parolini, Bodil Bjorndal, Marco Busnelli, Stefano Manzini, Giulia S Ganzetti, Federica Dellera, Marie Ramsvik, Inge Bruheim, Rolf Kristian Berge, Giulia Chiesa
SCOPE: Antarctic krill is a great source of n-3 fatty acids and high-quality proteins. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Antarctic krill components on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty apoEKO mice were divided into four groups and fed Western diet (CONTROL) or Western-like diets, differing for protein or fat content. Specifically, casein or fat in CONTROL was partially replaced by krill proteins (PRO), krill oil (KRILL OIL), or both (KRILL OIL+PRO)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761090/restricted-regions-of-enhanced-growth-of-antarctic-krill-in-the-circumpolar-southern-ocean
#6
Eugene J Murphy, Sally E Thorpe, Geraint A Tarling, Jonathan L Watkins, Sophie Fielding, Philip Underwood
Food webs in high-latitude oceans are dominated by relatively few species. Future ocean and sea-ice changes affecting the distribution of such species will impact the structure and functioning of whole ecosystems. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in Southern Ocean food webs, but there is little understanding of the factors influencing its success throughout much of the ocean. The capacity of a habitat to maintain growth will be crucial and here we use an empirical relationship of growth rate to assess seasonal spatial variability...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753430/defining-a-cancer-dependency-map
#7
Aviad Tsherniak, Francisca Vazquez, Phil G Montgomery, Barbara A Weir, Gregory Kryukov, Glenn S Cowley, Stanley Gill, William F Harrington, Sasha Pantel, John M Krill-Burger, Robin M Meyers, Levi Ali, Amy Goodale, Yenarae Lee, Guozhi Jiang, Jessica Hsiao, William F J Gerath, Sara Howell, Erin Merkel, Mahmoud Ghandi, Levi A Garraway, David E Root, Todd R Golub, Jesse S Boehm, William C Hahn
Most human epithelial tumors harbor numerous alterations, making it difficult to predict which genes are required for tumor survival. To systematically identify cancer dependencies, we analyzed 501 genome-scale loss-of-function screens performed in diverse human cancer cell lines. We developed DEMETER, an analytical framework that segregates on- from off-target effects of RNAi. 769 genes were differentially required in subsets of these cell lines at a threshold of six SDs from the mean. We found predictive models for 426 dependencies (55%) by nonlinear regression modeling considering 66,646 molecular features...
July 27, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685164/competition-induced-starvation-drives-large-scale-population-cycles-in-antarctic-krill
#8
Alexey B Ryabov, André M de Roos, Bettina Meyer, So Kawaguchi, Bernd Blasius
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) - one of the most abundant animal species on Earth - exhibits a 5-6 year population cycle, with oscillations in biomass exceeding one order of magnitude. Previous studies have postulated that the krill cycle is induced by periodic climatological factors, but these postulated drivers neither show consistent agreement, nor are they supported by quantitative models. Here, using data analysis complemented with modeling of krill ontogeny and population dynamics, we identify intraspecific competition for food as the main driver of the krill cycle, while external climatological factors possibly modulate its phase and synchronization over large scales...
July 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620315/you-are-what-you-eat-a-genomic-analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-of-captive-and-wild-octopus-vulgaris-paralarvae-and-their-zooplankton-prey
#9
Álvaro Roura, Stephen R Doyle, Manuel Nande, Jan M Strugnell
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is an attractive species for aquaculture, however, several challenges inhibit sustainable commercial production. Little is known about the early paralarval stages in the wild, including diet and intestinal microbiota, which likely play a significant role in development and vitality of this important life stage. High throughput sequencing was used to characterize the gastrointestinal microbiome of wild O. vulgaris paralarvae collected from two different upwelling regions off the coast of North West Spain (n = 41) and Morocco (n = 35)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617627/effect-of-position-time-in-the-season-and-playing-surface-on-achilles-tendon-ruptures-in-nfl-games-a-2009-10-to-2016-17-review
#10
Michael K Krill, James R Borchers, Joshua T Hoffman, Matthew L Krill, Timothy E Hewett
OBJECTIVES: Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures are a potentially career-altering and ending injury. Achilles tendon ruptures have a below average return-to-play rate compared to other common orthopaedic procedures for National Football League (NFL) players. The objective of this study was to monitor the incidence and injury rates (IR) of AT ruptures that occurred during the regular season in order to evaluate the influence of player position, time of injury, and playing surface on rupture rates...
June 22, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617102/predictors-of-well-being-in-the-lives-of-student-service-members-and-veterans
#11
Sarah Krill Williston, Lizabeth Roemer
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined predictors of well-being, including quality of life and academic engagement, in a sample of student service members and veteran college students. METHODS: Eighty-seven student service members/veterans (SSM/V) completed an online survey containing questions about post-deployment social support, emotion regulation skills, psychological distress, academic engagement, quality of life, and demographics. Participants were recruited from September 2012 through May 2014...
June 15, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612109/erratum-to-risk-of-cancer-incidence-before-the-age-of-15%C3%A2-years-after-exposure-to-ionising-radiation-from-computed-tomography-results-from-a-german-cohort-study
#12
L Krille, S Dreger, R Schindel, T Albrecht, M Asmussen, J Barkhausen, J D Berthold, A Chavan, C Claussen, M Forsting, E A L Gianicolo, K Jablonka, A Jahnen, M Langer, M Laniado, J Lotz, H J Mentzel, A Queißer-Wahrendorf, O Rompel, J Schlick, K Schneider, M Schumacher, M Seidenbusch, C Spix, B Spors, G Staatz, T Vogl, J Wagner, G Weisser, H Zeeb, M Blettner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601440/a-transcriptomic-resource-for-the-northern-krill-meganyctiphanes-norvegica-based-on-a-short-term-temperature-exposure-experiment
#13
Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Amy E Maas
The northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, is an important component of the pelagic food web across the North Atlantic. Widespread from the Mediterranean to the Subarctic Atlantic, populations appear to be strongly adapted to local temperatures, and seem to have very little plasticity. The goal of this study was to create and annotate a de novo transcriptome assembly to allow for comparative and physiological studies and to explore the gene expression response of M. norvegica from the Gulf of Maine to two different temperature conditions...
June 7, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572998/mobulid-rays-feed-on-euphausiids-in-the-bohol-sea
#14
Christoph A Rohner, Katherine B Burgess, Joshua M Rambahiniarison, Joshua D Stewart, Alessandro Ponzo, Anthony J Richardson
Mobulid rays have a conservative life history and are caught in direct fisheries and as by-catch. Their subsequent vulnerability to overexploitation has recently been recognized, but fisheries management can be ineffective if it ignores habitat and prey preferences and other trophic interactions of the target species. Here, we assessed the feeding ecology of four mobulids (Manta birostris, Mobula tarapacana, M. japanica, M. thurstoni) in the Bohol Sea, Philippines, using stomach contents analysis of fisheries specimens landed between November and May in 2013-2015...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567037/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-by-krill-oil-in-mice-fed-a-high-sugar-high-fat-diet
#15
Chenyang Lu, Tingting Sun, Yanyan Li, Dijun Zhang, Jun Zhou, Xiurong Su
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12) or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF) diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12), moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12) or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12), simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12) or saline (HSHF group, n = 12) continuously for 12 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556182/two-novel-bioactive-peptides-from-antarctic-krill-with-dual-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitory-activities
#16
Wei Ji, Chaohua Zhang, Hongwu Ji
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) are considered useful in managing 2 often associated conditions: diabetes and hypertension. In this study, corolase PP was used to hydrolyze Antarctic krill protein. The hydrolysate (AKH) was isolated by ultrafiltration and purified by size-exclusion chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) sequentially. The in vitro inhibitory activities of all AKHs and several fractions obtained against ACE and DPP-IV were assessed...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530595/comparison-of-solvents-for-extraction-of-krill-oil-from-krill-meal-lipid-yield-phospholipids-content-fatty-acids-composition-and-minor-components
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Dan Xie, Jun Jin, Jiang Sun, Li Liang, Xiaosan Wang, Wei Zhang, Xingguo Wang, Qingzhe Jin
The effects of seven different extraction solvents (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, isohexane, n-hexane, and subcritical butane) on the lipid yield and quality of the oil extracted from krill meal were investigated in this study. Phospholipids (PL), fatty acids (FA) composition and minor components including sterols, astaxanthin, vitamin A and tocopherols in the extracted krill oil were analyzed. The results indicated that ethanol and isopropanol led to comparatively higher lipid yields (16.33 and 14...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492670/dietary-krill-oil-enhances-neurocognitive-functions-and-modulates-proteomic-changes-in-brain-tissues-of-d-galactose-induced-aging-mice
#18
Ling-Zhi Cheong, Tingting Sun, Yanyan Li, Jun Zhou, Chenyang Lu, Ye Li, Zhongbai Huang, Xiurong Su
The effects of dietary krill oil on neurocognitive functions and proteomic changes in brain tissues of d-galactose-induced aging mice were evaluated. Dietary krill oil enhanced the neurocognitive functions of aging mice with a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in escape latency and an increase in the number of times of crossing over the hidden platform during the Morris water maze test. Krill oil was also found to protect against oxidative damage, lipid peroxidation and neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress biomarkers of aging mice administered with krill oil showed significant (P < 0...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490058/a-cold-active-transglutaminase-from-antarctic-krill-euphausia-superba-purification-characterization-and-application-in-the-modification-of-cold-set-gelatin-gel
#19
Yi Zhang, Shudong He, Benjamin K Simpson
Transglutaminase (TGase), EC 2.3.2.13, was purified from whole Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. The purified enzyme had specific activity, purification fold and yield of 53.518U/mg, 10.272 and 10.992%, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified Antarctic krill TGase was estimated to be 78kDa using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimal pH and temperature for the activity of the purified TGase were pH 8...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488370/patients-with-cirrhosis-who-have-coronary-artery-disease-treated-with-cardiac-stents-have-high-rates-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-but-no-increased-mortality
#20
T Krill, G Brown, R A Weideman, D J Cipher, S J Spechler, E Brilakis, L A Feagins
BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with stents require dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). For cirrhotics, who often have varices and coagulopathy, it is not clear if the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) should preclude use of DAPT. AIM: To compare GIB and mortality rates in cirrhotics with CAD treated medically or with stents. METHODS: Using institutional databases, we identified patients with cirrhosis and CAD treated with stents or medical therapy between January 2000-September 2015...
July 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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