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Gas decompression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109872/severe-decompression-illness-case-report-prehospital-recognition-and-regional-transport-considerations
#1
Julie Estrada, David Meurer, Kevin De Boer, Karl Huesgen
A 46-year-old male presented to our tertiary care emergency department (ED) with shortness of breath and chest pain following an uneventful four-hour SCUBA dive at 100 feet. His prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) assessment revealed transient hypotension and hypoxia. He later developed progressive skin mottling. Serology was significant for acute kidney injury, transaminitis, hemoconcentration, and hypoxia on an arterial blood gas. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated intravascular gas throughout the mesenteric and pulmonary arteries as well as the portal venous system...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079345/postoperative-respiratory-effects-of-intravenous-fentanyl-compared-to-intravenous-methadone-in-dogs-following-spinal-surgery
#2
Maria Amengual, Hannah Leigh, Eva Rioja
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 24-hour postoperative respiratory effects of either intravenous fentanyl administered as a constant rate infusion or boluses of methadone, in dogs following spinal surgery, assessed by serial arterial blood gas analyses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical study. ANIMALS: Thirty-two healthy dogs (American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II) anaesthetized for elective caudal thoracic and/or lumbar decompression spinal surgery...
April 8, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051628/deadly-acute-decompression-sickness-in-risso-s-dolphins
#3
A Fernández, E Sierra, J Díaz-Delgado, S Sacchini, Y Sánchez-Paz, C Suárez-Santana, M Arregui, M Arbelo, Y Bernaldo de Quirós
Diving air-breathing vertebrates have long been considered protected against decompression sickness (DCS) through anatomical, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. However, an acute systemic gas and fat embolic syndrome similar to DCS in human divers was described in beaked whales that stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises involving high-powered sonar. More recently, DCS has been diagnosed in bycaught sea turtles. Both cases were linked to human activities. Two Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) out of 493 necropsied cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands in a 16-year period (2000-2015), had a severe acute decompression sickness supported by pathological findings and gas analysis...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974936/dive-risk-factors-gas-bubble-formation-and-decompression-illness-in-recreational-scuba-diving-analysis-of-dan-europe-dsl-data-base
#4
Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Marroni
Introduction: The popularity of SCUBA diving is steadily increasing together with the number of dives and correlated diseases per year. The rules that govern correct decompression procedures are considered well known even if the majority of Decompression Sickness (DCS) cases are considered unexpected confirming a bias in the "mathematical ability" to predict DCS by the current algorithms. Furthermore, little is still known about diving risk factors and any individual predisposition to DCS. This study provides an in-depth epidemiological analysis of the diving community, to include additional risk factors correlated with the development of circulating bubbles and DCS...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971104/wave-intensity-analysis-and-its-application-to-the-coronary-circulation
#5
REVIEW
C J Broyd, J E Davies, J E Escaned, A Hughes, K Parker
Wave intensity analysis (WIA) is a technique developed from the field of gas dynamics that is now being applied to assess cardiovascular physiology. It allows quantification of the forces acting to alter flow and pressure within a fluid system, and as such it is highly insightful in ascribing cause to dynamic blood pressure or velocity changes. When co-incident waves arrive at the same spatial location they exert either counteracting or summative effects on flow and pressure. WIA however allows waves of different origins to be measured uninfluenced by other simultaneously arriving waves...
March 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900861/acute-kidney-injury-caused-by-decompression-illness-successfully-treated-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-and-temporary-dialysis
#6
Arata Hibi, Keisuke Kamiya, Takahisa Kasugai, Keisuke Kamiya, Satoru Kominato, Chiharu Ito, Toshiyuki Miura, Katsushi Koyama
A 52-year-old Japanese male professional diver was referred to our hospital for decompression illness (DCI). After 1 h of diving operation at 20 m below sea level, he complained of dyspnea, chest pain, and abdominal pain. He dove again, intending to ease the symptoms, but the symptoms were never relieved. He dove for a total of 4 h. No neurological abnormalities were observed. Computed tomography images revealed portal venous gas and mesenteric venous gas, in addition to bubbles in the femoral veins, pelvis, lumbar canal, intracranial sinuses, and joints...
September 12, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880140/-diving-accident-induced-arterial-gas-embolism
#7
P D Nijk, T P van Rees Vellinga, J M van Lieshout, M I Gaakeer
BACKGROUND: During scuba diving, nitrogen dissolves into the body tissues due to elevated pressure under water. During a sudden drop in pressure due to a rapid return to the water surface, arterial gas embolism can arise from pulmonary barotrauma. In a later phase, nitrogen bubbles can also arise in the venous circulation (decompression sickness). Arterial bubbles can incur vascular damage, obstruction, hypoxia and infarction. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old healthy sport diver presented at the emergency department in a hypovolemic shock with progressive paresis of all the extremities...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861003/nanobubbles-form-at-active-hydrophobic-spots-on-the-luminal-aspect-of-blood-vessels-consequences-for-decompression-illness-in-diving-and-possible-implications-for-autoimmune-disease-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Ran Arieli
Decompression illness (DCI) occurs following a reduction in ambient pressure. Decompression bubbles can expand and develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. The different hypotheses hitherto proposed regarding the nucleation and stabilization of gas micronuclei have never been validated. It is known that nanobubbles form spontaneously when a smooth hydrophobic surface is submerged in water containing dissolved gas. These nanobubbles may be the long sought-after gas micronuclei underlying decompression bubbles and DCI...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839003/acute-hypoxia-in-a-simulated-high-altitude-airdrop-scenario-due-to-oxygen-system-failure
#9
William Ottestad, Tor Are Hansen, Gaurav N Pradhan, Jan Stepanek, Lars Øivind Høiseth, Jan Ivar Kåsin
High Altitude High Opening (HAHO) is a military operational procedure in which parachute jumps are performed at high altitude requiring supplemental oxygen, putting personnel at risk of acute hypoxia in the event of oxygen equipment failure. This study was initiated by the Norwegian Army in order to evaluate potential outcomes during failure of oxygen supply, and to explore physiology during acute severe hypobaric hypoxia. A simulated HAHO without supplemental oxygen was carried out in a hypobaric chamber with decompression to 30 000 ft (9144 m) and then recompression to ground level with a descent rate of 1000 ft/min (305 m/min)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820265/pressure-induced-polymerization-and-disproportionation-of-li2c2-accompanied-with-irreversible-conductivity-enhancement
#10
Lijuan Wang, Xiao Dong, Yajie Wang, Haiyan Zheng, Kuo Li, Xing Peng, Ho-Kwang Mao, Changqing Jin, Yufei Meng, Mingquan Huang, Zhisheng Zhao
Li2C2 has the highest theoretical capacity (1400 mA·h·g(-1)) as the electrode material for Li-ion battery, but suffers from low conductivity. Here we found that under external pressure its conductivity was irreversibly enhanced by 10(9)-fold. To explain that, we performed X-ray diffraction, Raman, IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and theoretical investigations under external pressure. We found that the C2(2-) anions approached to each other and polymerized upon compression, which is responsible for the irreversible enhancement of conductivity...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777907/elimination-of-ct-detected-gas-bubbles-derived-from-decompression-illness-with-abdominal-symptoms-after-a-short-hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-in-a-monoplace-chamber-a-case-report
#11
Takuya Oyaizu, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshihide Tsujimoto, Yasushi Kojima, Atsushi Okawa, Kazuyoshi Yagishita
We report the case of a 54-year-old male compressed-air worker with gas bubbles detected by computed tomography (CT). He had complained of strong abdominal pain 30 minutes after decompression after working at a pressure equivalent to 17 meters of sea water for three hours. The initial CT images revealed gas bubbles in the intrahepatic portal vein, pulmonary artery and bilateral femoral vein. After the first hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO₂ at 2.5 atmospheres absolute/ATA for 150 minutes), no bubbles were detected on repeat CT examination...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768090/erratum-regarding-inaccurate-authorship-attributions-noted
#12
(no author information available yet)
For the paper 'Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results,' authorship and affiliations in UHM 43-1 read as: Chin W, Jacoby L, Simon O, Talati N, Wegrzyn G, Jacoby R, Proano J, Sprau SE, Markovitz G, Hsu R, Joo E. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2016 Jan-Feb; 43(1): 29-43. The corrected authorship reads as: Chin W, Jacoby L, Simon O, Talati N, Wegrzyn G, Jacoby R, Proano J, Sprau SE, Markovitz GH, Hsu R, Joo E...
January 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745648/fizzy-extraction-of-volatile-organic-compounds-combined-with-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#13
Hao-Chun Yang, Cheng-Hao Chang, Pawel L Urban
Chemical analysis of volatile and semivolatile compounds dissolved in liquid samples can be challenging. The dissolved components need to be brought to the gas phase, and efficiently transferred to a detection system. Fizzy extraction takes advantage of the effervescence phenomenon. First, a carrier gas (here, carbon dioxide) is dissolved in the sample by applying overpressure and stirring the sample. Second, the sample chamber is decompressed abruptly. Decompression leads to the formation of numerous carrier gas bubbles in the sample liquid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740100/quantification-of-cell-bubble-interactions-in-a-3d-engineered-tissue-phantom
#14
C Walsh, N Ovenden, E Stride, U Cheema
Understanding cell-bubble interactions is crucial for preventing bubble related pathologies and harnessing their potential therapeutic benefits. Bubbles can occur in the body as a result of therapeutic intravenous administration, surgery, infections or decompression. Subsequent interactions with living cells, may result in pathological responses such as decompression sickness (DCS). This work investigates the interactions that occur between bubbles formed during decompression and cells in a 3D engineered tissue phantom...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720994/early-migration-of-bone-graft-causing-sigmoid-colon-perforation-after-trans-foraminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#15
Bhavuk Garg, Amit Singla, Sahil Batra, Senthil Kumar
BACKGROUND: Tran foraminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a well accepted and standard technique of achieving spinal fusion using pedicle screws, cage and bone graft. We are presenting here a case of L4-L5 lumbar canal stenosis managed with TLIF that presented with sigmoid colon perforation due to bone graft migration 4 days after surgery. CASE REPORT: A 35 years old female underwent open TLIF (from right side) with decompression for L4-L5 lumbar canal stenosis...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661230/circle-co2-reabsorbing-breathing-systems-human-applications
#16
Patrick Magee
Artificial breathing systems to help humans survive extreme environments are used over a range of ambient pressures, using various gases of different volumetric concentrations. These activities include anaesthesia and intensive care activity, high-altitude mountaineering, firefighting, aerospace extravehicular space activity and underwater diving operations. A circle breathing system is one in which the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by an alkali substance and the remaining unused gases are recirculated, usually for the sake of economy and environment...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641811/tension-pneumocephalus-following-suboccipital-sitting-craniotomy-in-the-pediatric-population
#17
P Daszkiewicz, D Dziedzic
BACKGROUND: Sitting craniotomy often results in entrapment of air in fluid-filled intracranial cavities. Gas under pressure exerts a deleterious effect on adjacent nervous tissue, resulting in clinical deterioration. AIM OF STUDY: To assess the incidence of tension pneumocephalus (TP) and to define risk factors associated therewith. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analysis included 100 consecutive patients (57 boys, 43 girls, mean age 9.7 y) undergoing suboccipital sitting craniotomy since 2012 to 2014...
May 11, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641319/understanding-scuba-diving-fatalities-carbon-dioxide-concentrations-in-intra-cardiac-gas
#18
Vincent Varlet, Alejandro Dominguez, Marc Augsburger, Maisy Lossois, Coraline Egger, Cristian Palmiere, Raquel Vilarino, Silke Grabherr
INTRODUCTION: Important developments in the diagnosis of scuba diving fatalities have been made thanks to forensic imaging tool improvements. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits reliable interpretation of the overall gaseous distribution in the cadaver. However, due to post-mortem delay, the radiological interpretation is often doubtful because the distinction between gas related to the dive and post-mortem decomposition artifactual gases becomes less obvious. METHODS: We present six cases of fatal scuba diving showing gas in the heart and other vasculature...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600260/diving-into-research-of-biomedical-engineering-in-scuba-diving
#19
Tobias Cibis, Alistair McEwan, Bjoern Eskofier, John Lippmann, Karl Friedl, Michael Bennett
The physiologic response of the human body to different environments is a complex phenomenon to ensure survival. Immersion and compressed gas diving, together trigger a set of responses. Monitoring those responses in real-time may increase our understanding of these and help to develop safety procedures and equipment. This review outlines diving physiology and diseases and identifies physiological parameters worthy of monitoring. Subsequently, we have investigated technological approaches matched to those in order to evaluated their capability for underwater application...
June 7, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572687/defining-risk-variables-causing-gas-embolism-in-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-caught-in-trawls-and-gillnets
#20
Andreas Fahlman, Jose Luis Crespo-Picazo, Blair Sterba-Boatwright, Brian A Stacy, Daniel Garcia-Parraga
Incidental capture, or 'bycatch' in fishing gear is a major global threat to sea turtle populations. A recent study showed that underwater entrapment in fishing gear followed by rapid decompression may cause gas bubble formation within the blood stream (embolism) and tissues leading to organ injury, impairment, and even mortality in some bycaught individuals. We analyzed data from 128 capture events using logistic and ordinal regression to examine risk factors associated with gas embolism in sea turtles captured in trawls and gillnets...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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