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Multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642934/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-properties-of-phragmanthera-capitata-sprengel-balle-loranthaceae-a-mistletoe-growing-on-rubber-tree-using-the-dilution-techniques
#1
Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
The alarming increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to conventional drugs in recent years has prompted the search for new leads in alternative remedies in natural products. Hence, this study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Phragmanthera capitata, a parasitic mistletoe growing on rubber trees. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were investigated using five gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria and four fungi...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#3
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629876/effect-of-antibiotic-stewardship-on-the-incidence-of-infection-and-colonisation-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
David Baur, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Francesco Burkert, Elena Carrara, Federico Foschi, Stefanie Döbele, Evelina Tacconelli
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship programmes have been shown to reduce antibiotic use and hospital costs. We aimed to evaluate evidence of the effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infections and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science for studies published from Jan 1, 1960, to May 31, 2016, that analysed the effect of antibiotic stewardship programmes on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infections in hospital inpatients...
June 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626539/resistance-to-colistin-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-4-0-strain
#5
REVIEW
Guido Granata, Nicola Petrosillo
The global rise of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria represents an increasing threat to patient safety. From the first observation of a carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria a global spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been observed. Treatment options for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae are actually limited to combination therapy with some aminoglycosides, tigecycline and to older antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, the prevalence of colistin-resistant and tigecycline-resistant K...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612707/genetic-characteristic-of-class-1-integrons-in-proteus-mirabilis-isolates-from-urine-samples
#6
Chih-Ming Chen, Chih-Ho Lai, Hwa-Jene Wu, Lii-Tzu Wu
BACKGROUND: Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen, commonly associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs caused by multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis have increased worldwide. Multidrug-resistance of Gram-negative enteric bacteria is usually associated with class 1 integrons. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence and characterize gene cassettes of class 1 integrons in multidrug-resistant P. mirabilis Methods: From 2006 to 2008, 314 P...
June 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608289/-antibiotic-stewardship-a%C3%A2-programmatic-approach-to-improved-antimicrobial-management
#7
REVIEW
Martin Müller, Patrick Lehmann, Christian Willy
Due to the increasing selection and prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria and the insufficient development of novel antibiotics, the responsible and prudent use of the available antimicrobial drugs is of major importance. In Germany the rational use of anti-infectives considering the local antimicrobial resistance situation is defined in the infection protection act of 2011. An important tool to follow legal regulations and to improve the treatment of bacterial infections is the antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) concept...
June 12, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606995/synergistic-antibacterial-effect-of-silver-and-ebselen-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#8
Lili Zou, Jun Lu, Jun Wang, Xiaoyuan Ren, Lanlan Zhang, Yu Gao, Martin E Rottenberg, Arne Holmgren
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria account for a majority of fatal infections, and development of new antibiotic principles and drugs is therefore of outstanding importance. Here, we report that five most clinically difficult-to-treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria are highly sensitive to a synergistic combination of silver and ebselen. In contrast, silver has no synergistic toxicity with ebselen on mammalian cells. The silver and ebselen combination causes a rapid depletion of glutathione and inhibition of the thioredoxin system in bacteria...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602727/emergence-of-a-multidrug-resistant-citrobacter-freundii-of-sequence-type-8-harboring-an-unusual-vim-4-gene-cassette-in-poland
#9
Piotr Majewski, Piotr Wieczorek, Izabela Łapuć, Dominika Ojdana, Anna Sieńko, Paweł Sacha, Janusz Kłoczko, Elżbieta Tryniszewska
OBJECTIVES: The growing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is an emerging challenge in modern medicine. The utility of carbapenems, which are considered 'last-line' agents, is being diminished by the growing incidence of various resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria. A molecular investigation was performed of an MDR carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii of sequence type 8 (ST8) isolated from a hematology patient with acute myeloid leukemia. METHODS: Multilocus sequence typing and analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the class I integron were performed using PCR and Sanger sequencing...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602519/diversity-of-plasmids-harboring-blacmy-2-in-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-poultry-in-brazil
#10
Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Angelo Berchieri Junior, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
Multidrug-resistance (MDR) has been increasingly reported in Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal microbiota, environment and food-producing animals. Resistance plasmids able to harbor different transposable elements are capable to mobilize antimicrobial resistance genes and transfer to other bacterial hosts. Plasmids carrying blaCMY are frequently associated with MDR. The present study assessed the presence of plasmid-encoded ampC genes (blacmy, blamox, blafox, blalat, blaact, blamir, bladha, blamor) in commensal E...
May 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591163/strong-influence-of-livestock-environments-on-the-emergence-and-dissemination-of-distinct-multidrug-resistant-phenotypes-among-the-population-of-non-typhoidal-salmonella
#11
Ran An, Sahar Alshalchi, Peter Breimhurst, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Christian Flores-Figueroa, Sinisa Vidovic
The problem of emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistance, especially among Gram-negative bacteria, has reached alarming levels. This increases the need to develop surveillance methods that more effectively and accurately provide information about the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. In this study, using a well-defined population of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates associated with avian, bovine and porcine hosts, we found that the livestock environments had a specific (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587870/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-selected-saudi-scorpion-venoms-tested-against-multidrug-resistant-micro-organisms
#12
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Meshref Ali Alamri, Aqeel Salman Almasoudi, Rajamohamed Abbasmanthiri, Maysa Mahfoud
OBJECTIVES: Scorpion venoms are a rich source of bioactive peptides with promising clinical value that may lead to the discovery and development of new drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the venoms extracted from three medically important Saudi scorpions (Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus bicolor and Leiurus quinquestriatus). METHODS: Antimicrobial assays were performed using a microplate growth inhibition assay against 10 multidrug-resistant (MDR) micro-organisms (4 Gram-negative bacteria, 2 Gram-positive bacteria and 4 fungi and yeasts) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20mg/mL of each venom...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587762/two-novel-roles-of-buffalo-milk-lactoperoxidase-antibiofilm-agent-and-immunomodulator-against-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-and-listeria-monocytogenes
#13
Likaa Mahdi, Hadeel Musafer, Luma Zwain, Istabreq Salman, Ikbal Al-Joofy, Khetam Rasool, Amal Mussa, Sana'a Al-Kakei, Rasha Al-Oqaili, Shaymaa Al-Alak, Amal Chaloob, Afrah Abdulkareem, Bydaa Hussein, Nada Mahdi, Nehad Taher
The increasing occurrence of multidrug resistant bacteria causing bacteremia infection, constitutes a major health problem, difficult-to-treat bacteremia due to its ability to form biofilm. Buffalo milk lactoperoxidase (BMLpo) is effective and safe to use as bacteriostatic agent. The MIC of BMLpo and amikacin were used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against resistant L. monocytogenes and S. typhi. Prophylactic effects of BMLpo against L. monocytogenes and S. typhi bacteremia in vivo have been tested and ELISA test used to evaluate serum cytokines...
June 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587631/bacterial-etiologic-agents-causing-neonatal-sepsis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-gondar-northwest-ethiopia
#14
Tsehaynesh G/Eyesus, Feleke Moges, Setegn Eshetie, Biruk Yeshitela, Ebba Abate
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a blood stream infection which is seen in the first month of life of the neonate. Bacterial profile of neonatal septicemia is constantly changing thus, current knowledge on the patterns of bacterial isolates, its antibiotic resistance profile, and associated factors, are essential to design and implement appropriate interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify bacterial etiologic agents, their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of neonatal sepsis among neonates...
June 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586721/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activities-of-the-metabolites-isolated-from-the-culture-of-the-mangrove-derived-endophytic-fungus-eurotium-chevalieri-kufa-0006
#15
War War May Zin, Suradet Buttachon, Tida Dethoup, José A Pereira, Luís Gales, Ângela Inácio, Paulo M Costa, Michael Lee, Nazim Sekeroglu, Artur M S Silva, Madalena M M Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
Five previously undescribed metabolites, including acetylquestinol, two prenylated indole 3-carbaldehyde derivatives, an anthranilic acid derivative and an isochromone derivative, were isolated, in addition to eleven known compounds: palmitic acid, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxide, emodin, physcion, questin, questinol, (11S, 14R)-cyclo(tryptophylvalyl), preechinulin, neoechinulin E, echinulin and eurocristatine, from the culture of the endophytic fungus Eurotium chevalieri KUFA 0006. The structures of the previously undescribed compounds were established based on an extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis as well as HRMS and IR data...
June 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584102/crystal-structures-of-the-burkholderia-multivorans-hopanoid-transporter-hpnn
#16
Nitin Kumar, Chih-Chia Su, Tsung-Han Chou, Abhijith Radhakrishnan, Jared A Delmar, Kanagalaghatta R Rajashankar, Edward W Yu
Strains of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are Gram-negative opportunisitic bacteria that are capable of causing serious diseases, mainly in immunocompromised individuals. Bcc pathogens are intrinsically resistant to multiple antibiotics, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. They are major pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can cause severe necrotizing pneumonia, which is often fatal. Hopanoid biosynthesis is one of the major mechanisms involved in multiple antimicrobial resistance of Bcc pathogens...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582313/outbreaks-in-the-neonatal-icu-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Julia Johnson, Caroline Quach
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonates in the neonatal ICU (NICU) are uniquely vulnerable to colonization and infection with pathogens such as multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, which in turn are associated with increased infection-related morbidities and higher case-fatality rates. We reviewed the English, French, and German language literature published between 2015 and 2017, for reports of NICU outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 39 outbreaks in NICUs were reported with Gram-negative bacteria (n = 21; 54%) causing most, and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms being the most frequent resistance mechanism reported (n = 5)...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581702/universal-coating-from-electrostatic-self-assembly-to-prevent-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-colonization-on-medical-devices-solid-surfaces
#18
Wenshu Zheng, Yuexiao Jia, Wenwen Chen, Guanlin Wang, Xuefeng Guo, Xingyu Jiang
We provide a facile and scalable strategy to prepare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based antibacterial coating on a variety of surfaces through electrostatic self-assembly. 4,6-diamino-2-pyrimidinethiol (DAPT, itself non-antibiotic)-conjugated AuNPs (AuDAPT) can from highly stable coating on different substrates in one-step, such coating can efficiently eradicate pathogenic gram-negative bacteria and even multidrug resistant (MDR) mutants without causing any side-effect such as cytotoxicity, hemolysis, coagulation and inflammation...
June 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578555/infections-due-to-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-the-icu-treatment-options
#19
Joseph P Lynch, George G Zhanel, Nina M Clark
Bacteria within the genus Acinetobacter (principally A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex [ABC]) are gram-negative coccobacilli that may cause nosocomial infections in critically ill or debilitated patients (particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia and infections of the bloodstream, urinary tract, and wounds). Treatment of Acinetobacter infections is difficult, as Acinetobacter spp. are intrinsically resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, and have a remarkable ability to acquire new resistance determinants via mechanisms that include plasmids, transposons, integrons, and resistance islands...
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578550/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-the-role-of-emerging-diagnostic-technologies
#20
Marin H Kollef, Carey-Ann D Burnham
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a key determinant of outcome in patients with serious infections along with the virulence of the underlying pathogen. Within the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection that is frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance is a growing challenge in the care of critically ill patients. Escalating rates of antibiotic resistance add substantially to the morbidity, mortality, and cost related to infection in the ICU...
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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