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Laura Wallard, Sophie Boulet, Olivier Cornu, Jean-Emile Dubuc, Philippe Mahaudens, Didier Postlethwaite, Maïté Van Cauter, Christine Detrembleur
BACKGROUND: The gait mechanism requires an efficient intersegmental coordination in order to ensure the displacement of the body while simultaneously maintaining the postural stability. However, intersegmental coordination may be disrupted by neurological or orthopaedic involvement, this increasing the metabolic cost associated with excessive or prolonged muscle co-contraction. RESEARCH QUESTION: Our aim was to evaluate and to understand how hip OA affects lower limbs coordination during gait by using the kinematic segmental covariation law method and predict the energy expenditure...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Bethany L Hansberger, Shellie Acocello, Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart, Jatin P Ambegaonkar
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often occur during jump landings and can have detrimental short-term and long-term functional effects on quality of life. Despite frequently performing jump landings, dancers have lower incidence rates of ACL injury than other jump-landing athletes. Planned versus unplanned activities and footwear may explain differing ACL-injury rates among dancers and nondancers. Still, few researchers have compared landing biomechanics between dancers and nondancers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Jayishni N Maharaj, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
PURPOSE: Foot orthoses maybe used in the management of musculoskeletal disorders related to abnormal subtalar joint (STJ) pronation. However, the precise mechanical benefits of foot orthoses for preventing injuries associated with the STJ are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of foot orthoses on the energy absorption requirements of the STJ and subsequently tibialis posterior (TP) muscle function. METHODS: Eighteen asymptomatic subjects with a pes planus foot posture were prescribed custom-made foot orthoses made from a plaster cast impression...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ahmad H Alghadir, Hamayun Zafar, Shahnawaz Anwer
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males. METHODS: Thirty healthy male participants aged 20-30 years were tested for standing balance on the Balance Master on three occasions, including wearing a sandal, standard shoe, or no footwear (barefoot). The tests of postural stability include; "Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance" (mCTSIB), "Unilateral Stance" (US), and the "Limits of Stability" (LOS)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Kevin Deschamps, Giovanni Arnoldo Matricali, Bart Dingenen, Jente De Boeck, Sarah Bronselaer, Filip Staes
BACKGROUND: Investigate differences in multi-segment foot kinematics between controls and participants with chronic ankle instability during running with a midfoot striking pattern and to evaluate the effect of Low-Dye and High-Dye taping. METHODS: Three-dimensional multi-segment foot kinematics of 12 controls and 15 participants with chronic ankle instability were collected while running barefoot, and in both taping conditions. Ranges of motion occurring at each joint, each sub phase of stance, were compared between groups and between taping conditions (0-dimensional inference)...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Nicholas B Holowka, Ian J Wallace, Daniel E Lieberman
The longitudinal arch (LA) helps stiffen the foot during walking, but many people in developed countries suffer from flat foot, a condition characterized by reduced LA stiffness that can impair gait. Studies have found this condition is rare in people who are habitually barefoot or wear minimal shoes compared to people who wear conventional modern shoes, but the basis for this difference remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that the use of shoes with features that restrict foot motion (e.g. arch supports, toe boxes) is associated with weaker foot muscles and reduced foot stiffness...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo, Xavier García-Massó
This paper describes a study on postural stability and cognitive function according to the difficulty increment of a working memory task (WMT) and age group in adolescents. One hundred and twenty-three participants (13-16 years) performed single and dual tasks in a bipedal standing position while barefoot. Four trials were conducted, consisting of single and dual tasks in three progressively difficult WMT conditions (i.e., 3-, 5-, and 7-digit sequences). Friedman's analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to test the effect of the WMT and age group, respectively...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
George H Allen, Tamlin M Pavelsky, Eric A Barefoot, Michael P Lamb, David Butman, Arik Tashie, Colin J Gleason
The morphology and abundance of streams control the rates of hydraulic and biogeochemical exchange between streams, groundwater, and the atmosphere. In large river systems, the relationship between river width and abundance is fractal, such that narrow rivers are proportionally more common than wider rivers. However, in headwater systems, where many biogeochemical reactions are most rapid, the relationship between stream width and abundance is unknown. To constrain this uncertainty, we surveyed stream hydromorphology (wetted width and length) in several headwater stream networks across North America and New Zealand...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Jun Young Choi, Heri Babu, Francis Ngimwhichi Joseph, Stephanie Stephanie, Jin Soo Suh
BACKGROUND: Maasai tribe members walk long distances daily either barefoot or wearing traditional shoes made from recycled car tires, without any foot ailments. To figure out the characteristic of their feet, we designed a radiographic comparative study of middle-aged partially shod Maasai women's feet and regularly shod Maasai and Korean women's feet. METHODS: Weight bearing radiographs of bilateral foot and ankle joints from 20 healthy middle-aged bush-living partially shod (PS) Maasai women were obtained...
April 4, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Fernando Bueno Neves, Graham P Arnold, Sadiq Nasir, Weijie Wang, Calum MacDonald, Ian Christie, Rami J Abboud
According to the College of Podiatry, footprints rank among the most frequent forms of evidence found at crime scenes, and the recent ascension of forensic podiatry reflects the importance of footwear and barefoot traces in contemporary forensic practice. In this context, this pilot study focused on whether it is possible to distinguish between walking and running states using parameters derived from two-dimensional foot or shoe prints. Eleven subjects moved along four tracks (barefoot walking; barefoot running; footwear walking; footwear running) while having their bare feet or footwear stained with artificial blood and their footstep patterns recorded...
January 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
Keiji Koyama, Junichiro Yamauchi
This study was to investigate the acute effects of wearing shoes on lower limb kinetics, kinematics and muscle activation during a drop jump. Eighteen healthy men performed a drop jump under barefoot and shod conditions. Vertical ground reaction force (GRF) was measured on a force plate during the contact phase of a drop jump, and GRF valuables were calculated for each condition. The angles of the knee and ankle joints, and the foot strike angle (the angle between the plantar surface of the foot and the ground during ground contact) as well as the electromyography of 7 muscles were measured...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Catharine Siân MacRae, Duncan Critchley, Jeremy S Lewis, Adam Shortland
Objective: Differences in postural control and gait have been identified between people with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, many previous studies present data from small samples, or have used methodologies with questionable reliability. This study, employing robust methodology, hypothesised that there would be a difference in postural control, and spatiotemporal parameters of gait in people with CLBP compared with asymptomatic individuals. Methods: This cross-sectional case-control study age-matched and gender-matched 16 CLBP and 16 asymptomatic participants...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Wade A Baker, Mostafiz R Chowdhury, Costin Untaroiu
OBJECTIVE: A novel anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representative of the 50th percentile male soldier is being developed to predict injuries to a vehicle occupant during an under-body blast (UBB). The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the ATD lower limb outfitted with a military combat boot. Secondly, to insert the validated lower-limb into a model of the full ATD and simulate vertical loading experiments. METHODS: A Belleville desert combat boot model was assigned contacts and material properties based on previous experiments...
January 30, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Christina Zong-Hao Ma, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Anson Hong-Ping Wan, Winson Chiu-Chun Lee
BACKGROUND: The wearing of socks and insoles may affect the ability of the foot to detect tactile input influencing postural balance. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether (1) thick socks adversely affected the elderly postural balance and (2) orthopedic insoles could improve the elderly postural balance while wearing thick socks. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated-measures study design. METHODS: In total, 14 healthy older adults were recruited...
January 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Adam E Fleischer, Shenche Hshieh, Ryan T Crews, Brett J Waverly, Jacob M Jones, Erin E Klein, Lowell Weil, Lowell Scott Weil
BACKGROUND: Metatarsal length is believed to play a role in plantar plate dysfunction, although the mechanism through which progressive injury occurs is still uncertain. We aimed to clarify whether length of the second metatarsal was associated with increased plantar pressure measurements in the forefoot while walking. METHODS: Weightbearing radiographs and corresponding pedobarographic data from 100 patients in our practice walking without a limp were retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
Seung Don Yoo, Hee Sang Kim, Jong Ha Lee, Dong Hwan Yun, Dong Hwan Kim, Jinmann Chon, Seung Ah Lee, Yoo Jin Han, Yun Soo Soh, Yong Kim, Seonyoung Han, Woojin Lee, Young Rok Han
Objective: To investigate the differences in biomechanical parameters measured by gait analysis systems between healthy subjects and subjects with plantar fasciitis (PF), and to compare biomechanical parameters between 'normal, barefooted' gait and arch building gait in the participants. Methods: The researchers evaluated 15 subjects (30 feet) with bilateral foot pain and 15 subjects (15 feet) with unilateral foot pain who had a clinical diagnosis of PF. Additionally, 17 subjects (34 feet) who had no heel pain were recruited...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Pedro Á Latorre-Román, Juan A Párraga-Montilla, Ignacio Guardia-Monteagudo, Felipe García-Pinillos
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. METHODS: A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Srikant Vallabhajosula, Sarah K Humphrey, Alys J Cook, Jane E Freund
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that older adults at high fall risk exhibit altered spatiotemporal gait parameters such as lesser gait speed, shorter step length, and greater step width compared with their healthy counterparts. Measurement of these gait parameters for older adults can play a pivotal role in clinical evaluation. While the GAITRite walkway has been previously validated and used extensively for research purposes, the Zeno walkway validity has not been established...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Pedro Aleixo, José Vaz-Patto, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes
The purpose of this study was to compare rheumatoid arthritis post-menopausal women (RAPW) with pathological involvement of the lower limb joints and age-matched healthy post-menopausal women (AHPW) in regard to the dynamic joint stiffness of the ankle (DJSankle) during the stance phase of gait. Data were collected from 18 RAPW and 18 AHPW. Gait was assessed by a three-dimensional motion analysis system synchronised with a force plate. Subjects walked barefoot at natural and self-selected speed, performing 14 valid trials (comprising 7 left and 7 right foot-steps on a force plate)...
December 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
Save Kumwenda, Chisomo Msefula, Wilfred Kadewa, Bagrey Ngwira, Tracy Morse
Use of Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan) sludge is becoming popular due to increasing price of organic fertilizers in Malawi; however, there is little evidence on the associated risks. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was done to determine health risks associated with use of EcoSan. Pathogens considered included Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and soil transmitted helminths (STHs). Exponential and Beta Poisson models were used to estimate the risk from helminthic and bacterial pathogens, respectively...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
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