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Kristin Curry Greenwood, Sara B Ewell
Background: The use of simulation-based education (SBE) in health professions, such as physical therapy, requires faculty to expand their teaching practice and development. The impact of this teaching on the individual faculty member, and how their teaching process changes or develops, is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore individual physical therapist faculty members' experience with SBE and how those experiences may have transformed their teaching practice to answer the research questions: How do physical therapist faculty develop through including SBE and are there commonalities among educators? Methods: An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used with a small sample of subjects who participated in three individual semi-structured interviews...
2018: Advances in Simulation
Bo-Christer Björk
Mega-journals are a new kind of scholarly journal made possible by electronic publishing. They are open access (OA) and funded by charges, which authors pay for the publishing services. What distinguishes mega-journals from other OA journals is, in particular, a peer review focusing only on scientific trustworthiness. The journals can easily publish thousands of articles per year and there is no need to filter articles due to restricted slots in the publishing schedule. This study updates some earlier longitudinal studies of the evolution of mega-journals and their publication volumes...
2018: PeerJ
Catherine L King, Maria Y K Chow, Kerrie E Wiley, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Effective public health messaging is essential in both the planning phase and duration of a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an understanding of parental information seeking, trusted sources and needs in relation to pandemic influenza A 2009 (pH1N1) to inform future policy planning and resource development. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study; parents from 16 childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed between 16 November and 9 December 2009 and interviews were conducted with participants from six childcare centres between June 2009 and May 2011...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Cati G Brown-Johnson, Lindsay M Boeckman, Ashley H White, Andrea D Burbank, Sjonna Paulson, Laura A Beebe
BACKGROUND: Modern technology (ie, websites and social media) has significantly changed social mores in health information access and delivery. Although mass media campaigns for health intervention have proven effective and cost-effective in changing health behavior at a population scale, this is best studied in traditional media sources (ie, radio and television). Digital health interventions are options that use short message service/text messaging, social media, and internet technology...
February 12, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Susan M Renz, Jane M Carrington, Terry A Badger
The overarching aim of qualitative research is to gain an understanding of certain social phenomena. Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of empirical materials, all to describe moments and meanings in individuals' lives. Data derived from these various materials require a form of analysis of the content, focusing on written or spoken language as communication, to provide context and understanding of the message. Qualitative research often involves the collection of data through extensive interviews, note taking, and tape recording...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Mary Dial, Jennifer Holmes, Robin McGownd, M Cecilia Wendler
AIM: Obesity is a common co-morbidity of hospitalized patients, and nurses sometimes have great difficulty meeting the skin care needs of patients of size. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify successful self-care strategies patients of size used to care for themselves at home, in order to replicate these successes in the hospital. BACKGROUND: When patients who are obese are hospitalized they are vulnerable to complications, including skin integrity problems...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Enrique Bernal-Delgado, Francisco Estupiñán-Romero
The integration of different administrative data sources from a number of European countries has been shown useful in the assessment of unwarranted variations in health care performance. This essay describes the procedures used to set up a data infrastructure (e.g., data access and exchange, definition of the minimum common wealth of data required, and the development of the relational logic data model) and, the methods to produce trustworthy healthcare performance measurements (e.g., ontologies standardisation and quality assurance analysis)...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Eileen C Rasmussen, Angela Gutchess
Objectives: We assessed how age impacted learning who to trust, and the extent to which this type of learning relied on explicit memory. In contrast to prior studies, target faces were neutral without prior reputational information. Method: Younger and older adults made investment decisions for 36 brokers, who yielded a good, neutral, or bad outcome. Brokers were encountered three times to measure adaptive learning. After the investment task, participants completed a surprise explicit source memory test for brokers...
February 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
David Robert Grimes, Chris T Bauch, John P A Ioannidis
Scientific publication is immensely important to the scientific endeavour. There is, however, concern that rewarding scientists chiefly on publication creates a perverse incentive, allowing careless and fraudulent conduct to thrive, compounded by the predisposition of top-tier journals towards novel, positive findings rather than investigations confirming null hypothesis. This potentially compounds a reproducibility crisis in several fields, and risks undermining science and public trust in scientific findings...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sina Radke, Theresa Kalt, Lisa Wagels, Birgit Derntl
Motivational tendencies to happy and angry faces are well-established, e.g., in the form of aggression. Approach-avoidance reactions are not only elicited by emotional expressions, but also linked to the evaluation of stable, social characteristics of faces. Grounded in the two fundamental dimensions of face-based evaluations proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov (2008), the current study tested whether emotionally neutral faces varying in trustworthiness and dominance potentiate approach-avoidance in 50 healthy male participants...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Aida Gutiérrez-García, Manuel G Calvo, Michael W Eysenck
Cognitive models posit that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to and interpretation of ambiguous social cues as threatening. We investigated attentional bias (selective early fixation on the eye region) to account for the tendency to distrust ambiguous smiling faces with non-happy eyes (interpretative bias). Eye movements and fixations were recorded while observers viewed video-clips displaying dynamic facial expressions. Low (LSA) and high (HSA) socially anxious undergraduates with clinical levels of anxiety judged expressers' trustworthiness...
February 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jonas Steel, Lode Godderis, Jeroen Luyten
Objectives Occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions` effect on worker productivity is an essential, but complex element of the value of these programs. The trustworthiness of economic evaluation studies, aiming to provide guidance to decision-makers in the field of OHS, depends at least partly on how accurately productivity changes are measured. We aim to review the methods used to estimate productivity changes in recently published economic evaluations of OHS interventions. Methods We performed systematic searches of economic evaluations of OHS programs published between 2007 and 2017 and reviewed these studies` methods to quantify the programs` impact on worker productivity Results Of the 90 identified studies, 44 used a human capital approach, 17 a friction cost approach, 13 stated productivity in natural units (eg, a cost-per-absence-day-avoided), 7 made use of compensation expenses, 4 used output-based methods, 4 an "ad hoc" approach, and 1 study did not state its method...
February 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Benjamin Balas, M Quiridumbay Verdugo
Observers make a range of social evaluations based on facial appearance, including judgments of trustworthiness, warmth, competence, and other aspects of personality. What visual information do people use to make these judgments? While links have been made between perceived social characteristics and other high-level properties of facial appearance (e.g., attractiveness, masculinity), there has been comparatively little effort to link social evaluations to low-level visual features, like spatial frequency and orientation sub-bands, known to be critically important for face processing...
February 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Narelle J Watson, Sally A Martin, Jennifer L Keating
OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients' experience following wrist fracture, surgical repair and immobilization. DESIGN: A qualitative investigation involving individual participant interviews. SETTING: A metropolitan trauma service. SUBJECTS: In all, 31 participants were consecutively recruited from three groups within a randomized controlled trial comparing immobilization for one ( n = 11), three ( n = 10) or six weeks ( n = 10) following surgical treatment for wrist fracture...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Shuo Wang, Virginia Falvello, Jenny Porter, Christopher P Said, Alexander Todorov
People often make approachability decisions based on perceived facial trustworthiness. However, it remains unclear how people learn trustworthiness from a population of faces and whether this learning influences their approachability decisions. Here we investigated the neural underpinning of approach behavior and tested two important hypotheses: whether the amygdala adapts to different trustworthiness ranges and whether the amygdala is modulated by task instructions and evaluative goals. We showed that participants adapted to the stimulus range of perceived trustworthiness when making approach decisions and that these decisions were further modulated by the social context...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Bengt Glimelius, Jan Kowalski, Jacques Näsström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Maria Lindqvist, Margareta Persson, Ingrid Mogren
OBJECTIVE: The aims to explore among pregnant women were their experiences of lifestyle counselling provided by a midwife in antenatal care, addressing health promotion with special focus on physical activity during pregnancy, and factors influencing the trustworthiness of counselling conducted by a midwife. METHODS: This qualitative study collected data from 14 pregnant, primiparous or multiparous women in gestational week 35-36 using in-depth interviews. The data were collected in Sweden in 2015...
March 2018: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Xia Fang, Gerben A van Kleef, Disa A Sauter
Dynamic changes in emotional expressions are a valuable source of information in social interactions. As the expressive behaviour of a person changes, the inferences drawn from the behaviour may also change. Here, we test the possibility that dynamic changes in emotional expressions affect person perception in terms of stable trait attributions. Across three experiments, we examined perceivers' inferences about others' personality traits from changing emotional expressions. Expressions changed from one emotion ("start emotion") to another emotion ("end emotion"), allowing us to disentangle potential primacy, recency, and averaging effects...
February 1, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Wendy Liu, Jessica J Outlaw, Nathan Wineinger, Debra Boeldt, Cinnamon S Bloss
Existing research in consumer behavior suggests that perceptions and usage of a product post-purchase depends, in part, on how the product was marketed, including price paid. In the current study, we examine the effect of providing an out-of-pocket co-payment for consumer genomic testing (CGT) on consumer post-purchase behavior using both correlational field evidence and a hypothetical online experiment. Participants were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of the impact of CGT and completed behavioral assessments before and after receipt of CGT results...
January 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Mehdi Mirzaie
Evaluation of protein structures needs a trustworthy potential function. Although several knowledge-based potential functions exist, the impact of different types of amino acids in the scoring functions has not been studied yet. Previously, we have reported the importance of nonlocal interactions in scoring function (based on Delaunay tessellation) in discrimination of native structures. Then, we have questioned the structural impact of hydrophobic amino acids in protein fold recognition. Therefore, a Hydrophobic Reduced Model (HRM) was designed to reduce protein structure of FS (Full Structure) into RS (Reduced Structure)...
January 31, 2018: Proteins
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