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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#1
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911925/attenuation-of-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-through-an-ahl-lactonase-produced-by-lysinibacillus-sp-gs50
#2
Sneha S Garge, Anuradha S Nerurkar
Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism in which Gram negative bacterial pathogens sense their population density through acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and regulate the expression of virulence factors. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs by lactonases, known as quorum quenching (QQ), is thus a potential strategy for attenuating QS regulated bacterial infections. We characterised the QQ activity of soil isolate Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 and explored its potential for controlling bacterial soft rot of crop plants. Lysinibacillus sp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910828/biofilm-prevention-of-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens-involved-in-periprosthetic-infection-by-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulfate-beads-in-vitro
#3
Robert P Howlin, Christopher Winnard, Connor J Frapwell, Jeremy S Webb, John J Cooper, Sean S Aiken, Paul Stoodley
Biofilm formation represents a key stage in the pathogenesis of prosthetic infections (PIs). More tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, biofilm bacteria are difficult to eradicate using conventional therapeutic regimes. A common approach in PI management is the adjunctive use of localised antibiotics in addition to systemic administration in an attempt to protect the implant from colonisation by infiltrating bacteria. This study evaluates the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of antibiotic-loaded dissolvable calcium sulphate, previously shown to be effective against key gram-positive pathogens, against gram-negative species important in the establishment of chronic infection in PIs...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#4
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908405/biosynthesis-of-selenium-nanoparticles-using-enterococcus-faecalis-and-evaluation-of-their-antibacterial-activities
#5
Sara Shoeibi, Mohammad Mashreghi
Microorganisms are capable of synthesizing metal nanoparticles, and specifically Enterococcus faecalis bacteria were tested for its ability to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) from sodium selenite. The biosynthesized Se-NPs were spherical in shape with the size range of 29-195nm. Also, the TEM microscopy showed the accumulation of nano-structures as extracellular deposits. The ability of the bacteria to tolerate high levels of toxic selenite was studied by changing with different concentrations of sodium selenite (0...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908336/appropriate-antibiotic-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Michael G Allison, Emily L Heil, Bryan D Hayes
Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904585/serum-procalcitonin-levels-distinguish-gram-negative-bacterial-sepsis-from-gram-positive-bacterial-and-fungal-sepsis
#7
Shuhua Li, Hengmo Rong, Qinliang Guo, Yifei Chen, Guqing Zhang, Jiong Yang
BACKGROUND: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels differ in patients with bacterial or fungal infections and are significantly elevated in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of different inflammatory markers to discriminate sepsis caused by different pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 328 episodes of bacteremia from 292 patients with sepsis and 31 patients with suspected sepsis in this study. Medical records of patients who had bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria (Gram-negative), Gram-positive bacteria (Gram-positive) or fungi were reviewed, and information about PCT and other inflammatory markers was recorded...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904045/puerarin-prevents-lps-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-loss-via-inhibition-of-akt-activation
#8
Yun Zhang, Ming Yan, Qing-Feng Yu, Pei-Fan Yang, Hai-Dong Zhang, Yong-Hong Sun, Zhi-Fen Zhang, Yun-Feng Gao
Osteolysis induced by chronic Gram-negative bacterial infection underlies many bone diseases such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and periodontitis. Drugs that inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteolysis are critically needed for the prevention of bone destruction in infective bone diseases. In this study, we assessed the effect of puerarin, a natural isoflavone isolated from Pueraria lobata OHWI root, on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Our in vitro study showed that puerarin significantly inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast differentiation from osteoclast precursor RAW264...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903852/topical-honey-in-the-management-of-pediatric-peritoneal-dialysis-exit-sites
#9
Thomas A Forbes, Loren Shaw, Catherine Quinlan
International guidelines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) advocate for regular application of topical mupirocin in chronic PD exit-site care. A strong evidence base links this treatment to reduced rates of exit-site infections and peritonitis. However, emerging reports of increasing mupirocin resistance and gram-negative infections are threatening the long-term viability of topical antibiotic ointments as a prophylactic treatment. Medical grade honey has multiple proven antibacterial and wound healing properties...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899072/appropriateness-of-antibiotic-management-of-uncomplicated-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-hospitalized-adult-patients
#10
Thomas L Walsh, Lynn Chan, Chelsea I Konopka, Michael J Burkitt, Matthew A Moffa, Derek N Bremmer, Monika A Murillo, Courtney Watson, Noreen H Chan-Tompkins
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause for hospitalizations in the United States. Few studies have addressed the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in the management of SSTIs without complicating factors. We aimed to determine the appropriateness of antibiotic treatment duration for hospitalized adult patients with uncomplicated SSTIs. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis performed at two academic medical centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on patients aged 18 years and older with primary ICD-9 code for SSTIs admitted August 1st, 2014-March 31st, 2015...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898578/risk-classification-for-enteroviral-infection-in-children-with-meningitis-and-negative-gram-stain
#11
Ramia Zakhour, Elizabeth Aguilera, Rodrigo Hasbun, Susan H Wootton
OBJECTIVES: Enterovirus is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis in children. This study aimed at identifying baseline variables associated with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Enterovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to aid clinicians in targeting patients who could be tested and treated as outpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of children (2 months to 17 years old) admitted to the Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, TX, between January 2005 and December 2010 with symptoms of meningitis, CSF white cell count of greater than 5 cells/mm, and a negative CSF Gram stain, who had a CSF Enterovirus PCR...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897220/impact-of-the-microbial-derived-short-chain-fatty-acid-propionate-on-host-susceptibility-to-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-in-vivo
#12
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Jacobus Herderschee, Craig Fenwick, Matteo Mombelli, Didier Le Roy, Thierry Roger
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by intestinal microbes mediate anti-inflammatory effects, but whether they impact on antimicrobial host defenses remains largely unknown. This is of particular concern in light of the attractiveness of developing SCFA-mediated therapies and considering that SCFAs work as inhibitors of histone deacetylases which are known to interfere with host defenses. Here we show that propionate, one of the main SCFAs, dampens the response of innate immune cells to microbial stimulation, inhibiting cytokine and NO production by mouse or human monocytes/macrophages, splenocytes, whole blood and, less efficiently, dendritic cells...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896598/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-anodized-titanium-alloys-with-fluorine
#13
Concepcion Perez-Jorge, Maria-Angeles Arenas, Ana Conde, Juan-Manuel Hernández-Lopez, Juan-Jose de Damborenea, Steve Fisher, Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Jaime Esteban, Garth James
Orthopaedic device-related infections are closely linked to biofilm formation on the surfaces of these devices. Several modified titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces doped with fluorine were studied in order to evaluate the influence of these modifications on biofilm formation by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as a yeast. The biofilm studies were performed according to the standard test method approved by ASTM (Designation: E2196-12) using the Rotating Disk Reactor. Four types of Ti-6Al-4V samples were tested; chemically polished (CP), two types of nanostructures containing fluorine, nanoporous (NP) and nanotubular (NT), and non-nanostructured fluorine containing samples (fluoride barrier layers, FBL)...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895902/effect-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-on-in-vitro-activity-of-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-against-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-species
#14
Annelien Everaert, Tom Coenye
BACKGROUND: Bacteria belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are an important cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intrinsic resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including a variety of β-lactam antibiotics, is frequently observed in Bcc strains. Resistance to β-lactams is most commonly mediated by efflux pumps, alterations in penicillin-binding proteins or the expression of β-lactamases. β-lactamase inhibitors are able to restore the in vitro activity of β-lactam molecules against a variety of Gram-negative species, but the effect of these inhibitors on the activity of β-lactam treatment against Bcc species is still poorly investigated...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894963/longitudinal-surveillance-on-antibiogram-of-important-gram-positive-pathogens-in-southern-china-2001-to-2015
#15
Zhenbo Xu, Jinhong Xie, Brian M Peters, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Mark E Shirtliff
OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal surveillance aimed to investigate the antibiogram of three genus of important Gram-positive pathogens in Southern China during 2001-2015. METHODS: A total of 3849 Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Streptococcus strains were isolated from Southern China during 2001-2015. Bacteria identification was performed by colony morphology, Gram staining, the API commercial kit and the Vitek 2 automated system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk diffusion method and MIC method...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894388/-analysis-of-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-pathogens-isolated-from-541-hospitalized-children-with-burn-infection
#16
J X Dai, L Li, L Xu, Z H Chen, X Y Li, M Liu, Y Q Wen, X D Chen
Objective: To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens isolated from hospitalized children with burn infection. Methods: Totally 541 patients were hospitalized in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, the 180th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army(PLA), the 92th Hospital of PLA, and Longyan First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2015. Totally 848 clinical specimens (blood, catheter tip attachments, wound exudate, etc.) were collected for pathogen detection. After being identified by an automatic microbiological identification system, drug resistance of pathogens to 41 commonly-used antibiotics in clinic including gentamicin, aztreonam, erythromycin, clindamycin, etc...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893854/dissemination-and-mechanism-for-the-mcr-1-colistin-resistance
#17
Rongsui Gao, Yongfei Hu, Zhencui Li, Jian Sun, Qingjing Wang, Jingxia Lin, Huiyan Ye, Fei Liu, Swaminath Srinivas, Defeng Li, Baoli Zhu, Ya-Hong Liu, Guo-Bao Tian, Youjun Feng
Polymyxins are the last line of defense against lethal infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Very recently, the use of polymyxins has been greatly challenged by the emergence of the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1). However, the mechanistic aspects of the MCR-1 colistin resistance are still poorly understood. Here we report the comparative genomics of two new mcr-1-harbouring plasmids isolated from the human gut microbiota, highlighting the diversity in plasmid transfer of the mcr-1 gene...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893816/mir-34-modulates-innate-immunity-and-ecdysone-signaling-in-drosophila
#18
Xiao-Peng Xiong, Krishna Kurthkoti, Kung-Yen Chang, Jian-Liang Li, Xingjie Ren, Jian-Quan Ni, Tariq M Rana, Rui Zhou
microRNAs are endogenous small regulatory RNAs that modulate myriad biological processes by repressing target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here we show that the conserved miRNA miR-34 regulates innate immunity and ecdysone signaling in Drosophila. miR-34 over-expression activates antibacterial innate immunity signaling both in cultured cells and in vivo, and flies over-expressing miR-34 display improved survival and pathogen clearance upon Gram-negative bacterial infection; whereas miR-34 knockout animals are defective in antibacterial defense...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893752/effect-of-butyrate-on-collagen-expression-cell-viability-cell-cycle-progression-and-related-proteins-expression-of-mg-63-osteoblastic-cells
#19
Mei-Chi Chang, Yi-Ling Tsai, Eric Jein-Wein Liou, Chia-Mei Tang, Tong-Mei Wang, Hsin-Cheng Liu, Ming-Wei Liao, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Chiu-Po Chan, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
AIMS: Butyric acid is one major metabolic product generated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of periodontal and root canal infection. Butyric acid affects the activity of periodontal cells such as osteoblasts. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of butyrate on MG-63 osteoblasts. METHODS: MG-63 cells were exposed to butyrate and cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mRNA and protein expression of type I collagen and cell cycle-related proteins were measured by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting or immunofluorescent staining...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893682/peritoneal-dialysis-related-peritonitis-due-to-halomonas-hamiltonii-a-first-case-report
#20
Se Hwan Yeo, Jae Hoon Kwak, Yeo Un Kim, Jin Suk Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Kyoung Hwa Park, Jung Sook Lee, Gyoung Yim Ha, Jeong Ho Lee, Jun Yeop Lee, Kyung Don Yoo
INTRODUCTION: Halomonas hamiltonii is a Gram-negative, halophilic, motile, and nonspore-forming rod bacterium. Although most Halomonas sp. are commonly found in saline environments, it has rarely been implicated as a cause of human infection. Herein, the authors present a case report of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis attributed to H hamiltonii. CASE PRESENTATION: An 82-year-old male patient who had been receiving CAPD therapy presented to an emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate that had persisted for 2 days...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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