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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109554/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-with-and-without-neutropenia-at-a-medical-centre-in-northern-taiwan-2008-2013
#1
Chien-Yuan Chen, Feng-Ming Tien, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Woei Tsay, Hwei-Fang Tien, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and microbiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and microbiology of 2083 patients with haematological malignancy who were treated for BSI from 2008 to 2013 at a medical centre in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. Lymphoma (38.1%) was the most common, followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (30.9%). Of the 2090 non-duplicate BSI isolates, 1310 (62.7%) were recovered from patients with neutropenia...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#2
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105330/genetic-markers-associated-with-resistance-to-beta-lactam-and-quinolone-antimicrobials-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-isolates-from-humans-and-animals-in-central-ethiopia
#3
Tadesse Eguale, Josephine Birungi, Daniel Asrat, Moses N Njahira, Joyce Njuguna, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, John S Gunn, Appolinaire Djikeng, Ephrem Engidawork
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. METHODS: Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams (n = 43) were tested for genes encoding for beta-lactamase enzymes, and those resistant to quinolones (n = 29) for mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) as well as plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes using PCR and sequencing...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105270/1-2-4-triazolidine-3-thiones-as-narrow-spectrum-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#4
William M Huggins, Bradley M Minrovic, Brendan W Corey, Anna C Jacobs, Roberta J Melander, Roger D Sommer, Daniel V Zurawski, Christian Melander
With only two new classes of antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, novel antibiotics are desperately needed to combat the growing problem of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacteria. Described in this letter is the synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thiones as narrow spectrum antibiotics. Optimization of the 1,2,4-triazolidine-3-thione scaffold identified a small molecule with potent antibiotic activity against multiple strains of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104786/identification-of-a-chondroitin-synthase-from-an-unexpected-source-the-green-sulfur-bacterium-chlorobium-phaeobacteroides
#5
Dixy E Green, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans [GAGs] are known to be present in all animals as well as some pathogenic microbes. Chondroitin sulfate is the most abundant GAG in mammals where it has various structural and adhesion roles. The Gram-negative bacteria Pasteurella multocida Type F and Escherichia coli K4 produce extracellular capsules composed of unsulfated chondroitin or a fructosylated chondroitin, respectively. Such polysaccharides that are structurally related to host molecules do not generally provoke a strong antibody response thus are thought to be employed as molecular camouflage during infection...
January 19, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104665/draft-genome-sequences-of-three-aeromonas-hydrophila-isolates-from-catfish-and-tilapia
#6
Hasan C Tekedar, Salih Kumru, Safak Kalindamar, Attila Karsi, Geoffrey C Waldbieser, Tad Sonstegard, Steven G Schroeder, Mark R Liles, Matt J Griffin, Mark L Lawrence
Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that is particularly adapted to freshwater environments and can cause severe infections in fish and humans. Here, we report the draft genomes of three A. hydrophila catfish and tilapia isolates.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104513/a-multi-center-study-of-bacterial-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-the-role-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#7
Prakash Satwani, Jason L Freedman, Sonali Chaudhury, Zhezhen Jin, Anya Levinson, Marc D Foca, Jennifer Krajewski, Indira Sahdev, Mala Kiran Talekar, Aliza Gardenswartz, Justin Silverman, Meghan Hayes, Christopher C Dvorak
Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by enteric organisms are associated with a particularly high mortality rate in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AlloHCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study aiming to analyze the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and impact of BSI on transplant related mortality (TRM) in children following alloHCT. During the study period from 2004 to 2014, 395 children (mean age 9.4 years) with at least one BSI were included. The incidences of resistant gram-negative rods (GNR) were 20...
January 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102305/structure-and-membrane-interactions-of-the-homodimeric-antibiotic-peptide-homotarsinin
#8
Rodrigo M Verly, Jarbas M Resende, Eduardo F C Junior, Mariana T Q de Magalhães, Carlos F C R Guimarães, Victor H O Munhoz, Marcelo Porto Bemquerer, Fábio C L Almeida, Marcelo M Santoro, Dorila Piló-Veloso, Burkhard Bechinger
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from amphibian skin are valuable template structures to find new treatments against bacterial infections. This work describes for the first time the structure and membrane interactions of a homodimeric AMP. Homotarsinin, which was found in Phyllomedusa tarsius anurans, consists of two identical cystine-linked polypeptide chains each of 24 amino acid residues. The high-resolution structures of the monomeric and dimeric peptides were determined in aqueous buffers. The dimer exhibits a tightly packed coiled coil three-dimensional structure, keeping the hydrophobic residues screened from the aqueous environment...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100574/clostridium-hastiforme-bacteraemia-secondary-to-pyometra-in-a-64-year-old-woman
#9
Matilde Ørum, David Fuglsang-Damgaard, Hans Linde Nielsen
The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobe bacteria Tissierella praeacuta was first described in 1908 by Tissier. However, during the past decade, Clostridium hastiforme has been recognised as a later synonym of T. praeacuta. C. hastiforme/T. praeacuta has only rarely been described in previous literature as a cause of human infection. We present here a case report of C. hastiforme/T. praeacuta bacteraemia secondary to pyometra in a 64-year-old woman with a history of multiple sclerosis and an intrauterine device inserted three decades earlier...
January 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098548/nosocomial-infections-with-imp-19-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-linked-to-contaminated-sinks-france
#10
Lucie Amoureux, Karena Riedweg, Angélique Chapuis, Julien Bador, Eliane Siebor, André Péchinot, Marie-Lorraine Chrétien, Claire de Curraize, Catherine Neuwirth
We isolated IMP-19-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 7 patients with nosocomial infections linked to contaminated sinks in France. We showed that blaIMP-19 was located on various class 1 integrons among 8 species of gram-negative bacilli detected in sinks: P. aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, A. aegrifaciens, P. putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, P. mendocina, Comamonas testosteroni, and Sphingomonas sp.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097898/two-approaches-to-the-use-of-benzo-c-1-2-oxaboroles-as-active-fragments-for-synthetic-transformation-of-clarithromycin
#11
Gennady B Lapa, Elena P Mirchink, Elena B Isakova, Maria N Preobrazhenskaya
Clarithromycin (active against Gram positive infections) and 1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborole derivatives (effective for Gram negative microbes) are the ligands of bacterial RNA. The antimicrobial activities of these benzoxaboroles linked with clarithromycin at 9 or 4″ position were compared. Two synthetic pathways for these conjugates were elaborated. First pathway explored the substitution of the C-9 carbonyl group of macrolactone's cycle via oxime linker, the second direction used the modification of the 4″-O-group of cladinose via the formation of carbamates of benzoxaboroles...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#12
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
January 17, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096976/effect-of-handrubbing-using-locally-manufactured-alcohol-based-handrubs-in-paediatric-wards-in-harare-zimbabwe
#13
Muchaneta Gudza-Mugabe, Marcelyn T Magwenzi, Hilda A Mujuru, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Valerie Robertson, Alexander M Aiken
We assessed bacterial contamination of hands of adults present in paediatric wards in two tertiary-care hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe and the microbiologic efficacy of locally-manufactured alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). During unannounced visits, samples were collected using hand-print and hand-rinse methods. Samples were collected from 152 individuals (16 nurses, 10 doctors, 28 students, 86 parents/guardians, 12 others). Contamination of hands with Gram-negative bacteria was found in 91% of adults tested with a mean of 14...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096166/the-role-of-renal-drug-exposure-in-polymyxin-b-induced-nephrotoxicity
#14
Pooja Manchandani, Jian Zhou, Jessica T Babic, Kimberly R Ledesma, Luan D Truong, Vincent H Tam
Despite dose-limiting nephrotoxic potentials, polymyxin B has re-emerged as the last line of therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, the handling of polymyxin B by the kidneys is still not thoroughly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of renal polymyxin B exposure on nephrotoxicity and to explore the role of megalin in renal drug accumulation. Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) were divided into 3 dosing groups, and polymyxin B was administered (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) subcutaneously once daily...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096156/bacterial-derived-cell-penetrating-peptides-deliver-gentamicin-to-kill-intracellular-pathogens
#15
Marta Gomarasca, Thaynan F C Martins, Lilo Greune, Philip R Hardwidge, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Commonly used antimicrobials show poor cellular uptake and often have limited access to intracellular targets, resulting in low antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. An efficient delivery system to transport these drugs to the intracellular site of action is needed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) mediate the internalization of biologically active molecules into the cytoplasm. Here we characterized two CPPs, α1H and α2H, derived from the Y. enterocolitica YopM effector protein. These CPPs, as well as Tat(Trans-activator of transcription) from HIV-1 virus, were used to deliver the antibiotic gentamicin to target intracellular bacteria...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#16
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095898/differences-in-rantes-and-il-6-levels-among-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-with-predominant-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-infection
#17
Almoaidbellah Rammal, Marc Tewfik, Simon Rousseau
BACKGROUND: Bacteria are suspected players in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), yet their exact role is not understood. We investigated the effect of planktonic and biofilm of staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) on the mucosa of CRS patients with gram-positive and gram-negative infections by measuring the levels of IL-6 and RANTES, a chemokine with activity on eosinophils and T lymphocytes. METHODS: Ethmoid mucosa of six CRS patients with gram-positive bacteria on culture and five with gram-negative bacteria were compared to ethmoid mucosa of 8 control patients...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094234/association-between-preterm-labor-and-genitourinary-tract-infections-caused-by-trichomonas-vaginalis-mycoplasma-hominis-gram-negative-bacilli-and-coryneforms
#18
Alaa El-Dien M S Hosny, Waleed El-Khayat, Mona T Kashef, Mohsen N Fakhry
BACKGROUND: Preterm labor (PTL) is responsible for most cases of neonatal death. In most of these cases, the causes of PTL have not been established although several risk factors have been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for PTL before 37 gestational weeks among Egyptian women. METHODS: In this case-control study, 117 pregnant women without risk factors for PTL were chosen. The control group (n=45) had term labor (gestational weeks≥37 weeks), and the case group (n=72) had PTL (gestational weeks < 37 weeks)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#19
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092699/infection-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-invasive-bacteria-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-increases-icam-1-expression-through-nod1
#20
Woon Geon Shin, Bum Joon Park, Sung Joong Lee, Jae Gyu Kim
Background/Aims: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is required for primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to respond to natural mucopeptides secreted by gram-negative bacteria. Infection of human IECs with invasive bacteria up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. However, the role of NOD family members in host defense has been largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a functional role for NOD1 in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in invasive bacteria-infected IECs...
January 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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