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Baojie Li, Shaohua Wu, Shenglu Zhou, Teng Wang, Chunhui Wang
Multiple studies have evaluated the concentration and lung cancer risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the monitoring and dynamic modeling of PAHs with a high resolution were relatively insufficient. We investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of gaseous PAH concentrations using passive air samplers with high sampling density in an industrial city of Nanjing, China (January and October 2015) and found that the gaseous PAH concentrations in western Nanjing were higher than those in eastern Nanjing, mainly because of emission source distribution and wind action...
July 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Maria Pyra, Elizabeth R Brown, Jessica E Haberer, Renee Heffron, Connie Celum, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Nelly R Mugo, Jared M Baeten
Understanding how women use PrEP is important for developing successful implementation programs. We hypothesized there are distinct patterns of adherence, related to HIV risk and other factors. We identified patterns of PrEP adherence and HIV risk behavior over the first 6 months of PrEP use, using data from 233 HIV-uninfected women in high-risk serodiscordant couples in a demonstration project in Kenya & Uganda. We modeled PrEP adherence, assessed by daily electronic monitoring, and HIV risk behavior using group-based trajectory models...
July 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
E Chepkorir, M Venter, J Lutomiah, F Mulwa, S Arum, D P Tchouassi, R Sang
INTRODUCTION: Yellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN) viruses are important re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses sharing similar vectors and reservoirs. The last documented YF outbreak in Kenya occurred in 1992-95. However, YF virus is re-emerging in bordering countries including Uganda, Ethiopia and South Sudan with the potential for spread to the neighboring regions in Kenya. Dengue is endemic in Kenya with outbreaks being detected in various towns in the north and the coast. This study reports on the Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito species occurrence, diversity, and blood feeding patterns, as means of measuring the risk of transmission of YF and DEN in Kacheliba sub-county, West Pokot County, which borders previous YF outbreak areas in eastern Uganda...
July 10, 2018: Acta Tropica
Ali Harb, Ihab Habib, Ezat Hussain Mezal, Hayder Shannoon Kareem, Tanya Laird, Mark O'Dea, Sam Abraham
Salmonella is a major cause of human foodborne illnesses worldwide; however, little is known about its occurrence and genomic characteristics in food sources in many developing countries. This study investigates the occurrence, serotypes distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and multilocus sequence types (ST) of Salmonella isolated from 400 imported frozen chicken carcasses sold in the markets of Thi-Qar, south-eastern Iraq. Salmonella was detected in 46 out of 400 tested samples [11.5% (95% confidence interval: 8...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Chris Degeling, Victoria Brookes, Tess Lea, Michael Ward
Australia is currently canine rabies free; however, the spread of rabies in eastern Indonesia poses an increasing risk to northern Australia. Domestic dogs are numerous in East Arnhem Land (EAL) and the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA), usually unrestrained and living in close relationships with humans. The response to any rabies outbreak on Australian territory will focus on dog vaccination, controlling dog movements and depopulation. A One Health approach to zoonotic disease control should seek to co-promote human and animal health, whilst also seeking to accommodate the preferences of affected communities...
July 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Artem V Gusarov, Valentin N Golosov, Aidar G Sharifullin
The eastern part of the Russian Plain is an important agricultural region of European Russia with high proportion of cultivated lands in the steppe, forest-steppe and forest (southern part) landscape zones. Soil erosion is the main process of land degradation and surface water contamination there. Climate and land cover changes have been observed in this region during the last 30 years. However, field quantitative assessments of soil erosion rates are not available for the eastern part of European Russia due to the lack of monitoring data as well as the evaluation of erosion/deposition processes in cultivated catchments using other field methods...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Research
Liu Liu, Xiangnan Chai
In China, the number of methamphetamine (meth) users has increased dramatically in recent years. This issue has caused researchers to consider the association of meth use with public health concerns, such as the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Despite the potential outcomes of meth use, qualitative research has not as yet explored Chinese meth users' sexual experiences and feelings associated with meth use. To contribute to the literature, this study employed semistructured interviews to collect data from 19 female and 16 male Chinese meth users (mean age = 31) who were predominantly heterosexual and were recruited from seven compulsory drug treatment institutions in Eastern China...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Eun Kyung Choi, Shiback Lee, Won Jae Kim, Sang-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is a common complication of sevoflurane anesthesia in children. AIMS: We examined the effects of maintaining remifentanil infusion during the recovery period on the incidence of emergence delirium in preschool-age children undergoing strabismus surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS: Eighty children (aged 3-7 years) were randomly assigned to either the control group (group C; intraoperative remifentanil infusion) or the intervention group (group R; intraoperative remifentanil infusion followed by remifentanil maintenance during the recovery phase)...
July 13, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Katarina Medger, Nigel C Bennett, Christian T Chimimba, Maria K Oosthuizen, Jens D Mikkelsen, Clive W Coen
Of the eighteen sub-Saharan elephant-shrew species, only eastern rock elephant-shrews reproduce seasonally throughout their distribution, a process seemingly independent of photoperiod. The present study characterizes gonadal status and location/intensity of GnRH-1 and kisspeptin immunoreactivities in this polyovulating species in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. GnRH-1-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies are predominantly in the medial septum, diagonal band and medial preoptic area; processes are generally sparse except in the external median eminence...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
F Black, F Amien, J Shea
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to the international and national burden of disease. Global estimates suggest that there were 10.4 million new cases of TB in 2015. Children accounted for ~10% of these cases, although in South Africa (SA) this figure is thought to be higher. Despite clear evidence that isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) can reduce the risk of progression from TB infection to disease in TB contacts, IPT has been poorly implemented in SA national TB control programmes...
February 27, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Shaoshuang Fan, Yuhuan Zou, Yifeng Wang, Fang Fang, Wenguang Song
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of apatinib mesylate (AM) in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) with wild or unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (w/nEGFR). METHODS: A total of 34 w/nEGFR -aNSCLC patients who failed chemotherapy from August 2015 to April 2017 were administered orally AM (425 mg/d) as primary treatment and observed their progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR), as well as related adverse events...
May 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Brandon Nokes, Andrew S Tseng, Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba, Fadi Shamoun, Clinton Jokerst, Lester Mertz
Behçet disease is a rare multisystem condition associated with HLA-B51 positivity that commonly afflicts individuals of Turkish or Middle Eastern descent, less than 10% of whom have pulmonary involvement. Behçet-related pulmonary vasculitis is an uncommon and heterogeneous group of conditions, often with associated pulmonary artery thrombus formation. These microthrombi can result in a misdiagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulation therapy can be difficult, as blood thinners increase the risk of pulmonary hemorrhage without affording the same benefits as in pulmonary embolism management...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Mahesh Poudyal, Julia P G Jones, O Sarobidy Rakotonarivo, Neal Hockley, James M Gibbons, Rina Mandimbiniaina, Alexandra Rasoamanana, Nilsen S Andrianantenaina, Bruno S Ramamonjisoa
Background: While the importance of conserving ecosystems for sustainable development is widely recognized, it is increasingly evident that despite delivering global benefits, conservation often comes at local cost. Protected areas funded by multilateral lenders have explicit commitments to ensure that those negatively affected are adequately compensated. We make the first comparison of the magnitude and distribution of the local costs of a protected area with the magnitude and distribution of the compensation provided under the World Bank social safeguard policies (Performance Standard 5)...
2018: PeerJ
Jennafer C Malek, James E Byers
Background: Changes in climate are predicted to influence parasite and pathogen infection patterns in terrestrial and marine environments. Increases in temperature in particular may greatly alter biological processes, such as host-parasite interactions. For example, parasites could differentially benefit from increased reproduction and transmission or hosts could benefit from elevated immune responses that may mediate or even eliminate infections. In the southeastern United States, the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica , is infected by the lethal protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus ...
2018: PeerJ
Oliver W M Rauhut, Laura Piñuela, Diego Castanera, José-Carlos García-Ramos, Irene Sánchez Cela
The Kimmeridgian Vega, Tereñes and Lastres formations of Asturias have yielded a rich vertebrate fauna, represented by both abundant tracks and osteological remains. However, skeletal remains of theropod dinosaurs are rare, and the diversity of theropod tracks has only partially been documented in the literature. Here we describe the only non-dental osteological theropod remain recovered so far, an isolated anterior caudal vertebra, as well as the largest theropod tracks found. The caudal vertebra can be shown to represent a megalosaurine megalosaurid and represents the largest theropod skeletal remain described from Europe so far...
2018: PeerJ
Samuel O Onoja, Ginika Q Ihejirika, Oluchi N Nwankudu, Yusuf N Omeh, Maxwell I Ezeja
Bryophyllum pinnatum belongs to the family Crassulaceae and it is commonly used in the ethnomedical practices. This study investigated the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of methanol extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf harvested from South-Eastern Nigeria in mice. Cold maceration method in 80% methanol was adopted in the extract preparation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant property while castor oil-induced diarrhea, small intestinal transit, and enteropooling models were used for the antidiarrheal investigation...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hussein Nassar, Ahmad Zaghal, Ali Taher, Rami Mahfouz, Bassem Safadi, Mariam Kanso, Mohammad Khalife, Walid Faraj
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jscr/rjy135.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jscr/rjy135.].
July 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Xiang-Hui Fang, Mu Mu
The spring predictability barrier severely limits our ability to forecast the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) from and across the boreal spring. Our observational analysis shows that the spring predictability barrier (SPB) can be largely reduced when information from both the ocean and atmosphere are effectively taken into account during the boreal spring. The correlation coefficient between the predicted and observed sea surface temperature anomalies over the equatorial central-eastern Pacific determined by a simple quaternary linear regression model is >0...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dibyashakti Panda, Bhaskar Kundu, M Santosh
Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny has considered as a natural black box in the context of geodynamic evolution and tectonic complexity. The eastward extrusion model of Tibetan crust contradicts with the oblique convergence model in the NE-Himalaya (Bhutan/Arunachal region), where the overall convergence rate accommodated in the Himalaya is about 20-25% less than that in the neighbouring central Himalaya and Eastern Himalayan syntaxis (EHS). We propose that instead of partitioning in the backarc, the NE-Himalaya has developed an active sliver along the Assam-Brahmaputra valley in the outer deformation front, in order to accommodate the deficiency in long-term plate convergence between Himalaya and southern Tibet...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin P Horton, Ian Shennan, Sarah L Bradley, Niamh Cahill, Matthew Kirwan, Robert E Kopp, Timothy A Shaw
Tidal marshes rank among Earth's vulnerable ecosystems, which will retreat if future rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) exceed marshes' ability to accrete vertically. Here, we assess the limits to marsh vulnerability by analyzing >780 Holocene reconstructions of tidal marsh evolution in Great Britain. These reconstructions include both transgressive (tidal marsh retreat) and regressive (tidal marsh expansion) contacts. The probability of a marsh retreat was conditional upon Holocene rates of RSLR, which varied between -7...
July 12, 2018: Nature Communications
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