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Multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710755/rapid-detection-of-bacterial-susceptibility-or-resistance-to-quinolones
#1
Fátima Otero, Rebeca Santiso, María Tamayo, Germán Bou, Jaime Gosálvez, José Luis Fernández
The emergence of multidrug resistant microorganisms together with the decline in discovery and development of new antibiotics is of great concern in health-care policy. In this alarming context, an early and well-tailored antibiotic therapy is a relevant strategy not only to improve clinical outcome but also to avoid appearance and spreading of perilous resistant strains. One of the most common antibiotic classes is fluoroquinolones. They trap the DNA girase and/or topoisomerase IV on the DNA, resulting in DNA fragmentation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706386/alarming-emergence-molecular-characterization-and-outcome-of-blandm-1-in-patients-infected-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
Huma Naim, Meher Rizvi, Mohd Azam, Richa Gupta, Neelam Taneja, Indu Shukla, Haris M Khan
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) in general and blaNDM-1 in particular. It also aimed at evaluating clinical characteristics and outcome in patients infected with MBLs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 116 carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CRGNB) were evaluated in the study. These CRGNB were tested for MBL production both phenotypically for MBLs and genotypically for blaNDM-1 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694232/reinforcement-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-task-force-aims-at-a-better-use-of-antibiotics-of-last-resort-the-colitifos-study
#3
Benjamin Davido, Frédérique Bouchand, Aurélien Dinh, Christian Perronne, Maryvonne Villart, Olivia Senard, Jérome Salomon
BACKGROUND: Physicians are facing a worldwide increase in multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Eradication of such bacteria, including so called superbugs (XDR), may cause physicians to prescribe last-resort antibiotics. However, experience with these drugs is limited and few data are available. METHODS: A before and after retrospective study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2016. Prescriptions of parenteral antimicrobials considered as last-resort antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, tigecycline and temocillin) were reviewed by 4 infectious disease specialists (according to microbiology results, susceptibility testing, clinical situation and alternative agents), while doses were analyzed by a pharmacist...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690877/colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-on-the-efficiency-of-local-decolonization-procedures
#4
Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
The effectiveness of a disinfectant-based decolonization strategy for multidrug-resistant bacteria like extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Gram-negative bacteria with or without additional fluoroquinolon and carbapenem resistance as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. Between 2011 and 2015, 25 patients from Libya, Syria, and the Ukraine with war traumata were treated at the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg. The patients were heavily colonized and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, altogether comprising 371 distinct combinations of pathogens and isolation sites...
June 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690026/antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-anti-biofilm-agents-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Pooi Yin Chung, Ramona Khanum
Bacterial resistance to commonly used drugs has become a global health problem, causing increased infection cases and mortality rate. One of the main virulence determinants in many bacterial infections is biofilm formation, which significantly increases bacterial resistance to antibiotics and innate host defence. In the search to address the chronic infections caused by biofilms, antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been considered as potential alternative agents to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs are commonly considered as the primitive mechanism of immunity and has been extensively studied in insects and non-vertebrate organisms, there is now increasing evidence that AMPs also play a crucial role in human immunity...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689875/contribution-of-acrab-tolc-to-multidrug-resistance-in-an-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-131-isolate
#6
Sabine Schuster, Martina Vavra, Tobias Schweigger, John W A Rossen, Yasufumi Matsumura, Winfried V Kern
Drug efflux by resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type transporters, such as AcrAB-TolC of Escherichia coli, is an important resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria; however, its contribution to multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates is poorly defined. We inactivated acrB of a sequence type 131 E. coli human isolate that showed high-level MDR, but had no mutations within the known efflux-associated local or global regulators. The resistance profile of the acrB deletion mutant revealed significantly increased susceptibility to drugs from seven antibiotic classes, including agents usually inactive against Gram-negative bacteria, notably the new oxazolidinone, tedizolid (512-fold enhanced susceptibility)...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689242/capsular-bag-irrigation-using-0-025-povidone-iodine-in-balanced-salt-solution-plus-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-endophthalmitis
#7
Kyuen Otani, Hiroyuki Shimada, Hiroyuki Nakashizuka, Hirofumi Okubo
We examined the effectiveness and adverse events of using balanced salt solution (BSS) PLUS containing 0.025% povidone-iodine, a non-oculotoxic concentration, for capsular bag irrigation in a case of endophthalmitis mainly involving the anterior chamber. A 57-year-old female underwent cataract surgery and developed hypopyon on day 3 after surgery, with mainly anterior chamber inflammation. The capsular bag was irrigated with BSS PLUS containing 0.025% povidone-iodine. Gram-negative rods were detected from the anterior chamber fluid...
July 8, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683780/bacterial-agents-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-infections-from-different-sites-that-occurred-among-patients-at-debre-markos-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Haimanot Ayele, Dereje Abate
BACKGROUND: In developing countries like Ethiopia, infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria become a real threat. Hence, monitoring of local level antimicrobial resistance profile is indispensable to contain the spread of drug resistant bacteria and intervene poor awareness on antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, this study aimed at determining bacterial and antibiotic resistance profiles of infections from different sites that occurred among patients. METHODS: Retrospective data recorded were analyzed on culture and drug susceptibility test results at Debre Markos Referral Hospital which were performed from 2011 to 2014...
July 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681941/the-respiratory-threat-posed-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Oriol Sibila
Respiratory infections are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. In recent years, an increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been described. Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii have been identified as causative pathogens of different respiratory tract infections. Several studies have detected MDR-GNB in patients with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Furthermore, MDR-GNB have also been isolated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis having acute or chronic bronchial infection...
July 6, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674573/current-problematic-and-emergence-of-carbapenemase-producing-bacteria-a-brief-report-from-a-libyan-hospital
#10
Asma Elramalli, Nariman Almshawt, Mohamed Omar Ahmed
A collection of 94 Gram-negative bacteria isolates, showing different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes including to the carbapenem classes was investigated. Strains were originated form clinical sources from a single hospital in Tripoli, Libya during 2015 and were identified based on cultural and phenotypic characteristics, and fully characterized by the VITEK automated system. Forty-eight percent (48%) of the collection was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii, 50% Klebsiella pneumoniae and 2% Escherichia coli...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674313/first-detection-of-escherichia-coli-harboring-mcr-1-gene-from-retail-domestic-chicken-meat-in-japan
#11
Yusuke Ohsaki, Wataru Hayashi, Satomi Saito, Shunsuke Osaka, Yui Taniguchi, Shota Koide, Kumiko Kawamura, Yukiko Nagano, Yoshichika Arakawa, Noriyuki Nagano
Global spread of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 poses a public health concern because colistin is the last-line-of-defense against severe infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacteria. In Japan, a few studies have reported the prevalence of mcr-1 among food animal-derived Escherichia coli isolates, but the epidemiology of mcr-1 from retail meats is not well known. We report here the first detection of mcr-1 from retail chicken meats. A total of 70 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meats collected between August 2015 and June 2016 were screened for mcr-1, which resulted in positive for one isolate of CTX-M-1 producing E...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669836/inhaled-colistin-monotherapy-for-respiratory-tract-infections-in-adults-without-cystic-fibrosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, George Samonis, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: Inhaled colistin is becoming increasingly popular against respiratory tract infections due to multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria since it may overcome the problems associated with IV administration. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of inhaled colistin as monotherapy (without concomitant intravenous administration of colistin) in the treatment of respiratory tract infections due to MDR or colistin only susceptible Gram-negative bacteria...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668680/antimicrobial-activities-of-lcb10-0200-a-novel-siderophore-cephalosporin-against-the-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-other-pathogens
#13
Sang-Hun Oh, Hee-Soo Park, Hye-Shin Kim, Jeong-Yul Yun, Kyuman Oh, Young-Lag Cho, Jin-Hwan Kwak
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are threating public health worldwide. Therefore, a novel antibacterial agent is needed for treating these infections. Here, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of a novel siderophore-conjugated cephalosporin LCB10-0200 against the clinical isolates of Gram-negative baeria, including multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. In vitro susceptibility to LCB10-0200 was assessed by performing a two-fold agar dilution method, as described by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666305/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-refugees-a-prospective-case-control-study-in-an-obstetric-cohort
#14
Kathrin Oelmeier de Murcia, Birgit Glatz, Stephanie Willems, Annelene Kossow, Marlit Strobel, Bianca Stühmer, Frieder Schaumburg, Alexander Mellmann, Frank Kipp, Ralf Schmitz, Mareike Möllers
Purpose To determine the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in a cohort of pregnant refugee women. Methods In a prospective case control study, surveillance cultures for MDR bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA], vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE], MDR Gram-negative bacteria [MRGN]) were analysed between October 2015 and June 2016 from a cohort of 50 pregnant refugee women and 50 resident controls in the obstetric unit of a German tertiary referral hospital. Results Prevalence of MRSA was noticeably higher among refugee women compared to residents (6 vs...
June 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665414/etx2514-is-a-broad-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-including-acinetobacter-baumannii
#15
Thomas F Durand-Réville, Satenig Guler, Janelle Comita-Prevoir, Brendan Chen, Neil Bifulco, Hoan Huynh, Sushmita Lahiri, Adam B Shapiro, Sarah M McLeod, Nicole M Carter, Samir H Moussa, Camilo Velez-Vega, Nelson B Olivier, Robert McLaughlin, Ning Gao, Jason Thresher, Tiffany Palmer, Beth Andrews, Robert A Giacobbe, Joseph V Newman, David E Ehmann, Boudewijn de Jonge, John O'Donnell, John P Mueller, Rubén A Tommasi, Alita A Miller
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections are a serious threat to public health. Among the most alarming resistance trends is the rapid rise in the number and diversity of β-lactamases, enzymes that inactivate β-lactams, a class of antibiotics that has been a therapeutic mainstay for decades. Although several new β-lactamase inhibitors have been approved or are in clinical trials, their spectra of activity do not address MDR pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii. This report describes the rational design and characterization of expanded-spectrum serine β-lactamase inhibitors that potently inhibit clinically relevant class A, C and D β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins, resulting in intrinsic antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae and restoration of β-lactam activity in a broad range of MDR Gram-negative pathogens...
June 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655818/novel-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-3-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Wenjuan Yin, Hui Li, Yingbo Shen, Zhihai Liu, Shaolin Wang, Zhangqi Shen, Rong Zhang, Timothy R Walsh, Jianzhong Shen, Yang Wang
The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has attracted global attention, as it heralds the breach of polymyxins, one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. To date, six slightly different variants of mcr-1, and a second mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, have been reported or annotated in the GenBank database. Here, we characterized a third mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 The gene coexisted with 18 additional resistance determinants in the 261-kb IncHI2-type plasmid pWJ1 from porcine Escherichia colimcr-3 showed 45...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654862/biopolymer-zein-coated-gold-nanoparticles-synthesis-antibacterial-potential-toxicity-and-histopathological-effects-against-the-zika-virus-vector-aedes-aegypti
#17
Periyakaruppan Suganya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Sekar Vijayakumar, Banumathi Balan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The control of multidrug-resistant bacteria as well as insect pests and vectors is timely and important now a days. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial, antibiofilm and mosquito larvicidal effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using the zein biopolymer (Ze-AuNPs) against Gram positive (Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram negative (Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and third instar larvae of the dengue and Zika virus vector Aedes aegypti. The synthesized Ze-AuNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654780/development-and-validation-of-an-icp-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-elemental-impurities-in-tp-6076-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-api-according-to-usp-%C3%A2-232%C3%A2-%C2%AA-%C3%A2-233%C3%A2-%C2%AA
#18
Osama Chahrour, John Malone, Mark Collins, Vrushali Salmon, Catherine Greenan, Amy Bombardier, Zhongze Ma, Nick Dunwoody
The new guidelines of the United States pharmacopeia (USP), European pharmacopeia (EP) and international conference on harmonization (ICH) regulating elemental impurities limits in pharmaceuticals signify the end of unspecific analysis of metals as outlined in USP 〈231〉. The new guidelines specify both daily doses and concentration/limits of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical final products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients. In chapter USP 〈233〉 method implementation, validation and quality control during the analytical process are described...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653923/kitchen-phytochemicals-from-allium-cepa-their-role-in-multidrug-resistance
#19
Gunpreet Kaur, Vikas Gupta, Ajay Francis Christopher, Renu Bansal, Parveen Bansal
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasingly becoming a concern to public health. Current antibiotics have failed to bring desirable results to many bacterial infections due to multi-resistant strains. So, concerted efforts are being made to curve this with the help of dietary phytohemicals. A number of dietary phytochemical are being put to trials for antimicrobial activity; however it is worthwhile to search such a part of diet that is very frequently used by major population. Keeping this view in mind an effort has been made to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of most common vegetable component Allium cepa...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651522/the-role-of-enterococcus-spp-and-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-causing-pyogenic-liver-abscesses
#20
Marcus M Mücke, Johanna Kessel, Victoria T Mücke, Katharina Schwarzkopf, Michael Hogardt, Christoph Stephan, Stefan Zeuzem, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christian M Lange
BACKGROUND: Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) remain a significant clinical problem. Unfortunately, little is known about current bacterial susceptibility profiles and the incidence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) causing PLA in Western countries. Yet, this crucial information is pivotal to guide empirical antibiotic therapy. Aim of this study was to provide detailed characteristics of PLA with a special focus on underlying bacterial pathogens and their susceptibility to antibiotics...
June 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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