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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430277/rapid-single-cell-detection-and-identification-of-pathogens-by-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#1
N E Dina, H Zhou, A Colniţă, N Leopold, T Szoke-Nagy, C Coman, C Haisch
For the successful treatment of infections, real-time analysis and enhanced multiplex capacity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of the developed detection method are critical. In this work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was employed with the final aim of identification and discrimination of pathogenic bacteria, based on their detected SERS fingerprint at the single-cell level. Several genera of bacteria that are found in most of the isolated infections in bacteraemia were successfully identified in less than 5 minutes without the use of antibodies or other specific receptors...
April 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426936/cholesterol-assisted-bacterial-cell-surface-engineering-for-photodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Hao-Ran Jia, Ya-Xuan Zhu, Zhan Chen, Fu-Gen Wu
Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (PDT) which enables effective killing of regular and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a promising treatment modality for bacterial infection. However, because most photosensitizer (PS) molecules fail to strongly interact with the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, this technique is only suitable for treating Gram-positive bacterial infection, which largely hampers its practical applications. Herein, we revealed for the first time that cholesterol could significantly facilitate the hydrophobic binding of PSs to the bacterial surface, achieving the hydrophobic interaction-based bacterial cell surface engineering that could effectively photo-inactivate both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425257/role-of-hygienic-factors-in-the-etiology-of-allergic-disorders-in-children
#3
Şule Yeşil, Ahmet Kan, Olkar Abdulmajed, Arzu Bakirtaş, Nedim Sultan, Sadık M Demirsoy
BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the role of body flora and chronic inflammatory infections in the etiology of allergic disorders in Turkish children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty pediatric asthma patients with positive skin prick tests and 40 age-matched healthy subjects with negative skin prick tests were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum H. pylori IgG, viral hepatitis serology, IL-10, and TGF-beta levels were measured. Stool and throat cultures were taken and tested for occurrence of microorganisms...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423458/dissecting-virulence-function-from-recognition-cell-death-suppression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-by-xopq-hopq1-family-effectors-relies-on-eds1-dependent-immunity
#4
Norman Adlung, Ulla Bonas
Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria express effector proteins of the XopQ/HopQ1 family which are translocated into plant cells via the type III secretion system during infection. In Nicotiana benthamiana, recognition of XopQ/HopQ1 proteins induces an effector-triggered immunity (ETI) reaction which is not associated with strong cell death but renders plants immune against Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Additionally, XopQ suppresses cell death in N. benthamiana when transiently co-expressed with cell death inducers...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422970/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-modulator-of-innate-immunity-during-melioidosis
#5
Jacqueline M Lankelma, Emma Birnie, Tassili A F Weehuizen, Brendon P Scicluna, Clara Belzer, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Joris J T H Roelofs, Alex F de Vos, Tom van der Poll, Andries E Budding, W Joost Wiersinga
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an emerging cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis in the tropics. The gut microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognized as a protective mediator in host defenses against systemic infection. Here, we aimed to characterize the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota during experimental melioidosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with B...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421811/characterization-of-ornithobacterium-rhinotracheale-field-isolates-from-hungary
#6
Réka Szabó, Enikő Wehmann, László Makrai, Csaba Nemes, Éva Gyuris, Ákos Thuma, Tibor Magyar
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a widely distributed rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium that infects several avian species including chickens and turkeys. It is associated with respiratory signs, growth retardation, mortality, and reduced egg production thus causing severe economic losses to the poultry industries. In this study, 37 field isolates of O. rhinotracheale, collected from various locations in Hungary between 1997 and 2015, were identified and molecularly characterized by the analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR assays with the OPG11, OPH19, and M13 primers...
April 19, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421167/iron-and-virulence-in-francisella-tularensis
#7
REVIEW
Girija Ramakrishnan
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of cell types including macrophages, and propagates with great efficiency in the cytoplasm. Iron, essential for key enzymatic and redox reactions, is among the nutrients required to support this pathogenic lifestyle and the bacterium relies on specialized mechanisms to acquire iron within the host environment. Two distinct pathways for iron acquisition are encoded by the F. tularensis genome- a siderophore-dependent ferric iron uptake system and a ferrous iron transport system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420384/molecular-characteristic-of-mcr-1-producing-escherichia-coli-in-a-chinese-university-hospital
#8
Qing-Wen He, Xiao-Hong Xu, Fang-Jun Lan, Zhi-Chang Zhao, Zhi-Yun Wu, Ying-Ping Cao, Bin Li
BACKGROUND: Colistin has been considered as a last-line treatment option in severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens. However, the emergence of the mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) has challenged this viewpoint. The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of mcr-1 in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a Chinese teaching hospital, and investigate their molecular characteristics. METHODS: A total of 700 E. coli isolates were used to screen mcr-1 by PCR and sequencing in a Chinese university hospital from August 2014 to August 2015...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420291/a-study-of-long-term-stability-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorhexidine-polyhexamethylene-biguanide-and-silver-nanoparticle-incorporated-in-sericin-based-wound-dressing
#9
Sumate Ampawong, Pornanong Aramwit
In this study, three kinds of antiseptics which were 0.05% chlorhexidine, 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), or 200 ppm silver nanoparticle was introduced to incorporate in the sericin-based scaffold to produce the antimicrobial dressing for the treatment of infected chronic wound. The effects of antiseptic incorporation on the stability, release of sericin, and short-term and long-term (6 months) antimicrobial activity of the sericin dressing against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were investigated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419838/peptidoglycan-accelerates-granulopoiesis-through-a-tlr2-and-myd88-dependent-pathway
#10
Masaya Takehara, Soshi Seike, Teruhisa Takagishi, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Granulopoiesis is accelerated during Gram-negative bacterial infection through activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, we tested whether activation of TLR2 promotes granulopoiesis by using the well-known TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan (PGN). Neutrophils in bone marrow and spleen, and plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were increased in mice that had received intraperitoneal PGN administration. Incorporation of BrdU into bone marrow neutrophils increased, demonstrating that PGN accelerated granulopoiesis...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418029/tmcactin-plays-an-important-role-in-gram-negative-and-positive-bacterial-infection-by-regulating-expression-of-7-amp-genes-in-tenebrio-molitor
#11
Yong Hun Jo, Yu Jung Kim, Ki Beom Park, Jeong Hwan Seong, Soo Gon Kim, Soyi Park, Mi Young Noh, Yong Seok Lee, Yeon Soo Han
Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417452/worldwide-pattern-of-antibiotic-prescription-in-endodontic-infections
#12
REVIEW
Juan José Segura-Egea, Jenifer Martín-González, María Del Carmen Jiménez-Sánchez, Isabel Crespo-Gallardo, Juan José Saúco-Márquez, Eugenio Velasco-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Odontogenic infections, and especially endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, involving a combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative facultative anaerobes and strictly anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can be used as an adjunct to endodontic treatment. However, most chronic and even acute endodontic infections can be successfully managed by disinfection of the root-canal system, which eliminates the source of infection, followed by abscess drainage or tooth extraction, without the need for antibiotics...
April 17, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417070/acute-bacteremic-pneumonia-due-to-melioidosis-developing-in-the-intensive-care-setting
#13
Huda Zainal Abidin, Alwi Muhd Besari, Chandran Nadarajan, Wan Fadzlina Wan Shukeri, Mohd Zulfakar Mazlan, Soon Eu Chong, Zeti Norfidiyati Salmuna Ayub
In Malaysia, melioidosis is commonly encountered as this infection is known as part of the endemic area for the disease. Managing cases of positive Burkholderia pseudomallei infection can involve multidisciplinary unit mainly, microbiologist, infectious disease team and intensive care as it may be quite difficult to distinguish melioidosis from a number of other diseases on the clinical setting alone. Laboratory diagnosis plays a vital role in determining the direction of management. Investigations such as culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology should be evaluated once the disease is suspected...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416543/potential-toxicity-of-polymyxins-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#14
Maizbha U Ahmed, Tony Velkov, Yu-Wei Lin, Bo Yun, Cameron J Nowell, Fanfan Zhou, Qi Tony Zhou, Kim Chan, Mohammad A K Azad, Jian Li
Inhaled polymyxins are of considerable utility to achieve optimal exposure in the respiratory tract for the treatment of lung infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Current inhaled polymyxin therapy is empirical and often high doses are used which may lead to potential pulmonary adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of polymyxins on human lung epithelial cells (A549). Viability of A549 cells was examined after treatment with polymyxins using flow cytometry. Activation of caspase-3, -8, -9, expression of Fas ligand (FasL), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by polymyxin B was evaluated...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416278/ai-2-quorum-sensing-negatively-regulates-rbf-expression-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Ronghua Ma, Shuwan Qiu, Qiu Jiang, Haipeng Sun, Ting Xue, Gang Cai, Baolin Sun
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on biomaterial surfaces to cause biofilm-associated infections. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a universal language for interspecies communication, is involved in a variety of physiological activities, although its exact role in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in S. aureus, is not yet thoroughly characterized. Herein we demonstrate that inactivation of luxS, which encodes AI-2 synthase, resulted in increased biofilm formation and higher polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) production compared with the wild-type strain in S...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415986/detection-of-ctx-m-15-beta-lactamases-in-enterobacteriaceae-causing-hospital-and-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-as-early-as-2004-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#16
Joel Manyahi, Sabrina J Moyo, Marit Gjerde Tellevik, Faustine Ndugulile, Willy Urassa, Bjørn Blomberg, Nina Langeland
BACKGROUND: The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. METHODS: A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415969/carbapenem-resistance-inappropriate-empiric-treatment-and-outcomes-among-patients-hospitalized-with-enterobacteriaceae-urinary-tract-infection-pneumonia-and-sepsis
#17
Marya D Zilberberg, Brian H Nathanson, Kate Sulham, Weihong Fan, Andrew F Shorr
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance among gram-negative pathogens is a risk factor for inappropriate empiric treatment (IET), which in turn increases the risk for mortality. We explored the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) on the risk of IET and of IET on outcomes in patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Premier Perspective database (2009-2013) of 175 US hospitals. We included all adult patients with community-onset culture-positive urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, or sepsis as a principal diagnosis, or as a secondary diagnosis in the setting of respiratory failure, treated with antibiotics within 2 days of admission...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415556/construction-of-zn-incorporated-multilayer-films-to-promote-osteoblasts-growth-and-reduce-bacterial-adhesion
#18
Peng Liu, Yongchun Zhao, Zhang Yuan, Hongyan Ding, Yan Hu, Weihu Yang, Kaiyong Cai
To improve the biological performance of titanium substrates, a bioactive multilayered structure of chitosan/gelatin pair, containing zinc ions, was constructed via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The successful preparation of zinc ions incorporated multilayer films was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements, respectively. The biological behaviors of osteoblasts adhered to modified Ti substrates were investigated in vitro via cytoskeleton observation, cell viability measurement, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414823/comparing-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-virulence-phenotypes-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-type-g-strains
#19
Eric R G Lewis, Paul B Kilgore, Tiffany M Mott, Gonzalo A Pradenas, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a saprophytic rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. This disease has previously been described as endemic in areas such as northern Australia and Southeast Asia, but, more recently, a better understanding of the epidemiology of melioidosis indicated that the disease is distributed worldwide, including regions of the Americas and Africa. A 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) typing system has been developed for Bpm and has revealed that ITS types C, E, and hybrid CE are mainly associated with Australia and Southeast Asia while type G strains are more associated with cases of melioidosis in the Western Hemisphere...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#20
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
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