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Gram negative infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943204/considerations-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-surgery
#1
Michael P Veve, Susan L Davis, Amy M Williams, John E McKinnon, Tamer A Ghanem
Peri/post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (POABP) has become standard practice for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction, but few data exist on optimal POABP regimens. Current surgical prophylaxis guideline recommendations fail to account for the complexity of microvascular reconstruction relative to other head and neck procedures, specifically regarding wound classification and antibiotic duration. Selection of POABP spectrum is also controversial, and must balance the choice between too narrow, risking subsequent infection, or too broad, and possible unwanted effects (e...
September 21, 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943153/melittin-and-its-potential-in-the-destruction-and-inhibition-of-the-biofilm-formation-by-staphylococcus-aureus-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-bovine-milk
#2
Tony Picoli, Cristina Mendes Peter, João Luíz Zani, Stefanie Bressan Waller, Matheus Gomes Lopes, Kamilla Neutzling Boesche, Gilberto D Ávila Vargas, Silvia de Oliveira Hübner, Geferson Fischer
Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa stand out in veterinary and human medicine for their role in opportunistic infections and their pathogenic mechanisms, including the biofilms formation. It was investigated the antibacterial activity of melittin and antibiofilm of such bacteria. Twelve strains of these microorganisms isolated from bovine milk were used, as well as the strains S. aureus ATCC 12600, E. coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution technique...
September 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943144/the-epidemiology-antibiograms-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-critically-ill-patients-with-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#3
Shin-Huei Kuo, Wei-Ru Lin, Jun-You Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Ya-Ting Jao, Pei-Wen Yang, Jong-Rung Tsai, Wen-Hung Wang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Ching-Tzu Hung, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: For high risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in patients of intensive care units (ICUs) and scarcely epidemiology and therapeutic recommendations in Asia, we aimed to evaluate the annual change in epidemiology, antibiogram, and risk factors for 14-day mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study of ICUs patients with CLABSIs at a medical center in Taiwan (2010-2016), where central line care bundle implemented since 2014, by reviewing clinical data, pathogens, and the antibiogram...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942834/brucellosis-a-lymphoma-like-presentation
#4
Marcel Massoud, Fouad Kerbage, Leony Antoun, Ribal Merhi, Souheil Hallit, Rabih Hallit
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide caused by gram negative bacilli of the genus Brucella. It is transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals or derived food products such as unpasteurized milk. Brucellosis' clinical presentation varies widely from multi-systemic involvement to asymptomatic infection. We present the case of a 52-year-old Lebanese male who was admitted to our hospital with a 3-week history of fever (up to 40 °C), chills, night sweats and abdominal pain...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942822/recent-research-advances-on-chromobacterium-violaceum
#5
REVIEW
Vijay Kothari, Sakshi Sharma, Divya Padia
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram-negative bacterium, which has been used widely in microbiology labs involved in quorum sensing (QS) research. Among the QS-regulated traits of this bacterium, violacein production has received the maximum attention. Violacein production in this organism, however is not under sole control of QS machinery, and other QS-regulated traits of this bacterium also need to be investigated in better detail. Though not often involved in human infections, this bacterium is being viewed as an emerging pathogen...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942664/-clinical-aspects-of-severe-infections-caused-by-antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-the-empire-strikes-back
#6
János Sinkó
In our days, growing incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become an eminent public health problem. For survival Gram-negative species possess several different tools to withstand antibiotics: they produce degrading and modifying enzymes, decrease their permeability or expel drug molecules. An increasing proportion of severe nosocomial infections are caused by strains resistant to several antimicrobials (multiresistant, extensively resistant or panresistant species). Development of new antibiotic compounds may serve as a possible solution to this problem...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941633/sustained-pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-with-consultation-to-infectious-diseases-reduced-carbapenem-resistance-and-infection-related-mortality
#7
Yuho Horikoshi, Junichi Suwa, Hiroshi Higuchi, Testuji Kaneko, Mihoko Furuichi, Yuta Aizawa, Kahoru Fukuoka, Kaoru Okazaki, Kenta Ito, Takayo Shoji
OBJECTIVE: The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is still scarce. We aimed to evaluate carbapenem's AMR in gram negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after introduction of ASP. METHOD: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941394/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-latin-america-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#8
Michael A Pfaller, Dee Shortridge, Helio S Sader, Ana Gales, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940167/th2-biased-immune-response-and-agglutinating-antibodies-generation-by-a-chimeric-protein-comprising-ompc-epitope-323-336-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-ltb
#9
Mahima Sharma, Pujarini Dash, Pramod K Sahoo, Aparna Dixit
Aeromonas hydrophila is responsible for causing fatal infections in freshwater fishes. Besides chemical/antibiotic treatment and whole-cell vaccine, no subunit vaccine is currently available for A. hydrophila. Outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria have been reported as effective vaccine candidates. Peptide antigens elicit focused immune responses against immunodominant stretches of the antigen. We have attempted to characterize the immunogenicity of linear B-cell epitopes of outer membrane protein (OmpC) of A...
September 22, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940128/multi-locus-sequence-typing-mlst-of-non-fermentative-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-southern-poland
#10
Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Monika Pobiega, Dorota Romaniszyn, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
Non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli are now one of the most important causes of severe infections in Polish hospitals. Acinetobacter species are serious concern because of the high prevalence of multi-drug resistance among strains. Resistance profiles for 53 Gram-negative non-fermentative blood isolates were done. MLST was carried out using 44 strains representing the most commonly isolated species: A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and S. maltophilia. MLST revealed that all 22 A. baumannii belonged to sequence type (ST) 2...
September 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939601/a-lytic-providencia-rettgeri-virus-of-potential-therapeutic-value-is-a-deep-branching-member-of-the-t5virus-genus
#11
Hugo Oliveira, Graça Pinto, Hanne Hendrix, Jean-Paul Noben, Jan Gawor, Andrew M Kropinski, Małgorzata Łobocka, Rob Lavigne, Joana Azeredo
Providencia rettgeri is emerging as a new opportunistic pathogen with high antibiotic resistance. The need to find alternative methods to control antibiotic resistant bacteria and the recent advances in phage therapy motivates the search of new phages able to infect Providencia spp.. This study describes the isolation and characterization of an obligatory lytic phage vB_PreS_PR1 (PR1) with therapeutic potential against drug-resistant P. rettgeri PR1 is a siphovirus. Its virion DNA size (118,537 bp), transcriptional organization, terminal repeats (10,461 bp) and nicks in the 3' -5' strand are similar to those of phage T5...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939531/transcriptome-analysis-of-immune-response-against-vibrio-harveyi-infection-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#12
Shun Maekawa, Omkar Byadgi, Yao-Chung Chen, Takashi Aoki, Haruko Takeyama, Terutoyo Yoshida, Jun-Ichi Hikima, Masahiro Sakai, Pei-Chyi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Vibrio harveyi is a gram-negative bacterium reported as found in many aquaculture species. To increase knowledge of the immune response against V. harveyi, in this study we performed transcriptome analysis of head kidney and spleen in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) at 1 and 2 days post-infection (dpi), using the Illumina sequencing platform. After de novo assembly, a total of 79,128 unigenes was detected with an N50 of 2511 bp. After alignments with sequences recorded in the major databases (NT, NR, Swiss-Prot COG, KEGG, Interpro and GO), based on sequence similarity, 61,208 (77...
September 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939441/caspase-11-deficiency-impairs-neutrophil-recruitment-and-bacterial-clearance-in-the-early-stage-of-pulmonary-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection
#13
Jian Wang, Yue Shao, Wei Wang, Shengjun Li, Na Xin, Fang Xie, Chenghai Zhao
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a gram-negative pathogen, and Klebsiella pneumonia is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Canonical NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome was found involved in innate immune response against K. pneumoniae, but the role of caspase-11 in K. pneumoniae infection remains undefined. It was shown that Caspase-11 knockout blocked K. pneumoniae-induced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Furthermore, caspase-11(-/-) mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in the early stage of K...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938259/hepatic-legionella-pneumophila-infection-in-an-infant-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#14
Rotem Lapidot, Laila Alawdah, J R Köhler, Vera Paulson, Ofer Levy
Rare cases of extrapulmonary involvement in Legionella spp. infections have been described, mostly in immunocompromised adults. We report a case of a 2 month old male with reticular dysgenesis variant of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) with multiple liver lesions. Core-needle biopsies of one liver lesion demonstrated Gram-negative bacilli and a broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay detected Legionella pneumophilia.
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937074/clinicoepidemiological-profile-of-peritonitis-complicating-acute-peritoneal-dialysis-a-single-center-experience
#15
Kunal Gandhi, Dharmendra Prasad, Vinay Malhotra, Dhananjai Agrawal, Pankaj Beniwal, Amith Vijay Leon Dsouza
A prospective observational study examining the incidence and microbiological aspects of peritonitis complicating acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) was performed. A total of 145 acute IPD treatments were included involving 112 patients. The majority of patients suffered from acute kidney injury (72.3%) secondary to sepsis. Peritonitis occurred in 31 treatment sessions, giving a frequency of 21.4% of procedures performed. The mean interval between starting dialysis and the first sign of peritonitis was 2...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936955/-analysis-of-characteristics-of-bacteria-in-respiratory-tract-infection-in-2013-2016-in-heibei-3a-hospital-a-single-center-report-of-7-497-patients
#16
Lili Hou, Lili Liu, Ping Dang, Guannan Kang, Qinfeng Zhang, Dongling Li
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes and characteristics of respiratory tract bacteria in Hebei 3A Hospital, and to provide new rationale for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted. 7 497 patients with respiratory tract infection admitted to Hebei Chest Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. Deep sputum was collected, and the bacterial cultures and susceptibility analysis was conducted in sputum and upper respiratory secretions were collected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935196/genetic-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinically-isolated-anaerobic-bacteria-a-prospective-multicenter-surveillance-study-in-japan
#17
Tomoyuki Yunoki, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Michio Tanaka, Kyoko Hamano, Satoshi Nakano, Taro Noguchi, Miki Nagao, Satoshi Ichiyama
This prospective multicenter surveillance study was designed to provide antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical anaerobic bacteria with genetic species identification in Japan. In 2014, a total of 526 non-duplicate clinical anaerobic isolates were collected from 11 acute-care hospitals in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan. Genetic identification was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in the central laboratory and were interpreted using the CLSI criteria...
September 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935107/glycoengineered-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-a-platform-for-vaccine-development
#18
Ezequiel Valguarnera, Mario F Feldman
As we enter into the postantibiotic era, vaccines to prevent bacterial infections previously treatable with antibiotics are urgently needed. Most successful antibacterial vaccines are glycoconjugates, composed of cell surface carbohydrates chemically attached to a carrier protein. Glycoconjugate vaccines provide a safe and consistent strategy against polysaccharide-encapsulated pathogens. The best examples are the conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis, all based on capsular polysaccharides...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934938/shifting-trends-in-bacteriology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gastrointestinal-fistula-patients-in-china-an-eight-year-review-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
Qinjie Liu, Jianan Ren, Xiuwen Wu, Gefei Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Jie Wu, Jinjian Huang, Tianyu Lu, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the shifting trends in bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance of infectious specimens isolated from gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients over eight years in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the microbial records of intra-abdominal specimens at a teaching hospital from 2008 to 2015. Study period was divided into the first half (2008-2011) and the second half (2012-2015). All isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing by the micro dilution method...
September 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934357/from-bacterial-killing-to-immune-modulation-recent-insights-into-the-functions-of-lysozyme
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie A Ragland, Alison K Criss
Lysozyme is a cornerstone of innate immunity. The canonical mechanism for bacterial killing by lysozyme occurs through the hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). Conventional type (c-type) lysozymes are also highly cationic and can kill certain bacteria independently of PG hydrolytic activity. Reflecting the ongoing arms race between host and invading microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have evolved mechanisms to thwart killing by lysozyme. In addition to its direct antimicrobial role, more recent evidence has shown that lysozyme modulates the host immune response to infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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