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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922586/rebuilding-patient-physician-trust-in-china-developing-a-trust-oriented-bioethics
#1
EDITORIAL
Jing-Bao Nie, Joseph D Tucker, Wei Zhu, Yu Cheng, Bonnie Wong, Arthur Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922581/the-crisis-of-patient-physician-trust-and-bioethics-lessons-and-inspirations-from-china
#2
Jing-Bao Nie, Lun Li, Grant Gillett, Joseph D Tucker, Arthur Kleinman
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient-physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust - a crucial matter in healthcare especially because there are numerous ethical implications - has largely been marginalized in bioethics as a global discourse...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922547/the-vicious-circle-of-patient-physician-mistrust-in-china-health-professionals-perspectives-institutional-conflict-of-interest-and-building-trust-through-medical-professionalism
#3
Jing-Bao Nie, Yu Cheng, Xiang Zou, Ni Gong, Joseph D Tucker, Bonnie Wong, Arthur Kleinman
To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922387/epistemic-beliefs-role-in-promoting-misperceptions-and-conspiracist-ideation
#4
R Kelly Garrett, Brian E Weeks
Widespread misperceptions undermine citizens' decision-making ability. Conclusions based on falsehoods and conspiracy theories are by definition flawed. This article demonstrates that individuals' epistemic beliefs-beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how one comes to know-have important implications for perception accuracy. The present study uses a series of large, nationally representative surveys of the U.S. population to produce valid and reliable measures of three aspects of epistemic beliefs: reliance on intuition for factual beliefs (Faith in Intuition for facts), importance of consistency between empirical evidence and beliefs (Need for evidence), and conviction that "facts" are politically constructed (Truth is political)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921544/commentary-so-was-it-worth-it-a-commentary-on-fricke-et%C3%A2-al-and-hagen-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#5
Elspeth McCartney
Fricke et al. and Hagen et al. (2017) each report on large-scale pragmatic randomised controlled trials delivered in schools or nurseries, investigating language interventions for vulnerable children and showing moderate positive effect sizes. Such research is part of a recent development of 'what works' research in England, and the number of 'what works' trials continues to increase, largely through funding from the Sutton Trust, who are concerned with disadvantaged children, to the Educational Endowment Foundation (EEF)...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919824/strengthening-participation-by-young-women-sex-workers-in-hiv-programs-reflections-on-a-study-from-bangkok-thailand
#6
Cath Conn, Kristel Modderman, Shoba Nayar
BACKGROUND: Participation is an accepted means of increasing the effectiveness of public health programs, and as such, it is considered an important component of HIV interventions targeting at-risk youth. The situation of young women sex workers in Thailand is alarming on many fronts, including that of HIV risk. As a result, HIV programs in Thailand are the key interventions undertaken in relation to young women sex workers' health. A small-scale study used semistructured interviews to explore the participation reports of five young women sex workers, as well as the related views of two community support workers, who lived and worked in Bangkok, Thailand...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919763/sociodemographic-variables-and-social-values-relationship-with-work-attendance-problems-in-brunei-public-and-private-sector-employees
#7
Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati Abdullah
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918685/executive-functions-and-attachment-relationships-in-children-with-adhd-links-to-externalizing-internalizing-problems-social-skills-and-negative-mood-regulation
#9
Michal Al-Yagon, Dovrat Forte, Lital Avrahami
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical models suggest multiple underlying pathways for ADHD and multiple risk factors' co-occurrence as impairing this population's affective, interpersonal, and behavioral adjustment. After comparing groups' executive functioning (EF) difficulties and attachment security with each parent, this study primarily aimed to examine four risk factors (ADHD, child-father attachment, child-mother attachment, EF) as possibly explaining children's socioemotional/behavioral measures (externalizing/internalizing behavior, social skills, negative mood regulation)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917409/methods-for-assessing-forward%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-backward-light-scatter%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-patients-with%C3%A2-cataract
#10
Alja Crnej, Nino Hirnschall, Con Petsoglou, Oliver Findl
PURPOSE: To compare objective methods for assessing backward and forward light scatter and psychophysical tests in patients with cataracts. SETTING: Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: This study included patients scheduled for cataract surgery. Lens opacities were grouped into predominantly nuclear sclerotic, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and mixed cataracts...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917031/the-effect-of-propensity-to-trust-and-perceptions-of-trustworthiness-on-trust-behaviors-in-dyads
#11
Gene M Alarcon, Joseph B Lyons, James C Christensen, Samantha L Klosterman, Margaret A Bowers, Tyler J Ryan, Sarah A Jessup, Kevin T Wynne
Research on trust has burgeoned in the last few decades. Despite the growing interest in trust, little is known about trusting behaviors in non-dichotomous trust games. The current study explored propensity to trust, trustworthiness, and trust behaviors in a new computer-mediated trust relevant task. We used multivariate multilevel survival analysis (MMSA) to analyze behaviors across time. Results indicated propensity to trust did not influence trust behaviors. However, trustworthiness perceptions influenced initial trust behaviors and trust behaviors influenced subsequent trustworthiness perceptions...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916860/the-effect-of-migration-on-social-capital-and-depression-among-older-adults-in-china
#12
Qiuju Li, Xudong Zhou, Sha Ma, Minmin Jiang, Lu Li
PURPOSE: An estimated 9 million elderly people accompanied their adult children to urban areas in China, raising concerns about their social capital and mental health following re-location. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of migration on social capital and depression among this population. METHODS: Multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to recruit the migrant and urban elderly in Hangzhou from May to August, 2013. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews by trained college students using a standardized questionnaire...
September 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915986/exploration-of-gender-norms-and-socialization-among-early-adolescents-the-use-of-qualitative-methods-for-the-global-early-adolescent-study
#13
REVIEW
Kristin Mmari, Robert W Blum, Rebkha Atnafou, Elisa Chilet, Sara de Meyer, Omaima El-Gibaly, Sharmista Basu, Bamidele Bello, Beatrice Maina, Xiayun Zuo
PURPOSE: The Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) was launched in 2014 with the primary goal of understanding the factors in early adolescence that predispose young people to subsequent sexual risks, and conversely, those that promote healthy sexuality across different cultural contexts. The present article describes the methodology that was used for the first phase of GEAS, which consisted of conducting qualitative research to understand the gendered transitions into adolescence and the role that gender norms play within the key relationships of adolescents...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915876/changes-in-trust-and-the-use-of-korean-medicine-in-south-korea-a-comparison-of-surveys-in-2011-and-2014
#14
Soohyun Kwon, Shinhee Heo, Dongjun Kim, Seunghyun Kang, Jong-Min Woo
BACKGROUND: Korean medicine (KM) has been widely used in Korea. This study aimed to assess the general perceptions of KM, to investigate the patterns of its usage in 2014, and to compare the results with those of an earlier survey from 2011. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1000 Korean people. The questionnaire included items regarding trust in KM, reasons for distrust of KM, and visit frequency to KM clinics. This study used methods consistent with those of a 2011 survey to examine changes in attitudes over 3 years...
September 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914272/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-cpr-decision-support-video-for-patients-admitted-to-the-general-medicine-service
#15
Aimee M Merino, Ryan Greiner, Kristopher Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Patient preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are important, especially during hospitalization when a patient's health is changing. Yet many patients are not adequately informed or involved in the decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of an informational video about CPR on hospitalized patients' code status choices. DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized trial conducted at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System in Minnesota...
September 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914198/pemtb-a-database-of-mhc-antigenic-peptide-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Qamar Zia, Asim Azhar, Shadab Ahmad, Mohammad Afsar, Ziaul Hasan, Mohammad Owais, Mahfooz Alam, Shabab Akbar, Magdah Ganash, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Swaleha Zubair, Gjumrakch Aliev
BACKGROUND: For design of a subunit vaccine for tuberculosis, identification of antigenic T-cell epitope is of utmost importance. Several MHC prediction server are available that can accurately predict antigenic peptide of variable lengths. However, peptides predicted from one server not necessarily are predicted form another server, thus creating a confusing situation for scientists to choose a best epitope. METHOD: Keeping the above problem in mind, we developed a comprehensive database of peptides of Mycobacterial proteins...
September 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914185/power-potential-and-pitfalls-in-global-health-academic-partnerships-review-and-reflections-on-an-approach-in-nepal
#17
David Citrin, Stephen Mehanni, Bibhav Acharya, Lena Wong, Isha Nirola, Rekha Sherchan, Bikash Gauchan, Khem Bahadur Karki, Dipendra Raman Singh, Sriram Shamasunder, Phuoc Le, Dan Schwarz, Ryan Schwarz, Binod Dangal, Santosh Kumar Dhungana, Sheela Maru, Ramesh Mahar, Poshan Thapa, Anant Raut, Mukesh Adhikari, Indira Basnett, Shankar Prasad Kaluanee, Grace Deukmedjian, Scott Halliday, Duncan Maru
BACKGROUND: Global health academic partnerships are centered around a core tension: they often mirror or reproduce the very cross-national inequities they seek to alleviate. On the one hand, they risk worsening power dynamics that perpetuate health disparities; on the other, they form an essential response to the need for healthcare resources to reach marginalized populations across the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study characterizes the broader landscape of global health academic partnerships, including challenges to developing ethical, equitable, and sustainable models...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914063/identifying-the-interprofessional-agreement-between-community-pharmacists%C3%A2-and-general-practitioners%C3%A2-views-on-collaborative-practice-in-slovakia
#18
Ladislav Dubán, Tomáš Fazekaš, Magdaléna Fulmeková, Miroslava Snopková, Anna Oleárová, Magdaléna Kuželová
BACKGROUND: The collaboration of community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) has a positive effect on healthcare outcomes. There are still many countries, where no efforts have been made to enhance this type of teamwork. There is no evidence of how GPs and CPs collaborate in Slovakia. The objective of this study is to identify the current level of GPs and CPs teamwork in Slovakia and to identify the key factors, where these professions agree. METHODS: Two parallel electronic surveys were prepared and sent out by e-mail to CPs and GPs in Slovakia...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913979/physical-pain-increases-interpersonal-trust-in-females
#19
C Wang, J Gao, Y Ma, C Zhu, X-W Dong
BACKGROUND: People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour. METHODS: A total of 112 healthy participants were recruited and assigned to physical pain condition (induced by Capsaicin) and control condition (with hand cream), respectively...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913794/wheat-improvement-in-india-present-and-future
#20
Sonia Goel, Kalpana Singh, N K Singh
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contributes substantially to global food and nutritional security. With the growing demands under the constraints of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation, and increased risk of epidemic outbreaks, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly, and there is an immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain the same at a higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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