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Kristy A Martire, Bethany Growns, Danielle J Navarro
Forensic handwriting examiners currently testify to the origin of questioned handwriting for legal purposes. However, forensic scientists are increasingly being encouraged to assign probabilities to their observations in the form of a likelihood ratio. This study is the first to examine whether handwriting experts are able to estimate the frequency of US handwriting features more accurately than novices. The results indicate that the absolute error for experts was lower than novices, but the size of the effect is modest, and the overall error rate even for experts is large enough as to raise questions about whether their estimates can be sufficiently trustworthy for presentation in courts...
April 17, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Mohamed Nomier, Assem M Khamis, Ahmed Ali, Karim N Daou, Aline T Semaan, Maya Diab, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: A transparent and explicit reporting on authors' contributions to the development of clinical practice guidelines and on panelists' characteristics is essential for their credibility and trustworthiness. We did not find published studies on authorship or panel involvement in clinical practice guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To describe the approach to authorship in reports of clinical practice guidelines, and the characteristics of individual authors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearing House (NGC) in 2016...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Melissa J Armstrong, C Daniel Mullins, Gary S Gronseth, Anna R Gagliardi
BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) is recognized as a key component of clinical practice guideline development with important implications for guideline implementability. The impact of PPI on guidelines, however, has not been rigorously assessed. Better understanding of the impact of PPI must start with guideline question formation, which drives all subsequent development steps. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPI on guideline question formation and validate a conceptual model of patient and public contributions to guidelines...
April 16, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Farhana Jabeen, Zara Hamid, Wadood Abdul, Sanaa Ghouzali, Abid Khan, Saif Ur Rehman Malik, Mansoor Shaukat Khan, Sarfraz Nawaz
In health sector, trust is considered important because it indirectly influences the quality of health care through patient satisfaction, adherence and the continuity of its relationship with health care professionals and the promotion of accurate and timely diagnoses. One of the important requirements of TRSs in the health sector is rating secrecy, which mandates that the identification information about the service consumer should be kept secret to prevent any privacy violation. Anonymity and trust are two imperative objectives, and no significant explicit efforts have been made to achieve both of them at the same time...
2018: PloS One
Byeong-Jo Kim, Soo-Min Kim, Hae-Yeon Kwon
[Purpose] This study was carried out to examine the effect of the application of group exercise program composed to induce interests and assertive participation of adults with cerebral palsy on the self-efficacy and activities of daily living, as well as to provide basic clinical data that are effective and trustworthy in enhancing the physical and emotional interaction in the future. [Subjects and Methods] Those among the 23 adult with cerebral palsy who are the subjects of research and able to participate only in the evaluation of measurement tools prior to and after the experiment were allocated to the control group while only those who can participate in the group exercise program implemented over 12 sessions were allocated to the experimental group...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Mahbobeh Abdolrahimi, Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian, Masoumeh Zakerimoghadam, Abbas Ebadi
Background: Health communication (HC) is considered an important task of nurses to provide high quality and holistic care as well as to improve patient health. The nursing student-patient HC is an abstract concept and needs to be clarified. Therefore, this study was conducted to increase the knowledge about nursing students' HC with patients by considering various participants' viewpoints. Materials and Methods: In this conventional qualitative content analysis, 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with six nursing students, six nursing instructors, and six patients in educational hospitals affiliated to the University of Medical Sciences...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Kari Dyb, Line Lundvoll Warth
BACKGROUND: This paper explores Norwegian doctors' use of and experiences with a national tool for sharing core patient health information. The summary care record (SCR; the Kjernejournal in Norwegian) is the first national system for sharing patient information among the various levels and institutions of health care throughout the country. The health authorities have invested heavily in the development, implementation and deployment of this tool, and as of 2017 all Norwegian citizens have a personalised SCR...
April 6, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
G A Karamitros, N A Kitsos
Great numbers of patients use the Internet to obtain information and familiarize themselves with medical conditions. However, the quality of Internet-based information on clefts of the lip and palate has not yet been examined. The goal of this study was to assess the quality of Internet-based patient information on orofacial clefts. Websites were evaluated based on the modified Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP) instrument (36 items). Three hundred websites were identified using the most popular search engines...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Alexander T M Cheung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
David Magnus, Jason N Batten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Stephanie A Kraft, Mildred K Cho, Katherine Gillespie, Meghan Halley, Nina Varsava, Kelly E Ormond, Harold S Luft, Benjamin S Wilfond, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee
With the growth of precision medicine research on health data and biospecimens, research institutions will need to build and maintain long-term, trusting relationships with patient-participants. While trust is important for all research relationships, the longitudinal nature of precision medicine research raises particular challenges for facilitating trust when the specifics of future studies are unknown. Based on focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse patients, we describe several factors that influence patient trust and potential institutional approaches to building trustworthiness...
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Karen M Meagher, Eric T Juengst, Gail E Henderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Stephanie R Morain, Nancy E Kass, Ruth R Faden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Leslie A Zebrowitz, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Luke Hanlin, Jutta M Wolf, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Research demonstrating responsiveness of the neural reward network to face trustworthiness has not assessed whether the effects are mediated by dopaminergic function. We filled this gap in the literature by investigating whether dietary dopamine depletion would blunt the sensitivity of neural activation to faces varying in trustworthiness across reward regions as well as the sensitivity of behavioral responses to those faces. As prolactin release is negatively regulated by dopamine, peripheral prolactin levels confirmed the efficacy of our manipulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Reza Moradi, Saeid Karimi, Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Zakaria Kiaei, Elaheh Mazaheri
BACKGROUND: Given new reforms in Iran's health-care system and due to the need for gathering evidence regarding the implementation of this plan, this study aimed to investigate opportunities and challenges created by resident specialist attendance plan guidelines in university hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used the qualitative method. Semi-structured interviews were used for data gathering. The study population included all experts of Isfahan University of Medical Science...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Heidi J Larson, Richard M Clarke, Caitlin Jarrett, Elisabeth Eckersberger, Zachary Levine, Will S Schulz, Pauline Paterson
Vaccine acceptance depends on public trust and confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines and immunization, the health system, healthcare professionals and the wider vaccine research community. This systematic review analyses the current breadth and depth of vaccine research literature that explicitly refers to the concept of trust within their stated aims or research questions. After duplicates were removed, 19,643 articles were screened by title and abstract. Of these 2,779 were screened by full text, 35 of which were included in the final analysis...
April 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Allan Riis, Ditte Meulengracht Hjelmager, Line Dausel Vinther, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Jan Hartvigsen, Martin Bach Jensen
BACKGROUND: Information on self-management, including addressing people's fears and concerns, are core aspects of managing patients with low back pain (LBP). Web apps with patient information may be used to extend patient-physician consultations and encourage self-management outside of the consultation room. It is, however, important to identify the end users' needs and preferences in order to maximize acceptance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify preferences for the content, design, and functionality of a Web app with evidence-based information and advice for people with LBP in Denmark...
April 2, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Michiel Daem, Mathieu Verbrugghe, Wim Schrauwen, Silvian Leroux, Ann Van Hecke, Maria Grypdonck
BACKGROUND: The organization of psychosocial care is rather complex, and its provision diverse. Access is affected by the acceptance and attitude of patients and professional caregivers toward psychosocial care. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine when patients with cancer experience quality psychosocial care and to identify circumstances in collaboration that contribute to patient-perceived positive psychosocial care. METHODS: This study used a qualitative design in which semistructured interviews were conducted with patients, hospital workers, and primary health professionals...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Juan Botella, Desirée Blázquez, Manuel Suero, James F Juola
Assessing significant change (or reliable change) in a person often involve comparing the responses of that person in two administrations of a test or scale. Several procedures have been proposed to determine if a difference between two observed scores is statistically significant or rather is within the range of mere random fluctuations due to measurement error. Application of those procedures involve some knowledge of the test properties. But sometimes those procedures cannot be employed because the properties are unknown or are not trustworthy...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jake J Hecla, Areg Danagoulian
Nuclear disarmament treaties are not sufficient in and of themselves to neutralize the existential threat of the nuclear weapons. Technologies are necessary for verifying the authenticity of the nuclear warheads undergoing dismantlement before counting them toward a treaty partner's obligation. Here we present a concept that leverages isotope-specific nuclear resonance phenomena to authenticate a warhead's fissile components by comparing them to a previously authenticated template. All information is encrypted in the physical domain in a manner that amounts to a physical zero-knowledge proof system...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
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