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Ashly E Jordan, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is hyperendemic among people who inject drugs; nonsterile drug injection is the principle risk for HCV acquisition. Due to gaps in the HCV care continuum, there have been recommendations in the United States emphasizing age-rather than risk-based testing strategies. The central research focus of this project is to explore the meanings and implications of the shift in emphasis from risk-based to age-based HCV testing with regard to people who use drugs...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Trond Erik Grønnestad, Hildegunn Sagvaag
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. METHOD: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Cynthia Krieg, Catherine Hudon, Maud-Christine Chouinard, Isabelle Dufour
BACKGROUND: A small proportion of patients use an excessively large amount of emergency care resources which often results in emergency department (ED) overcrowding, decreased quality of care and efficiency. There is a need to better identify these patients in order to target those who will benefit most from interventions adapted to their specific needs. We aimed to identify the predictive factors of short-term frequent use of ED (over a 1-year period) and chronic frequent use of ED (over a multiple-year period) and to highlight recurring characteristics in patients...
October 20, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Ilana Levy, Samuel Attias, Eran Ben-Arye, Lee Goldstein, Elad Schiff
BACKGROUND: Dietary and herbal supplements (DHS) are commonly used among inpatients and may cause interactions with drugs or other DHS. The study explored whether adverse events were actually associated with such interactions and examined specific characteristics among inpatient DHS users prone to such adverse events. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 947 patients hospitalized in 12 departments of a tertiary academic medical centre in Haifa, Israel. It evaluated the rate of DHS use among inpatients, the potential for interactions, and actual adverse events during hospitalization associated with DHS use...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Ghasem-Sam Toloo, Peter Aitken, Julia Crilly, Gerry FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Patients attending hospital emergency departments (ED) commonly cite the urgency and severity of their condition as the main reason for choosing the ED. However, the patients' perception of urgency and severity may be different to the nurses' perception of their urgency and severity, which is underpinned by their professional experience, knowledge, training and skills. This discordance may be a cause of patient dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of agreement/disagreement between the patient's perceived priority and actual triage category and associated factors...
October 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Jason Reich, Ling Guo, Julia Hall, Ashley Tran, Janice Weinberg, Jacob Groshek, Tanya E Rowell, Jack A DiPalma, Francis A Farraye
BACKGROUND: With the recent increase in the use of social media, patients with chronic illnesses are using the Internet as a resource for disease management. As the peak incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occurs in patients between the ages of 15 and 30, IBD is a suitable condition to study social media use. The aim of this study was to assess social media usage and preferences in patients with IBD. METHODS: We administered a survey to 118 patients with IBD at our outpatient practice at the Boston Medical Center (BMC), Center for Digestive Disorders, and the University of Southern Alabama (USA) between November 1, 2015, and March 9, 2016...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Rafael Pérez-Torres, César Torres-Huitzil, Hiram Galeana-Zapién
The tracking of frequently visited places, also known as stay points, is a critical feature in location-aware mobile applications as a way to adapt the information and services provided to smartphones users according to their moving patterns. Location based applications usually employ the GPS receiver along with Wi-Fi hot-spots and cellular cell tower mechanisms for estimating user location. Typically, fine-grained GPS location data are collected by the smartphone and transferred to dedicated servers for trajectory analysis and stay points detection...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Rayna B Hirst, Kaitlyn R Young, Louise M Sodos, Robert E Wickham, Mitch Earleywine
INTRODUCTION: While many studies suggest that regular cannabis use leads to deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly in memory, few have measured effort put forth during testing, and none have examined this as a potential mediator. Both age of onset of regular cannabis use and frequency of use have been linked to increased risk of memory deficits. The present study sought to determine whether effort mediated the relationship between frequency or age of onset of cannabis use and learning and memory performance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Kathrin Jobski, Niklas Schmedt, Bianca Kollhorst, Jutta Krappweis, Tania Schink, Edeltraut Garbe
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics, drug use patterns, and predictors for treatment choice in older German patients initiating antidepressant (AD) treatment. METHODS: Using the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database, we identified a cohort of AD initiators aged at least 65 years between 2005 and 2011. Potential indications, co-morbidity, and co-medication as well as treatment patterns such as the duration of the first treatment episode were assessed...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nuria García Marchena, Pedro Araos, Francisco Javier Pavón, Guillermo Ponce, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Arias, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Suárez, Antoni Pastor, Rafael De la Torre, Marta Torrens, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol addiction is associated with high psychiatric comorbidity. Objective stratification of patients is necessary to optimize care and improve prognosis. The present study is designed to gain insights into this challenge by addressing the following objectives: a) to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, b) to describe the existence of gender differences and c) to validate 2-acyl-glycerols as biomarkers of alcohol use disorder and/or psychiatric comorbidity...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Mark A Healy, Jason C Pradarelli, Robert W Krell, Scott E Regenbogen, Pasithorn A Suwanabol
BACKGROUND: Despite substantially improved survival with metastatic site resection in colorectal cancers, uptake of aggressive surgical approaches remains low among certain patients. It is unknown whether financial determinants of care, such as insurance status, play a role in this treatment gap. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of insurance status on metastasectomy in patients with advanced colorectal cancers. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Judith L Griffin, Marie Yersin, Stéphanie Baggio, Katia Iglesias, Venetia-Sofia Velonaki, Karine Moschetti, Bernard Burnand, Jean-Blaise Wasserfallen, Francis Vu, Corine Ansermet, Olivier Hugli, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Patrick Bodenmann
OBJECTIVES: Frequent Emergency Department (ED) users have an elevated mortality, yet little is known about risk factors. Our aim was to characterize deceased frequent ED users and determine predictors of mortality. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of all-cause mortality among frequent ED users participating in a randomized clinical trial on case management at the Lausanne University Hospital (Switzerland). We enrolled 250 frequent ED users (5+ visits/past year) in a 12-month randomized clinical trial; those with an estimated survival of fewer than 18 months were excluded...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Harmke Nijboer, Geert Lefeber, Alidair McLullich, Barbara van Munster
BACKGROUND: Haloperidol, frequently used for delirium, can lead to serious side effects, of which QTc prolongation is the most worrisome since it is associated with an increased risk of fatal cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of haloperidol use after procedures in patients aged ≥65 years in a hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS: This was a retrospective study among patients hospitalized in the Netherlands who were aged ≥65 years and who underwent a procedure between January 2008 and January 2009...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Peter Barss, Michal Grivna, Amna Al-Hanaee, Ayesha Al-Dhahab, Fatima Al-Kaabi, Shamma Al-Muhairi
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers (BWs) are frequent causes of infant injuries. Little research is reported from the Middle East and few population-based studies anywhere. METHODS: Using multistage random sampling in a city of the United Arab Emirates, 4 of 8 female Arab government high schools and 3 final-year classes each from science and arts tracks were selected. Structured self-administered questionnaires assessed prevalence, frequency, severity, and external causes of BW incidents and injuries, and residential hazards...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
F Kazour, C Awaida, L Souaiby, S Richa
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use is very frequent in bipolar disorder and has been found to increase the duration and frequency of manic symptoms while decreasing those of depression. Bipolar patients who use cannabis were shown to have poorer compliance to treatment, more symptoms that are psychotic and a worse prognosis than patients who do not. In this study, we have evaluated the importance of cannabis use among bipolar patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon (Hôpital Psychiatrique de la Croix [HPC]) as well as the clinical differences between cannabis users and non-users...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Carolyn M Shirey, Jordan L Scott, Robert V Stahelin
To reduce costs of lipid-binding assays, allow for multiple lipids to be screened for protein binding simultaneously, and to make lipid binding more user friendly, lipids have been dotted onto membranes to investigate lipid-protein interactions. These assays are similar to a western blot where the membrane is blocked, incubated with a protein of interest and detected using antibodies. Although the assay is inexpensive and straightforward, problems with promiscuous or poor binding, as well as insufficient blocking occur frequently...
October 11, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Serena Stigliano, Livia Archibugi, Giulia Zerboni, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Gabriele Capurso
BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies and other complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are used by 30% of the patients with liver and inflammatory bowel diseases. However, there are no data regarding CAM use in patients with pancreatic disorders, including potential pancreatotoxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of CAM use in patients with pancreatic disorders and screen for pancreatotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of consecutive outpatients seen at a Pancreas Center...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Quentin Boucherie, Gaëtan Gentile, Coralie Chalançon, Vincent Sciortino, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef, Sylvie Bonin-Guillaume
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of long-term antipsychotic (AP) use in community-dwelling patients with dementia considering hospitalization periods as AP exposure or not. A retrospective study was carried out from 2009 to 2012 on a PACA-Alzheimer cohort (which included 31 963 patients in 2009 and 36 442 in 2012 from 5 million inhabitants). Three groups of patients were identified according to the longest exposure to APs without interruption: nonusers, short-term users (≤3 successive months without discontinuation), and long-term users...
October 12, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Suneela Mehta, Sue Wells, Rod Jackson, Jeff Harrison, Andrew Kerr
AIM: Publicly-funded atorvastatin required prior approval until September 2010 whereas simvastatin did not. Our aim was to examine if overall statin dispensing and atorvastatin dispensing among patients hospitalised for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differed systematically across sociodemographic groups during and after special authority criteria. METHOD: National medication dispensing data were anonymously linked to patients hospitalised across New Zealand with CVD and discharged between 1/07/2009-31/12/2009 when special authority criteria applied and 1/09/2010-28/02/2011 after restrictions ceased...
October 14, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
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