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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765386/design-of-a-type-1-diabetes-vaccine-candidate-using-edible-plants-expressing-a-major-autoantigen
#1
Edoardo Bertini, Matilde Merlin, Elisa Gecchele, Andrea Puggia, Annalisa Brozzetti, Mauro Commisso, Alberto Falorni, Vittorio Bini, Victor Klymyuk, Mario Pezzotti, Linda Avesani
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754447/gain-of-function-mutations-in-beet-doda2-identify-key-residues-for-betalain-pigment-evolution
#2
Alexander Bean, Rasika Sunnadeniya, Neda Akhavan, Annabelle Campbell, Matthew Brown, Alan Lloyd
The key enzymatic step in betalain biosynthesis involves conversion of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to betalamic acid. One class of enzymes capable of this is 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA). In betalain-producing species, multiple paralogs of this gene are maintained. This study demonstrates which paralogs function in the betalain pathway and determines the residue changes required to evolve a betalain-nonfunctional DODA into a betalain-functional DODA. Functionalities of two pairs of DODAs were tested by expression in beets, Arabidopsis and yeast, and gene silencing was performed by virus-induced gene silencing...
May 13, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730882/beta-blockers-for-treatment-of-autoimmune-blistering-dermatosis
#3
Ayman Abdelmaksoud, Michelangelo Vestita
We read with interest a study by Miyamoto et al. published in the Journal of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. In their study, Miyamoto et al. found higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endoglin in the tissue of erythrodermic pemphigus foliaceous (PF) compared to non-erythrodermic PF. According to the authors, both VEGF and endoglin may pose a prognostic predicting factors for adequate tissue repair in pemphigus patients; PF& pemphigus vulgaris (PV). The authors stated "therapy such as topical propranolol may enable adequate healing and disease remission"...
May 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730879/beta-adrenoceptor-expression-in-pemphigus-foliaceus
#4
D Miyamoto, A B T Dias, V Aoki, M N Burnier
We appreciate the valuable comments from Drs. Abdelmaksoud and Vestita regarding our study about the in situ expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endoglin in patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and pemphigus vulgaris [1]. We proposed that the severity of PF is related not only to the level of circulating autoantibodies but also to the ability to restore tissue integrity following intraepidermal detachment. We have demonstrated that overexpression of VEGF is observed both in serum samples[2] and skin fragments obtained from patients with severe PF[3], and suggested the use of β-blockers to regulate it...
May 6, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705503/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-identification-of-salt-responsive-genes-in-sugar-beet-m14
#5
Xiaoyan Lv, Ying Jin, Yuguang Wang
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop of sugar production in the world. Previous studies reported that sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 obtained from the intercross between Beta vulgaris L. (cultivated species) and B. corolliflora Zoss (wild species) exhibited tolerance to salt (up to 0.5 M NaCl) stress. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes involved in the M14 salt tolerance will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress. Comparative transcriptomics was performed to monitor genes differentially expressed in the leaf and root samples of the sugar beet M14 seedlings treated with 0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl, respectively...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695491/nest-box-exploration-may-stimulate-breeding-physiology-and-alter-mrna-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-female-european-starlings
#6
Jeremy A Spool, Melannie D Jay, Lauren V Riters
Environmental resources are proposed to fine-tune the timing of breeding, yet how they may do so remains unclear. In female European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), nest cavities are limited resources that are necessary for breeding. Females that explore nest cavities, compared to those that do not, readily perform sexually-motivated behaviors. We assigned female starlings to aviaries with 1) no nest boxes, 2) nest boxes, or 3) nest boxes, plants, flowing water, insects and berries to test the hypothesis that environmental resources alter neural systems to stimulate mating behavior...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669474/feeding-fodder-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-with-either-barley-straw-or-pasture-silage-to-non-lactating-dairy-cows
#7
G C Waghorn, K Collier, M Bryant, D Dalley
AIMS: To determine the suitability of diets containing either approximately 85% fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with barley straw or 65% fodder beet with pasture silage when fed to non-lactating dairy cows by measuring intakes, digestibility, rumen function including microbial growth, and N excretion. METHODS: Holstein-Friesian cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulae were fed either 65% fodder beet with pasture silage (Silage; n=8) or 85% fodder beet with barley straw (Straw; n=8) in an indoor facility over a 9-day period, for measurement of intakes, digestibility, rumen function and urine production...
April 18, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665483/absorption-of-arsenic-from-soil-and-water-by-two-chard-beta-vulgaris-l-varieties-a-potential-risk-to-human-health
#8
L M Yañez, J A Alfaro, G Bovi Mitre
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in vegetables poses a risk of contamination to humans via the food chain. Two chard (var. cicla and var. d'ampuis) crops were grown for 60 days in greenhouses on Aridisol soil, and irrigated with water from Pastos Chicos, Jujuy (Argentina). The soil and water used in the trial presented 49 and 1.44 mg/L As concentration levels, respectively. Total dry biomass (TDB) and total As were determined in soils, roots and leaves. The latter was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation, and bioconcentration and translocation factors were determined...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660828/storage-stability-of-dietary-nitrate-and-phenolic-compounds-in-beetroot-beta-vulgaris-and-arugula-eruca-sativa-juices
#9
Karen A Corleto, Jashbir Singh, G K Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S Patil
Nitrate and polyphenols from the diet may enhance the production and bioavailability of nitric oxide, a radical signaling molecule critical for cardiovascular health. Understanding the stability of these bioactives in beetroot and arugula juices is important for their functions. In this study, the stability of nitrate and phenolics in beetroot and arugula juices was measured for 32 days at different temperatures (25, 4, -20, and -80 °C). The levels of nitrate were measured by reversed-phase HPLC and initial levels were found to be 4965...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610687/potential-applications-of-some-indigenous-bacteria-isolated-from-polluted-areas-in-the-treatment-of-brewery-effluents
#10
Temesgen Oljira, Diriba Muleta, Mulissa Jida
Biological wastewater treatment is economically feasible and ecofriendly. This study was aimed at isolating bacteria from brewery wastes and evaluating their bioremediation potential as individual isolate and/or their consortium in reducing the pollutants of brewery effluents. A total of 40 bacterial isolates were recovered and of these the three best isolates were selected. The selected bacteria were identified to genus level by using morphological and biochemical characteristics. Accordingly, the isolates were identified as Aeromonas sp...
2018: Biotechnology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610576/comparison-of-three-pcr-based-assays-for-snp-genotyping-in-plants
#11
Chiara Broccanello, Claudia Chiodi, Andrew Funk, J Mitchell McGrath, Lee Panella, Piergiorgio Stevanato
Background: PCR allelic discrimination technologies have broad applications in the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetics and genomics. The use of fluorescence-tagged probes is the leading method for targeted SNP detection, but assay costs and error rates could be improved to increase genotyping efficiency. A new assay, rhAmp, based on RNase H2-dependent PCR (rhPCR) combined with a universal reporter system attempts to reduce error rates from primer/primer and primer/probe dimers while lowering costs compared to existing technologies...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600757/preclinical-hepatoprotective-effect-of-herbalism-against-ethanol-induced-hepatotoxicity-a-review
#12
Hina Firdous, Talib Hussain, Monika Singh, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Afrasim Moin, Mohammad A Kamal
Liver ailments including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), still remain the main reason for morbidity & mortality worldwide. In fact, ALD is a multifactorial disease with complex pathophysiology which is linked to several types of liver damages including steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. This review emphasizes on 30 herbal medicinal plants with their extracts studied for protective effect against ALD and current scientific evidence of ALD cure by thirty Indian Materia Medica including Tilia Platyphyllos, Amomum subulatum, Carica papaya, Pogostemon patchouli, Commelina benghalensis, Bacopamonnieri, Pecan nut, Allium cepa, Beta Vulgaris, Adina cordifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Sida veronicaefolia, Chenopodium album, Korean red ginseng, Elephantopus scaber, Tecomella undulata, Prunus armeniaca, Sea tangle (Laminaria japonica), Emblica officinalis, Saccharum officinarum, Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia roxburghii, Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang, Phyllanthus amarus, Aegle marmelos, Agrimonia eupatoria, Flaveria trinervia, Curcuma longa and Garcinia indica...
March 30, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562245/oviposition-preference-and-larval-host-range-of-the-sugarbeet-root-maggot-diptera-ulidiidae
#13
Kondwani R Msangosoko, Mark A Boetel
The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis Röder (Diptera: Ulidiidae), is native to North America. However, its primary crop host, sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., was introduced to the continent from Europe in the late 19th century. This field and greenhouse research was conducted to compare the relative attractiveness of eight cultivated and wild plant species for oviposition by T. myopaeformis, and the suitability of these potential host plants for larval development to elucidate the potential native and current host range of this pest...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551200/cryptic-diversity-pathogenicity-and-evolutionary-species-boundaries-in-cercospora-populations-associated-with-cercospora-leaf-spot-of-beta-vulgaris
#14
Niloofar Vaghefi, Julie R Kikkert, Frank S Hay, Gavriela D Carver, Lori B Koenick, Melvin D Bolton, Linda E Hanson, Gary A Secor, Sarah J Pethybridge
The taxonomy and evolutionary species boundaries in a global collection of Cercospora isolates from Beta vulgaris was investigated based on sequences of six loci. Species boundaries were assessed using concatenated multi-locus phylogenies, Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), Poisson Tree Processes (PTP), and Bayes factor delimitation (BFD) framework. Cercospora beticola was confirmed as the primary cause of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) on B. vulgaris. Cercospora apii, C. cf. flagellaris, Cercospora sp...
April 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545813/crop-rotational-effects-on-yield-formation-in-current-sugar-beet-production-results-from-a-farm-survey-and-field-trials
#15
Heinz-Josef Koch, Kerrin Trimpler, Anna Jacobs, Nicol Stockfisch
In Europe, the framework for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers' survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531703/chloroplastic-and-nuclear-diversity-of-wild-beets-at-a-large-geographical-scale-insights-into-the-evolutionary-history-of-the-beta-section
#16
Pascal Touzet, Sarah Villain, Laetitia Buret, Hélène Martin, Anne-Catherine Holl, Céline Poux, Joël Cuguen
Historical demographic processes and mating systems are believed to be major factors in the shaping of the intraspecies genetic diversity of plants. Among Caryophyllales, the Beta section of the genus Beta, within the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae alliance, is an interesting study model with species and subspecies ( Beta macrocarpa , Beta patula , Beta vulgaris maritima and B.v. adanensis) differing in geographical distribution and mating system. In addition, one of the species, B. macrocarpa , mainly diploid, varies in its level of ploidy with a tetraploid cytotype described in the Canary Islands and in Portugal...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521241/beta-vulgaris-a-mini-review-of-traditional-uses-in-iran-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#17
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Masoud Honarvar
BACKGROUND: Beta vulgaris (family: Chenopodiacea) is now much used in the food industry as a rich source of sugar but it is much less considered in medicine. Beet has been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, decreased libido, gut and joint pain and dandruff. METHODS: This study introduced the benefits of Beta vulgaris by reviewing of Iranian traditional documents from 10th century until now and also compared modern phytotherapy of plant beet from the electronic data banks such as ISI, Pub Med and Scopus with findings that extracted from traditional literature...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468393/growth-performance-metal-accumulation-and-biochemical-responses-of-palak-beta-vulgaris-l-var-allgreen-h-1-grown-on-soil-amended-with-sewage-sludge-fly-ash-mixtures
#18
Bhavisha Sharma, Richa Kothari, Rajeev Pratap Singh
Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) has become both, a common practice and an alternative disposal method for these wastes all around the world. The present study was conducted to assess the effect and viability of co-application of SS and FA (SLASH) in four mixing ratios denoted as A [4 (SS): 1(FA)], B [4 (SS): 2 (FA)], C [4 (SS): 3 (FA)] and D [4 (SS): 4(FA)] at three application rates viz. 20, 40 and 60% (w/w) with agricultural soil on biochemical, physiological and growth response of Palak (Beta vulgaris L...
May 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467772/genetic-and-genomic-tools-to-asssist-sugar-beet-improvement-the-value-of-the-crop-wild-relatives
#19
Filipa Monteiro, Lothar Frese, Sílvia Castro, Maria C Duarte, Octávio S Paulo, João Loureiro, Maria M Romeiras
Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris ) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460655/clinical-evidence-for-washing-and-cleansers-in-acne-vulgaris-a-systematic-review
#20
Thomas Stringer, Arielle Nagler, Seth J Orlow, Vikash S Oza
PURPOSE: Washing and over-the-counter cleansers are common interventions in acne vulgaris (AV), but the clinical evidence for their benefit is poorly understood. This systematic review presents clinical studies of washing and cleanser efficacy in acne vulgaris to guide treatment recommendations of dermatologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed English-language articles indexed in MEDLINE (1951-March 2017) and EMBASE (1974-March 2017). Articles were required to be prospective studies of a single over-the-counter cleanser or washing intervention in AV with an objective AV outcome measurement published in a peer-reviewed journal...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
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