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Regina Aroca-Santos, John C Cancilla, Enrique S Pariente, José S Torrecilla
The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
André Klapper, Ron Dotsch, Iris van Rooij, Daniël H J Wigboldus
It is widely assumed among psychologists that people spontaneously form trustworthiness impressions of newly encountered people from their facial appearance. However, most existing studies directly or indirectly induced an impression formation goal, which means that the existing empirical support for spontaneous facial trustworthiness impressions remains insufficient. In particular, it remains an open question whether trustworthiness from facial appearance is encoded in memory. Using the 'who said what' paradigm, we indirectly measured to what extent people encoded the trustworthiness of observed faces...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Stephen B Soumerai, Rachel Ceccarelli, Ross Koppel
Some medical scientists argue that only data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are trustworthy. They claim data from natural experiments and administrative data sets are always spurious and cannot be used to evaluate health policies and other population-wide phenomena in the real world. While many acknowledge biases caused by poor study designs, in this article we argue that several valid designs using administrative data can produce strong findings, particularly the interrupted time series (ITS) design...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Yidan Tang, Zhentong Zhu, Baiyang Lu, Bingling Li
We report a new nucleic acid sensing strategy through an intelligent design of spatial organization based reciprocal switching of catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA). The so-called SORS-CHA not only turns a well-designed CHA circuit into a relatively universal detector for any targeting sequence, but also guarantees a much enhanced signal resolution and a believability to minimize the misreading induced by unexpected signal drifts. With more trustworthy results, but a simpler sequence design, nucleic acid circuits could become competitive in real-world applications...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ludger Gerdesmeyer, Munjed Al Muderis, Hans Gollwitzer, Norbert Harrasser, Martin Stukenberg, Maria-Angela Clifford, Andreas Toepfer
BACKGROUND: Cementless fixation of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) is often favored in young, high-demanding patients due to the conservation of valuable bone-stock and easier revision if loosening has occurred. Long-term outcome data of the spongy metal structured implant used in the present study in patients younger than 65 years are still lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review and functional investigation (Merle d'Aubigné score, SF-12) of patients younger than 65 years at implantation treated with a spongy metal structured THA (n = 79) from one orthopedic university center from 1985 to 1989...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Phoebe E Bailey, Katherine Petridis, Skye N McLennan, Ted Ruffman, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: This study assesses age-related differences in the weighting and integration of appearance and behavior cues to trustworthiness. The aim is to assess whether it becomes more difficult with age to detect a cheater in disguise. METHOD: Young and older adults invested real money in a repeated trust game with trustees who varied on facial expression (smiling, neutral, angry) and return rate (high, low). Trustees were also rated for trustworthiness pre- and post-trust game...
October 14, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
K E Williams, D Berthelsen, M Viviani, J M Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Playgroups are a relatively unique form of family support programme that is common in Australia which has high community acceptance and significant government investment. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of playgroups to achieve better outcomes for children and their parents. This study describes patterns of playgroup participation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families with young children and examines the extent to which participation from birth to three years is associated with subsequent child, parent and community outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Anna Oleszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pisanski, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Agnieszka Sorokowska
The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i...
October 13, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Brydie Clarke, Boyd Swinburn, Gary Sacks
BACKGROUND: Theories of the policy process are recommended as tools to help explain both policy stasis and change. METHODS: A systematic review of the application of such theoretical frameworks within the field of obesity prevention policy was conducted. A meta-synthesis was also undertaken to identify the key influences on policy decision-making. RESULTS: The review identified 17 studies of obesity prevention policy underpinned by political science theories...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
Daniel Chen, Yosh Halberstam, Alan C L Yu
Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness...
2016: PloS One
Shu Morioka, Michihiro Osumi, Mayu Shiotani, Satoshi Nobusako, Hiroshi Maeoka, Yohei Okada, Makoto Hiyamizu, Atsushi Matsuo
Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP)...
2016: PloS One
Keiko Kishimoto, Akiko Hasaka, Katsunori Yamaura, Noriko Fukushima
 Pharmacy is required to shift toward human service such as hearing the complaints of health. But the study about help-seeking behavior to pharmacist is not really investigated. We hypothesized that a decrease in expression visibility, due to pharmacists' typical masks, may negatively impact help-seeker' trust in pharmacist. The sample included 100 drugstore customers aged ≥18 years. Participants were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to two groups: evaluation of clear-masked and normal-masked pharmacists...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Larry R Churchill
Moral virtues are the complement to ethical principles. They constitute the elements of character that drive habits and daily routines. Certain virtues are especially important in surgery, shaping surgical practice even when no big decisions are at hand. Eight virtues are described and the work they do is explored: trustworthiness, equanimity, empathy, advocacy, compassion, courage, humility, and hope.
September 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Haoli Zheng, Daqiang Huang, Shu Chen, Siqi Wang, Wenmin Guo, Jun Luo, Hang Ye, Yefeng Chen
Trust and trustworthiness are essential to an efficient economy and play crucial roles in social life. Previous evidence from behavioral experiments has revealed that the trustworthiness of individuals is closely related with their altruistic preference. It has been demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is associated with decisions involving trustworthiness. Moreover, vmPFC lesion patients showed less trustworthiness and altruism than control subjects, indicating the indispensable role of this specific brain area in human social interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Holger J Schünemann, Wojtek Wiercioch, Jan Brozek, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Reem A Mustafa, Veena Manja, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ignacio Neumann, Maicon Falavigna, Waleed AlHazzani, Nancy Santesso, Yuan Zhang, Jörg J Meerpohl, Rebecca L Morgan, Bram Rochwerg, Andrea Darzi, Maria Ximenas Rojas, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Yaser Adi, Zulfa AlRayees, John Riva, Claudia Bollig, Ainsley Moore, Juan José Yepes-Nuñez, Carlos Cuello, Reem Waziry, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Guideline developers can: 1) adopt existing recommendations from others; 2) adapt existing recommendations to their own context; or 3) create recommendations de novo. Monetary and non-monetary resources, credibility, maximization of uptake, as well as logical arguments should guide the choice of the approach and processes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a potentially efficient model for guideline production based on adoption, adaptation and/or de novo development of recommendations utilizing the GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Byeong-Joo Noh, Youn Wha Kim, Yong-Koo Park
Heterotopic ossification occurring to low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) (pseudomyxoma peritonei) is extremely rare. The pathogenetic mechanism of the tumor-related heterotopic bone formation remains as yet unconfirmed. Here, we describe a rare case of LAMN with ossification in a 72-year-old woman, and concentrate on the etiology of heterotopic ossification by the immunohistochemical evaluation of the novel markers such as BMP9, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. BMP9 is one of the most effective osteogenetic proteins...
September 22, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
W F C Rocha, D A Sheen
The ability to determine the biodegradability of chemicals without resorting to expensive tests is ecologically and economically desirable. Models based on quantitative structure-activity relations (QSAR) provide some promise in this direction. However, QSAR models in the literature rarely provide uncertainty estimates in more detail than aggregated statistics such as the sensitivity and specificity of the model's predictions. Almost never is there a means of assessing the uncertainty in an individual prediction...
October 6, 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
Marie-Andrée Jacob
Violations of research integrity are understood to have wide-ranging negative consequences for the trustworthiness of science and the health of the public. My goal in this article is not to cause further outrage about research misconduct. Instead, this article queries research conducts expressly as seen through the eyes of a specific regulator and over a specific period (1990-2015). The result is an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the application of the General Medical Council's (GMC's) fitness to practice model in this area...
October 5, 2016: Medical Law Review
André Giacomelli Leal, Leonardo Brancia Pagnan, Raphael Teruaki Kondo, José Aguiomar Foggiatto, Guilherme José Agnoletto, Ricardo Ramina
Methods: 3D biomodels were printed with flexible material (elastomer) using angiotomographic DICOM acquired images and compared to 3D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images. Results: 3D biomodels represented the aneurysm angioarchitecture exactly, especially the neck and domus features. Conclusion: Elastomers 3D biomodels proved to be a trustworthy representation of the angiotomographic images and could be used to help surgical planning in IA treatment...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Varley Dias Sousa, Pedro I Ramalho, Dâmaris Silveira
Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs) and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs). This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report) as tools for strengthening health systems...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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