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Multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#1
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#2
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891339/bacteriological-profile-of-isolates-from-urine-samples-in-patients-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-or-prostatitis-showing-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#3
Prem Prakash Mishra, Ved Prakash, Kashmir Singh, H Mog, Sumit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. AIM: To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885285/emergence-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-due-to-arma-methylase-in-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-nepal
#5
S Shrestha, T Tada, B Shrestha, T Kirikae, H Ohara, B P Rijal, B M Pokhrel, J B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with hospital-acquired infections has been increasingly reported worldwide. 16S rRNA methylase producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides from hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the emergence of armA in A.baumannii species associated with nosocomial infection in a university hospital in Nepal...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884325/violet-405-nm-light-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-against-common-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
Mitchell D Barneck, Nathaniel L R Rhodes, Martin de la Presa, James P Allen, Ahrash E Poursaid, Maziar M Nourian, Matthew A Firpo, John T Langell
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and multidrug-resistant organisms demonstrate the need for innovative technological solutions. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in particular are common pathogens responsible for a large percentage of indwelling medical device-associated clinical infections. The bactericidal effects of visible light sterilization (VLS) using 405-nm is one potential therapeutic under investigation...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879336/beyond-antimicrobial-resistance-evidence-for-a-distinct-role-of-the-acrd-efflux-pump-in-salmonella-biology
#7
Michelle M C Buckner, Jessica M A Blair, Roberto M La Ragione, Jane Newcombe, Daniel J Dwyer, Alasdair Ivens, Laura J V Piddock
: For over 20 years, bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps have been studied because of their impact on resistance to antimicrobials. However, critical questions remain, including why produce efflux pumps under non-antimicrobial treatment conditions, and why have multiple pumps if their only purpose is antimicrobial efflux? Salmonella spp. possess five efflux pump families, including the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps. Notably, the RND efflux pump AcrD has a unique substrate profile, distinct from other Salmonella efflux pumps...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874971/cefiderocol-a-siderophore-cephalosporin-for-gram-negative-bacterial-infections-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-in-subjects-with-renal-impairment
#8
Takayuki Katsube, Roger Echols, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira, Heidi K Krenz, Jolene Kay Berg, Christopher Galloway
Cefiderocol, a new injectable siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic, has promising in vitro and in vivo activity against Gram-negative bacteria including multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cefiderocol is mainly renally eliminated. The pharmacokinetics and safety of cefiderocol in subjects with renal impairment were assessed following a single 1000-mg intravenous 1-hour infusion of cefiderocol. Subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis were compared with demographically (age, body mass index, and sex) matched healthy subjects with normal renal function...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861350/chlorhexidine-bathing-for-the-prevention-of-colonization-and-infection-with-multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-unit-over-a-9-year-period-impact-on-chlorhexidine-susceptibility
#9
Elisa Teixeira Mendes, Otavio T Ranzani, Ana Paula Marchi, Mariama Tomaz da Silva, José Ulysses Amigo Filho, Tânia Alves, Thais Guimarães, Anna S Levin, Silvia Figueiredo Costa
Health care associated infections (HAIs) are currently among the major challenges to the care of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 2% chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing on the incidence of colonization and infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens, and to evaluate their CHG minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after the intervention.A quasi-experimental study with duration of 9 years was conducted...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851857/assessing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-eravacycline-vs-ertapenem-in-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections-in-the-investigating-gram-negative-infections-treated-with-eravacycline-ignite-1-trial-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Joseph Solomkin, David Evans, Algirdas Slepavicius, Patrick Lee, Andrew Marsh, Larry Tsai, Joyce A Sutcliffe, Patrick Horn
Importance: Eravacycline is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic of the tetracycline class with in vitro activity against clinically important gram-negative, gram-positive aerobic, and facultative bacteria including most of those resistant to cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors, multidrug resistant strains and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and most anaerobic pathogens. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of eravacycline compared with ertapenem in adult hospitalized patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs)...
November 16, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845276/3d-scaffold-with-effective-multidrug-sequential-release-against-bacteria-biofilm
#11
Rafaela García-Alvarez, Isabel Izquierdo-Barba, María Vallet-Regí
Bone infection is a feared complication following surgery or trauma that remains as an extremely difficult disease to deal with. So far, the outcome of therapy could be improved with the design of 3D implants, which combine the merits of osseous regeneration and local multidrug therapy so as to avoid bacterial growth, drug resistance and the feared side effects. Herein, hierarchical 3D multidrug scaffolds based on nanocomposite bioceramic and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) prepared by rapid prototyping with an external coating of gelatin-glutaraldehyde (Gel-Glu) have been fabricated...
November 11, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834203/predatory-bacteria-attenuate-klebsiella-pneumoniae-burden-in-rat-lungs
#12
Kenneth Shatzkes, Eric Singleton, Chi Tang, Michael Zuena, Sean Shukla, Shilpi Gupta, Sonal Dharani, Onoyom Onyile, Joseph Rinaggio, Nancy D Connell, Daniel E Kadouri
: Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are predatory bacteria that naturally-and obligately-prey on other Gram-negative bacteria, and their use has been proposed as a potential new approach to control microbial infection. The ability of predatory bacteria to prey on Gram-negative human pathogens in vitro is well documented; however, the in vivo safety and efficacy of predatory bacteria have yet to be fully assessed. In this study, we examined whether predatory bacteria can reduce bacterial burden in the lungs in an in vivo mammalian system...
November 8, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826061/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-infections-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Francesca Patriarca, Chiara Cigana, Dozzo Massimo, Davide Lazzarotto, Antonella Geromin, Miriam Isola, Marta Lisa Battista, Marta Medeot, Michela Cerno, Alessandra Sperotto, Anna Candoni, Massimo Crapis, Assunta Sartor, Claudio Scarparo, Matteo Bassetti, Renato Fanin
The objective of this study was to determine risk factors and outcomes of infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MDR GN) bacteria in 241 recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The cumulative incidence of infections was 10.5% (95% CI, 12.0% to 25.8%), with 57% of infections occurring during the period of severe neutropenia (neutrophil count < .1 × 10(6)/L). In multivariate analysis, allogeneic transplant and colonization with MDR GN bacteria at admission to the transplant unit were significantly associated with an increased risk of infection...
November 4, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822201/a-tolc-like-protein-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-is-involved-in-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-formation
#14
Ying Li, Sanjie Cao, Luhua Zhang, Gee W Lau, Yiping Wen, Rui Wu, Qin Zhao, Xiaobo Huang, Qigui Yan, Yong Huang, Xintian Wen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a significant disease that causes serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Persistent infections caused by bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to treat because of the particular drug resistance of biofilm-dwelling cells. TolC, a key component of multidrug efflux pumps, are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) in many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we identified two TolC-like proteins, TolC1 and TolC2, in A...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804992/an-anti-infective-synthetic-peptide-with-dual-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-activities
#15
O N Silva, C de la Fuente-Núñez, E F Haney, I C M Fensterseifer, S M Ribeiro, W F Porto, P Brown, C Faria-Junior, T M B Rezende, S E Moreno, T K Lu, R E W Hancock, O L Franco
Antibiotic-resistant infections are predicted to kill 10 million people per year by 2050, costing the global economy $100 trillion. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative technologies. We have engineered a synthetic peptide called clavanin-MO, derived from a marine tunicate antimicrobial peptide, which exhibits potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. The peptide effectively killed a panel of representative bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant hospital isolates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800290/antibiogram-of-medical-intensive-care-unit-at-tertiary-care-hospital-setting-of-pakistan
#16
Aayesha Qadeer, Aftab Akhtar, Qurat Ul Ain, Shoab Saadat, Salman Mansoor, Salman Assad, Wasib Ishtiaq, Abid Ilyas, Ali Y Khan, Yousaf Ajam
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the frequency of micro-organisms causing sepsis as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of microorganisms isolated in a medical intensive care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This is a cross-sectional analysis of 802 patients from a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan over a one-year period from August 2015 to August 2016. Specimens collected were from blood, urine, endotracheal secretions, catheter tips, tissue, pus swabs, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pleural fluid...
September 29, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794265/molecular-epidemiology-of-environmental-and-clinical-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-from-hospitals-in-guelma-algeria-multiple-genetic-lineages-and-first-report-of-oxa-48-in-enterobacter-cloacae
#17
Widad Bouguenoun, Sofiane Bakour, Ahmed Aimen Bentorki, Charbel Al Bayssari, Tarek Merad, Jean-Marc Rolain
This study was designed to investigate environmental colonisation in Algerian hospitals by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), including molecular characterisation of their resistance, and to perform a comparative molecular analysis between clinical and environmental strains. GNB isolated from hospitalised patients and the hospital environment were identified using microbiological methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion and Etest methods...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785154/whole-genome-sequencing-uncovers-a-novel-ind-16-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-from-an-extensively-drug-resistant-chryseobacterium-indologenes-strain-j31
#18
Tingting Wang, Xiawei Jiang, Chunyan Feng, Ang Li, Huihui Dong, Shaoqiang Wu, Beiwen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Chryseobacterium indologenes is an emerging opportunistic pathogen in hospital-acquired infection, which is intrinsically resistant to most antimicrobial agents against gram-negative bacteria. In the purpose of extending our understanding of the resistance mechanism of C. indologenes, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of an extensively antibiotic resistant C. indologenes strain, isolated from a Chinese prostate cancer patient. We also investigated the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, particularly metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes, and performed a comparative genomic analysis with other Chryseobacterium species...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776490/neonatal-bloodstream-infections-in-a-ghanaian-tertiary-hospital-are-the-current-antibiotic-recommendations-adequate
#19
Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Stephanie Bjerrum, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates is usually difficult due to minimal symptoms at presentation; thus early empirical therapy guided by local antibiotic susceptibility profile is necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. METHODS: A review of neonatal blood cultures submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776162/incidence-clinical-outcome-and-risk-factors-of-intensive-care-unit-infections-in-the-lagos-university-teaching-hospital-luth-lagos-nigeria
#20
Anthony A Iwuafor, Folasade T Ogunsola, Rita O Oladele, Oyin O Oduyebo, Ibironke Desalu, Chukwudi C Egwuatu, Agwu U Nnachi, Comfort N Akujobi, Ita O Ita, Godwin I Ogban
BACKGROUND: Infections are common complications in critically ill patients with associated significant morbidity and mortality. AIM: This study determined the prevalence, risk factors, clinical outcome and microbiological profile of hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, patients were recruited and followed up between September 2011 and July 2012 until they were either discharged from the ICU or died...
2016: PloS One
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