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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329855/production-of-three-types-of-krill-oils-from-krill-meal-by-a-three-step-solvent-extraction-procedure
#1
Dan Xie, Hongyan Mu, Tianpei Tang, Xiaosan Wang, Wei Wei, Jun Jin, Xingguo Wang, Qingzhe Jin
In this study, a three-step extraction method (separately use acetone, hexane, and ethanol as extraction solvent in each step) was conducted to selectively extract three types of krill oils with different compositions. The lipid yields were 5.08% in step 1, 4.80% in step 2, and 9.11% in step 3, with a total of 18.99%. The krill oil extracted with acetone in step 1 (A-KO) contained the lowest contents of phospholipids (PL) (2.32%) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (16.63%), but the highest levels of minor components (505...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284198/signals-from-the-south-humpback-whales-carry-messages-of-antarctic-sea-ice-ecosystem-variability
#2
Susan M Bengtson Nash, Juliana Castrillon, Pascale Eisenmann, Brian Fry, Jon D Shuker, Roger A Cropp, Amanda Dawson, Anders Bignert, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Courtney A Waugh, Bradley J Polkinghorne, Greta Dalle Luche, David McLagan
Southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) rely on summer prey abundance of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) to fuel one of the longest-known mammalian migration on the planet. It is hypothesised that this species, already adapted to endure metabolic extremes, will be one of the first Antarctic consumers to show measurable physiological change in response to fluctuating prey availability in a changing climate; and as such, a powerful sentinel candidate for the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281755/predator-prey-interactions-cause-apparent-competition-between-marine-zooplankton-groups
#3
Leif Christian Stige, Kristina Ø Kvile, Bjarte Bogstad, Øystein Langangen
Predator-mediated apparent competition is an indirect negative interaction between two prey species mediated by a shared predator. Quantifying such indirect ecosystem effects is methodologically challenging but important for understanding ecosystem functioning. Still, there are few examples of apparent competition from pelagic marine environments. Using state-space statistical modelling, we here provide evidence for apparent competition between two dominant zooplankton groups in a large marine ecosystem, i...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237854/oceanic-swarms-of-antarctic-krill-perform-satiation-sinking
#4
Geraint A Tarling, Sally E Thorpe
Antarctic krill form some of the highest concentrations of animal biomass observed in the world's oceans potentially due to their prolific ability to swarm. Determining the movement of Antarctic krill within swarms is important to identify drivers of their behaviour and their biogeochemical impact on their environment. We examined vertical velocity within approximately 2000 krill swarms through the combined use of a shipborne echosounder and an acoustic Doppler current profiler. We revealed a pronounced downward anomaly in vertical velocity within swarms of -0...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222893/postprandial-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-response-to-krill-oil-and-fish-oil-consumption-in-healthy-women-a-randomised-controlled-single-dose-crossover-study
#5
Hyunsin H Sung, Andrew J Sinclair, Paul A Lewandowski, Xiao Q Su
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) are good sources of health-benefiting long chain n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA and DHA. There are conflicting outcomes on the bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA from KO compared with FO. This study investigated the postprandial incorporation of LC n- 3 PUFA into plasma lipids following consumption of 5 capsules of KO or FO in comparison with olive oil (OO) control in healthy women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: 10 women (aged 18-45 years) consumed a high-fat (15 g) breakfast, supplemented with 5 g of KO, FO, or OO in a random order with a minimum seven-day washout period between the supplementations...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210329/a-concise-evidence-based-physical-examination-for-diagnosis-of-acromioclavicular-joint-pathology-a-systematic-review
#6
Michael K Krill, Samuel Rosas, KiHyun Kwon, Andrew Dakkak, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Frank McCormick
OBJECTIVES: The clinical examination of the shoulder joint is an undervalued diagnostic tool for evaluating acromioclavicular joint (AC) joint pathology. Applying evidence-based clinical tests enables providers to make an accurate diagnosis and minimize costly imaging procedures and potential delays in care. The purpose of this study was to create a decision tree analysis enabling simple and accurate diagnosis of AC joint pathology. METHODS: A systematic review of the Medline, Ovid and Cochrane Review databases was performed to identify level one and two diagnostic studies evaluating clinical tests for AC joint pathology...
December 6, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206479/microencapsulation-of-esterified-krill-oil-using-complex-coacervation
#7
Selim Kermasha, Sarya Aziz, Jagpreet Gill, Ronald Neufeld
The microencapsulation of the esterified krill oil (EKO), obtained from the transesterification of krill oil (KO) with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPA), via complex coacervation, was investigated. The experimental findings showed that the DHPA and phenolic lipids (PLs) in the EKO affected the stability of the gelatin (GE)-EKO emulsion. To improve its stability, the effects of varying the pH of GE and the use of two emulsification devices, including the homogenizer and ultrasonic liquid processor were investigated, where the ultrasonic liquid processor was found to be a relatively more appropriate emulsification device...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202477/crispr-cas9-screen-reveals-a-mycn-amplified-neuroblastoma-dependency-on-ezh2
#8
Liying Chen, Gabriela Alexe, Neekesh V Dharia, Linda Ross, Amanda Balboni Iniguez, Amy Saur Conway, Emily Jue Wang, Veronica Veschi, Norris Lam, Jun Qi, W Clay Gustafson, Nicole Nasholm, Francisca Vazquez, Barbara A Weir, Glenn S Cowley, Levi D Ali, Sasha Pantel, Guozhi Jiang, William F Harrington, Yenarae Lee, Amy Goodale, Rakela Lubonja, John M Krill-Burger, Robin M Meyers, Aviad Tsherniak, David E Root, James E Bradner, Todd R Golub, Charles Wm Roberts, William C Hahn, William A Weiss, Carol J Thiele, Kimberly Stegmaier
Pharmacologically difficult targets, such as MYC transcription factors, represent a major challenge in cancer therapy. For the childhood cancer neuroblastoma, amplification of the oncogene MYCN is associated with high-risk disease and poor prognosis. Here, we deployed genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and found a preferential dependency on genes encoding the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components EZH2, EED, and SUZ12. Genetic and pharmacological suppression of EZH2 inhibited neuroblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194642/gene-analysis-and-structure-prediction-for-the-cold-adaption-mechanism-of-trypsin-from-the-krill-euphausia-superba-dana-1852
#9
Tingting Zhou, Xichang Wang, Juan Yan, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: The ability of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba (Dana, 1852) to thrive in cold environment comes from its capacity to synthesize cold-adapted enzymes. Its trypsin, as a main substance in the metabolic reactions, plays a key role in the adaption to low temperatures. However, the progress of research on its cold-adaption mechanism is being influenced due to the limited information on its gene and spatial structure. RESULTS: In this paper, we studied the gene of E...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182579/antarctic-krill-oil-diet-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment
#10
Ji Yeon Choi, Jun Sung Jang, Dong Ju Son, Hyung-Sik Im, Ji Yeong Kim, Joung Eun Park, Won Rak Choi, Sang-Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the development and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of krill oil. Oil from Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill), an Antarctic marine species, is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We examined whether krill oil diet (80 mg/kg/day for one month) prevents amyloidogenesis and cognitive impairment induced by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 µg/kg, seven times daily) injections in AD mice model and found that krill oil treatment inhibited the LPS-induced memory loss...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171158/genetic-monitoring-of-open-ocean-biodiversity-an-evaluation-of-dna-metabarcoding-for-processing-continuous-plankton-recorder-samples
#11
Bruce E Deagle, Laurence J Clarke, John A Kitchener, Andrea M Polanowski, Andrew T Davidson
DNA metabarcoding is an efficient method for measuring biodiversity, but the process of initiating long-term DNA-based monitoring programs, or integrating with conventional programs, is only starting. In marine ecosystems, plankton surveys using the continuous plankton recorder (CPR) have characterised biodiversity along transects covering millions of kilometres with time-series spanning decades. We investigated the potential for use of metabarcoding in CPR surveys. Samples (n= 53) were collected in two Southern Ocean transects and metazoans identified using standard microscopic methods and by high-throughput sequencing of a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I marker...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157255/effects-of-antarctic-krill-oil-on-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#12
Dewei Sun, Liang Zhang, Hongjian Chen, Rong Feng, Peirang Cao, Yuanfa Liu
BACKGROUND: Obesity and other metabolic diseases have become epidemic which greatly affect human health. Diets with healthy nutrition are efficient means to prevent this epidemic occurrence. Novel food resources and process technology were needed for these purpose. In this study, Antarctic krill oil (KO) extracted from a dry krill by a procedure of hot pump dehydration in combined with freezing-drying was used to investigate health effect in animals including the growth, lipid and glucose metabolism...
November 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152200/resource-partitioning-facilitates-coexistence-in-sympatric-cetaceans-in-the-california-current
#13
Sabrina Fossette, Briana Abrahms, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Kelly M Zilliacus, John Calambokidis, Julia A Burrows, Jeremy A Goldbogen, James T Harvey, Baldo Marinovic, Bernie Tershy, Donald A Croll
Resource partitioning is an important process driving habitat use and foraging strategies in sympatric species that potentially compete. Differences in foraging behavior are hypothesized to contribute to species coexistence by facilitating resource partitioning, but little is known on the multiple mechanisms for partitioning that may occur simultaneously. Studies are further limited in the marine environment, where the spatial and temporal distribution of resources is highly dynamic and subsequently difficult to quantify...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146354/a-novel-calcium-binding-peptide-from-antarctic-krill-protein-hydrolysates-and-identification-of-binding-sites-of-calcium-peptide-complex
#14
Hu Hou, Shikai Wang, Xiao Zhu, Qiqi Li, Yan Fan, Dong Cheng, Bafang Li
Trypsin was used for preparing peptides with high calcium-binding capacity from Antarctic krill. Hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to capture and purify calcium-binding peptides. The peptide sequence was determined to be VLGYIQIR (N- to C-terminal, MW = 960.58 Da), using LTQ Orbitrap XL. According to the results of FTIR and mass spectrometry, chelating site of calcium ions may possibly involve the carbonal or amino groups of Gln, Ile and Arg residues...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133903/the-winter-pack-ice-zone-provides-a-sheltered-but-food-poor-habitat-for-larval-antarctic-krill
#15
Bettina Meyer, Ulrich Freier, Volker Grimm, Jürgen Groeneveld, Brian P V Hunt, Sven Kerwath, Rob King, Christine Klaas, Evgeny Pakhomov, Klaus M Meiners, Jessica Melbourne-Thomas, Eugene J Murphy, Sally E Thorpe, Sharon Stammerjohn, Dieter Wolf-Gladrow, Lutz Auerswald, Albrecht Götz, Laura Halbach, Simon Jarman, So Kawaguchi, Thomas Krumpen, Gernot Nehrke, Robert Ricker, Michael Sumner, Mathias Teschke, Rowan Trebilco, Noyan I Yilmaz
A dominant Antarctic ecological paradigm suggests that winter sea ice is generally the main feeding ground for krill larvae. Observations from our winter cruise to the southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean contradict this view and present the first evidence that the pack-ice zone is a food-poor habitat for larval development. In contrast, the more open marginal ice zone provides a more favourable food environment for high larval krill growth rates. We found that complex under-ice habitats are, however, vital for larval krill when water column productivity is limited by light, by providing structures that offer protection from predators and to collect organic material released from the ice...
November 13, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129771/effects-of-antarctic-krill-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-mcf-7-cell-migration-and-invasion-induced-by-the-interaction-of-cd95-with-caveolin-1
#16
Weilong Zheng, Jingda Li, Xudong Wang, Yanping Yuan, Jianing Zhang, Zhilong Xiu
Tumor metastasis leads to a poor prognosis in breast cancer, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) extracted from Antarctic krill is an optical isomer of common DHA and has a much stronger anti-neoplastic effect. In this work, the migration and invasion abilities of MCF-7 cells treated with low concentrations of Antarctic krill DHA were evaluated. Low concentrations of Antarctic krill DHA significantly reduced the numbers of migrating and invasive MCF-7 cells, whereas the cell numbers decreased slowly in the CD95-silenced MCF-7 cells, which implies that CD95 might be involved in cell migration and invasion...
November 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120783/micro-emulsification-encapsulation-of-krill-oil-by-complex-coacervation-with-krill-protein-isolated-using-isoelectric-solubilization-precipitation
#17
Liu Shi, Sarah K Beamer, Hong Yang, Jacek Jaczynski
This study determined feasibility of krill protein isolated with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) as wall material to microencapsulate krill oil by freeze-drying. Effects of krill oil/krill protein ratio on properties of microcapsules were investigated. With increased ratio, crude protein of microcapsules decreased, while total lipid increased. Although microcapsule oil loading capacity increased, loading and encapsulation efficiencies decreased. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) confirmed abundance of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic; and thus, resulted in stable emulsion (emulsion stability index)...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113061/effects-of-marine-oils-digested-with-human-fluids-on-cellular-viability-and-stress-protein-expression-in-human-intestinal-caco-2-cells
#18
Cecilia Tullberg, Gerd Vegarud, Ingrid Undeland, Nathalie Scheers
In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0-90 μM). Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0...
November 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112989/distribution-maturity-and-population-structure-of-meganyctiphanes-norvegica-and-thysanoessa-inermis-around-iceland-in-spring
#19
Teresa Silva, Astthor Gislason, Olafur S Astthorsson, Gudrún Marteinsdóttir
This study aims to explain the distribution, maturity and population structure of Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa inermis in springtime in relation to main hydrographic regions around Iceland: Atlantic in the southwest, Atlantic-Arctic mixture in the north and Arctic in the east. Krill were collected 14-29 May 2013 using a macrozooplankton trawl. Biomass of both species combined was significantly higher in the southwest than in north and east. M. norvegica clearly dominated in Atlantic waters, whereas T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098414/microbial-diversity-and-composition-in-different-gut-locations-of-hyperlipidemic-mice-receiving-krill-oil
#20
Chenyang Lu, Tingting Sun, Yanyan Li, Dijun Zhang, Jun Zhou, Xiurong Su
Low-dose (LD, 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), moderate-dose (MD, 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and high-dose (HD, 600 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) krill oil treatments have a stepwise, enhanced effect on alleviating hyperlipidemia, and 16S rRNA sequencing of the fecal samples demonstrates that krill oil treatment alters microbial communities. Feces may not represent all microbial communities in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Therefore, in this study, the stored ileal and colon samples collected from LD and HD groups were sequenced, and the location-specific modulations of microbial communities were observed after krill oil treatments...
November 2, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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