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Multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria

Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Stephanie Bjerrum, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates is usually difficult due to minimal symptoms at presentation; thus early empirical therapy guided by local antibiotic susceptibility profile is necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. METHODS: A review of neonatal blood cultures submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anthony A Iwuafor, Folasade T Ogunsola, Rita O Oladele, Oyin O Oduyebo, Ibironke Desalu, Chukwudi C Egwuatu, Agwu U Nnachi, Comfort N Akujobi, Ita O Ita, Godwin I Ogban
BACKGROUND: Infections are common complications in critically ill patients with associated significant morbidity and mortality. AIM: This study determined the prevalence, risk factors, clinical outcome and microbiological profile of hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, patients were recruited and followed up between September 2011 and July 2012 until they were either discharged from the ICU or died...
2016: PloS One
Worawut Choeyprasert, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama
Bacteremia during neutropenic episodes is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have used oral ciprofloxacin and penicillin V, from the start of the conditioning regimen until engraftment, for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for breakthrough bacteremia during neutropenic episodes in autologous and allogeneic HSCT patients. There were 215 patients enrolled, with a median age of 8...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
Sanjib K Shrestha, Liliia M Kril, Keith D Green, Stefan Kwiatkowski, Vitaliy M Sviripa, Justin R Nickell, Linda P Dwoskin, David S Watt, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial and fungal strains poses a threat to human health that requires the design and synthesis of new classes of antimicrobial agents. We evaluated bis(N-amidinohydrazones) and N-(amidino)-N'-aryl-bishydrazones for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against panels of Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. We investigated their potential to develop resistance against both bacteria and fungi by a multi-step resistance-selection method, explored their potential to induce the production of reactive oxygen species, and assessed their toxicity...
October 10, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
R Fussen, S Lemmen
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria present an increasing threat for intensive care patients. Whereas colonization of intensive care patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in German ICUs has remained at a constant level in recent years and therapeutic options have improved, colonization and infections with MDR gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are increasing year by year. Only a few or even no therapeutic options remain for the treatment of these bacteria...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Weiwei Wang, Ting Jiang, Weihong Zhang, Chunyu Li, Jun Chen, Dandan Xiang, Kejiang Cao, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li, Wei Zhu, Wensen Chen, Yan Chen
The study was undertaken to describe the profile of patients and the characteristics of all multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and to assess mortality. We examined 138 patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by MDR-GNB. Clinical characteristics, antibiotic therapy, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Survivor and nonsurvivor subgroups were compared to identify predictors of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 25.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that comorbidities and inadequate initial antimicrobial treatment could increase risk of death...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Brendan W Corey, Mitchell G Thompson, Lauren E Hittle, Anna C Jacobs, Edward A Asafo-Adjei, William Huggins, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander, Robert K Ernst, Daniel V Zurawski
Acinetobacter baumannii are gram-negative bacilli that pose a constant threat to susceptible patients because of increased resistance to multiple antibiotics and persistence in the hospital environment. After genome analysis, we discovered that A. baumannii harbor genes that share homology to an enzymatic pathway that elongates long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in fungi. Previously, 1,2,4-Triazolidine-3-thiones (T-3-Ts) were shown to inhibit hyphae production in fungi, and this same LCFA elongation pathway was implicated as the possible target...
October 20, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Sandrine Alibert, Joannah N'Gompazza Diarra, Jessica Hernandez, Aurélien Stutzmann, Marwa Fouad, Gérard Boyer, Jean-Marie Pagès
Worrying levels of bacterial resistance have been reported worldwide involving the failure of many available antibiotic treatments. Multidrug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria is often ascribed to the presence of multiple and different resistance mechanisms in the same strain. RND efflux pumps play a major role and are an attractive target to discover new antibacterial drugs. Areas covered: This review discusses the prevalence of efflux pumps, their overexpression in clinical scenarios, their polyselectivity, their effect on the intracellular concentrations of various antibiotics associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability and their involvement in pathogenicity are discussed...
October 20, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Li Fang, Qiong Chen, Keren Shi, Xi Li, Qiucheng Shi, Fang He, Jiancang Zhou, Yunsong Yu, Xiaoting Hua
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes numerous diseases, including pneumonia and urinary tract infections. An increase in multidrug resistance has complicated the treatment of these bacterial infections, and although tigecycline shows activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, resistant strains have emerged. In this study, the whole genomes of two clinical and six laboratory-evolved strains were sequenced to identify putative mutations related to tigecycline resistance. Of seven tigecycline-resistant strains, seven (100%) had ramR mutations, five (71...
2016: PloS One
Peng Sang, Yan Shi, Peng Teng, Annie Cao, Hai Xu, Qi Li, Jianfeng Cai
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public concerns in the 21st century. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) can potentially mitigate the problem through the disruption of bacterial membranes; however, they suffer from moderate activity and low stability. We recently developed a new class of peptidomimetics termed "AApeptides". This class of peptidomimetics can mimic the mechanism of action of HDPs, and effectively arrest the growth of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. As they are built on unnatural backbone, they are highly resistant to proteolytic degradation...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Ia Kusradze, Natia Karumidze, Sophio Rigvava, Teona Dvalidze, Malkhaz Katsitadze, Irakli Amiranashvili, Marina Goderdzishvili
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen. The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90 kb genome size...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhijie Pan, Rong Liu, Pei Zhang, Hua Zhou, Yiqi Fu, Jianying Zhou
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative bacterium that rarely causes diseases in humans. Here, we present a case of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by R. planticola that likely originated in the gastrointestinal tract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report describing the detection of the gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in multidrug-resistant R. planticola. Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing from a patient during hospitalization...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Wen-Shuo Kuo, Chia-Yuan Chang, Hua-Han Chen, Chih-Li Lilian Hsu, Jiu-Yao Wang, Hui-Fang Kao, Lawrence Chao-Shan Chou, Yi-Chun Chen, Shean-Jen Chen, Wen-Tsan Chang, Shih-Wen Tseng, Ping-Ching Wu, Ying-Chih Pu
A graphene quantum dot (GQD) used as the photosensitizer with high two-photon absorption in the near-infrared region, a large absolute cross section of two-photon excitation (TPE), strong two-photon luminescence and impressive two-photon stability could be used for dual modality two-photon photodynamic therapy (PDT) and two-photon bioimaging with an ultrashot pulse laser (or defined as TPE). In this study, a GQD efficiently generated reactive oxygen species coupled with TPE, which highly increased the effective PDT ability of both gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with ultra-low energy and an extremely short photoexcitation time generated by TPE...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinshan Jin, Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Jianmei Cui, Krishna Damera, Chaofeng Dai, Arpana S Chaudhary, Hao Zhang, Hsiuchin Yang, Nannan Cao, Chun Jiang, Martti Vaara, Binghe Wang, Phang C Tai
With the widespread emergence of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to search for new antimicrobials, especially those against Gram-negative bacteria. Along this line, the identification of viable targets is a critical first step. The protein translocase SecA is commonly believed to be an excellent target for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In recent years, we developed three structural classes of SecA inhibitors that have proven to be very effective against Gram-positive bacteria. However, we have not achieved the same level of success against Gram-negative bacteria, despite the potent inhibition of SecA in enzyme assays by the same inhibitors...
October 18, 2016: ChemMedChem
Kristian J Tangso, Paulo Henrique C D da Cunha, Patrick T Spicer, Jian Li, Ben J Boyd
Infections arising in hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery and are reliant on receiving treatment through biomedical devices, continue to be a rising concern. It is well known that aqueous mixtures of oppositely charged surfactant and polymer molecules can self-assemble to form liquid crystalline structures primarily via electrostatically-driven interactions which have demonstrated great potential as tailored release nanomaterials. Colistin is a re-emerging antibiotic used against multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andre Arizpe, Kelly R Reveles, Shrina D Patel, Samuel L Aitken
Resistance to cephalosporins is now common among Gram-negative bacterial infections, including those caused by the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, posing a major threat to public health. As resistance to the traditional drugs of choice for these infections, carbapenems, has also become increasingly common, interest in cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as carbapenem-sparing alternatives has increased. Additionally, the availability of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam has added to the antimicrobial armamentarium available to treat these multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
David van Duin, Paula D Strassle, Lauren M DiBiase, Anne M Lachiewicz, William A Rutala, Timothy Eitas, Robert Maile, Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Bruce A Cairns, Sonia Napravnik, Samuel W Jones
BACKGROUND: Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after burn injuries. Here, we describe the time line of infections and pathogens after burns. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in a large tertiary care burn center from 2004-2013. Analyses were performed on health care-associated infections (HAIs) meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and on all positive cultures. Incidence rates per 1,000 days were calculated for specific HAI categories and pathogens and across hospitalization time (week 1, weeks 2-3, and week ≥4)...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Wanida Phetsang, Ruby Pelingon, Mark S Butler, Sanjaya Kc, Miranda E Pitt, Geraldine Kaeslin, Matthew A Cooper, Mark A T Blaskovich
Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Brent S Weber, Seth W Hennon, Meredith S Wright, Nichollas E Scott, Véronique de Berardinis, Leonard J Foster, Juan A Ayala, Mark D Adams, Mario F Feldman
: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread secretory apparatus produced by Gram-negative bacteria that has emerged as a potent mediator of antibacterial activity during interbacterial interactions. Most Acinetobacter species produce a genetically conserved T6SS, although the expression and functionality of this system vary among different strains. Some pathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii strains activate this secretion system via the spontaneous loss of a plasmid carrying T6SS repressors...
October 11, 2016: MBio
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