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C Roberto Simons-Linares, Jodie A Barkin, Yuchen Wang, Palashkumar Jaiswal, William Trick, Michael J Bartel, Jamie S Barkin
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Twenty-percentage of acute pancreatitis (AP) cases is labeled as idiopathic. Cannabis remains the most frequently used illicit drug in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use among all patients with a first episode of AP, particularly in those labeled as idiopathic etiology, and determine any effect on AP severity. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of all consecutive patients admitted with a first episode of AP at a large tertiary referral hospital from 01/2013 through 12/2014...
June 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Nadia Arif, Majed Al-Jefri, Isabella Harb Bizzi, Gianni Boitano Perano, Michel Goldman, Inam Haq, Kee Leng Chua, Manuela Mengozzi, Marie Neunez, Helen Smith, Pietro Ghezzi
The 1998 Lancet paper by Wakefield et al., despite subsequent retraction and evidence indicating no causal link between vaccinations and autism, triggered significant parental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the online information available on this topic. Using localized versions of Google, we searched "autism vaccine" in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Mandarin, and Arabic and analyzed 200 websites for each search engine result page (SERP). A common feature was the newsworthiness of the topic, with news outlets representing 25-50% of the SERP, followed by unaffiliated websites (blogs, social media) that represented 27-41% and included most of the vaccine-negative websites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gary Finnegan, Daphne Holt, Peter M English, Steffen Glismann, Angus Thomson, David M Salisbury, Hugues Bogaerts, Paolo Bonanni
Most members of the general public use the internet to research health topics. However, the quality of vaccine-related material available online is mixed and internet search engines often bring web users to low-quality anti-vaccine websites. We present a case study of a pro-vaccine information hub launched in 2011. Vaccines Today provides high-quality information about vaccines and diseases, expert interviews, answers to frequently asked questions, parent/patient stories and videos/infographics. Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and Instagram are used to share this content and to engage with various online audiences...
June 16, 2018: Vaccine
Jeffrey B Bolkhovsky, Frank E Ritter, Ki H Chon, Michael Qin
BACKGROUND: Understanding human behavior under the effects of sleep deprivation allows for the mitigation of risk due to reduced performance. To further this goal, this study investigated the effects of short-term sleep deprivation using a tilt-based control device and examined whether existing user models accurately predict targeting performance. METHODS: A task in which the user tilts a surface to roll a ball into a target was developed to examine motor performance...
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Roberto F E Pedretti
OBJECTIVES: The population of elderly adults is constantly increasing and age is a strong determinant of the development of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases; therefore old subjects represent a very high proportion of cardiac patients. Since cardiology is progressively more and more involved in the care of aged patients, a new area of Cardiology has been identified, the Geriatric Cardiology (GC). METHODS: On the other hand, Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) and GC show a wide overlap, and GC seems to be the application in the aged cardiac patient of the core-components that CR has already tested in younger cardiac patients...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Brian Pittman, Eugenia Buta, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley, Thomas Liss, Ralitza Gueorguieva
Introduction: This paper describes different methods for analyzing counts and illustrates their use on cigarette and marijuana smoking data. Methods: The Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), hurdle Poisson (HUP), negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and hurdle negative binomial (HUNB) regression models are considered. The different approaches are evaluated in terms of the ability to take into account zero-inflation (extra zeroes) and overdispersion (variance larger than expected) in count outcomes, with emphasis placed on model fit, interpretation, and choosing an appropriate model given the nature of the data...
April 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
M Eric Irrgang, Jennifer M Hays, Peter M Kasson
Summary: Molecular dynamics simulations have found use in a wide variety of biomolecular applications, from protein folding kinetics to computational drug design to refinement of molecular structures. Two areas where users and developers frequently need to extend the built-in capabilities of most software packages are implementing custom interactions, for instance biases derived from experimental data, and running ensembles of simulations. We present a Python high-level interface for the popular simulation package GROMACS that 1) allows custom potential functions without modifying the simulation package code, 2) maintains the optimized performance of GROMACS, and 3) presents an abstract interface to building and executing computational graphs that allows transparent low-level optimization of data flow and task placement...
June 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Ted R Angradi, Jonathon J Launspach, Rick Debbout
Relative valuation of potentially affected ecosystem benefits can increase the legitimacy and social acceptance of ecosystem restoration projects. As an alternative or supplement to traditional methods of deriving beneficiary preference, we downloaded from social media and classified ≈21,000 photographs taken in two Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC), the St. Louis River and the Milwaukee Estuary. Our motivating presumption was that the act of taking a photograph constitutes some measure of the photographer's individual preference for, or choice of, the depicted subject matter among myriad possible subject matter...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Great Lakes Research
Maria Ekstrand Ragnar, Jenny Niemeyer Hultstrand, Tanja Tydén, Margareta Larsson
INTRODUCTION: Many women and men lack knowledge about fertility, including timing of the fertile window, age-related decline, and lifestyle factors that may impair fertility. The Internet has become an important source of information, but evidence-based information on fertility and reproduction in Swedish on the Internet is limited. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate an evidence-based fertility awareness website, '', to increase awareness of fertility and provide guidance for improved preconception health and care among individuals and healthcare providers...
June 18, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Mariam Ujeyl, Ingrid Köster, Hans Wille, Thomas Stammschulte, Rebecca Hein, Sebastian Harder, Ursula Gundert-Remy, Julian Bleek, Peter Ihle, Helmut Schröder, Gerhard Schillinger, Anette Zawinell, Ingrid Schubert
PURPOSE: The pivotal trials for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) compared rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban with warfarin, as did most claims-based studies. Comparisons with phenprocoumon, the most frequently used vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in Germany, are scarce. METHODS: Risk of bleeding, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality in patients with NVAF were analyzed using data for 2010 to 2014 from a large German claims database. New users of oral anticoagulants from January 2012 to December 2013 were included and observed over 1 year...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Elena Mikulskaya, Frances Heritage Martin
RATIONALE: Cannabis use impairs visual attention; however, it is unclear whether cannabis use also impairs low level visual processing or whether low level visual deficits can be related to lower dopaminergic functioning found in cannabis users. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity and motion discrimination under normal and low luminance conditions differ in cannabis users and non-users. METHODS: Control (n = 20) and cannabis (n = 21) participants completed a visual acuity test, a saliva test and self-report measures...
June 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Mihaela Badea, Octavio P Luzardo, Ana González-Antuña, Manuel Zumbado, Liliana Rogozea, Laura Floroian, Dana Alexandrescu, Marius Moga, Laura Gaman, Mariana Radoi, Luis D Boada, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Research
Fabia Rothenfluh, Peter J Schulz
BACKGROUND: Websites on which users can rate their physician are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about the website quality, the information content, and the tools they offer users to assess physicians. This study assesses these aspects on physician-rating websites in German- and English-speaking countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to collect information on websites with a physician rating or review tool in 12 countries in terms of metadata, website quality (transparency, privacy and freedom of speech of physicians and patients, check mechanisms for appropriateness and accuracy of reviews, and ease of page navigation), professional information about the physician, rating scales and tools, as well as traffic rank...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Louise Thomson, Marcus Barker, Catherine Kaylor-Hughes, Anne Garland, Rajini Ramana, Richard Morriss, Emily Hammond, Gail Hopkins, Sandra Simpson
BACKGROUND: A specialist depression service (SDS) offering collaborative pharmacological and cognitive behaviour therapy treatment for persistent depressive disorder showed effectiveness against depression symptoms versus usual community based multidisciplinary care in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in specialist mental health services in England. However, there is uncertainty concerning how specialist depression services effect such change. The current study aimed to evaluate the factors which may explain the greater effectiveness of SDS compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU) by exploring the experience of the RCT participants...
June 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Yashovardhan Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". OBJECTIVE: This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location...
June 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Kristen D Pitts, Alberto A Arteaga, Elliot T Hardy, Ben P Stevens, Christopher S Spankovich, Andrea F Lewis
BACKGROUND: Nasal congestion and obstruction are reported in the majority of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) users and are frequently cited as reasons for noncompliance. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated a change in objective or subjective nasal patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after a therapeutic trial of CPAP therapy. METHODS: This prospective nonrandomized trial tested the hypothesis that CPAP therapy would result in both objective and subjective improvements in nasal patency in patients with OSA...
June 13, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Silvio C G H van den Heuvel, Daniëlle Meije, Eline J Regeer, Henny Sinnema, Rixt F Riemersma, Ralph W Kupka
BACKGROUND: Self-management comprises knowledge, behavior, activities and resources providing people with bipolar disorder (BD) control over fluctuating mood and activity-patterns. The 'Self-management and Dialogue in Bipolar Disorder' project entailed the tailoring of an online personal health record (PHR) originally designed for the chronically ill to monitor condition and share information with their clinician to people with BD (PHR-BD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, utility and user-experiences of participants with BD, relatives, and healthcare professionals who worked with the PHR-BD...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Paul-Emmanuel Devez, Olivier Epaulard
An estimated 28,000 French people infected with HIV remain undiagnosed, leading to HIV transmission and late-stage HIV infections. An over-the-counter HIV self-test has been available since September 2015. We thus aimed to explore people's perceptions of and intentions to use the test. An anonymous online questionnaire, targeting the general population and men who have sex with men (MSM) was distributed between November 2015 and January 2016. It explored at-risk sexual behavior, perceptions of the HIV self-test, and past and intended future use...
June 10, 2018: AIDS Care
Luisa Garofalo, Alessia Mariacher, Rita Fanelli, Rosario Fico, Rita Lorenzini
In Western countries dogs and cats are the most popular pets, and people are increasingly opposed to their rearing for the fur industry. In 2007, a Regulation of the European Union (EU) banned the use and trade of dog and cat furs, but an official analytical protocol to identify them as source species was not provided, and violations of law are still frequent in all Member States. In this paper we report on the development and validation of a simple and affordable DNA method for species detection in furs to use as an effective tool to combat illegal trade in fur products...
2018: PeerJ
K Mattishent, Y K Loke
AIM: We conducted a systematic review of the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in older patients, in order to consolidate the growing evidence base in this area. METHODS: Our protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017068523). We searched SCI Web of Science, Ovid SP MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 2010 to June 2017 for observational studies and randomized controlled trial of CGM in older patients (mean age 65 or older) with diabetes. We excluded studies that involved only hospitalized patients...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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