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hiv diagnosis

Jolanta Parada-Turska, Monika Turska
Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis which predominantly affects medium-sized arteries. It is a rare disease nowadays. Both the nomenclature and the classification of polyarteritis nodosa was amended several times in the past. Currently, there is a distinction between the primary form described as classical polyarteritis nodosa and other forms that are associated with their probable cause e.g. with viral hepatitis B, C or HIV infection. Moreover, polyarteritis-like necrotizing vasculitis can appear in the course of genetic diseases caused by mutations in single genes...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Tonderai Mabuto, Salome Charalambous, Caitlin Kennedy, Christopher J Hoffmann
Understanding the role of contextual factors beyond individual behavioural determinants is critical to identify strategies to achieve engagement in HIV clinical care. We sought to examine how subjective and objective evaluations of clinic-level costs and value placed on allopathic care influenced HIV care engagement. We used repeat in-depth interviews over 6 months among newly HIV diagnosed adults in South Africa. Data were analysed using thematic analyses and framework matrices to explore individual trajectories over time...
March 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Te-Yu Lin, Chia-Jui Yang, Chung-Eng Liu, Hung-Jen Tang, Tun-Chieh Chen, Guan-Jhou Chen, Tung-Che Hung, Kuan-Yin Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Shih-Ping Lin, Mao-Song Tsai, Yu-Lin Lee, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Chien-Ching Hung, Ning-Chi Wang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute HIV infection is characterized by a high concentration of HIV RNA in the plasma and rapid depletion of the CD4 cell count. This multicenter, retrospective observational study aimed to characterize the manifestations of acuteHIV infection in Taiwan. METHODS: Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2016, all patients aged 20 years or greater who presented with acute HIV infection were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients at diagnosis were collected...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Sonia Singh, Ruiguang Song, Anna Satcher Johnson, Eugene McCray, H Irene Hall
Background: HIV infection is a persistent health concern in the United States, and men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the most affected population. Objective: To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections overall and among MSM. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: National HIV Surveillance System. Participants: Persons aged 13 years and older with diagnosed HIV infection...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
William S Kaufman, Christine S Ahn, William W Huang
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited cutaneous infection in immunocompetent individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals the infection often has an atypical presentation and can be difficult to eradicate, making both the diagnosis and treatment challenging. Due to advancements in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, there is a growing population of immunosuppressed individuals, signaling the need for dermatologists to recognize and manage related skin diseases...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
S E M van Opstal, J S van der Zwan, M N Wagener, S K Been, H S Miedema, P D D M Roelofs, E C M van Gorp
Late diagnosis of HIV remains a major challenge in the HIV epidemic. In Europe, about 50% of all people living with HIV are diagnosed late after infection has occurred. Insight into the reasons for late diagnoses is necessary to increase the number of early diagnoses and optimize treatment options. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 34 late-presenters through in-depth semi-structured interviews. A variety of reasons for late diagnoses emerged from our data and led to a division into four groups, characterized by two dimensions...
March 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Paulina Manyiri, Rodrick Kabangila, Christa Kasang, Martha F Mushi, Mariam M Mirambo, Stephen E Mshana
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with mycobacteremia and mortality among febrile HIV infected patients in developing countries. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among febrile HIV patients admitted at Bugando Medical centre and Sekou Toure hospital between November 2016 and March 2017. Blood culture was done on BACTEC Myco/F Lytic bottles. Clinical and demographic data were collected using pre-tested data collection tool...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Maryam Alfa-Wali, Samantha Muktar, Dimitrios Pissas, Ceri Slater
A 48-year-old man presented as an emergency with a 3-week history of rectal bleeding. Examination of his rectum revealed a circumferential tumour, 2 cm from the anal verge. An MRI scan reported a locally infiltrative mid-lower rectal tumour staged as T3d/T4 N2 MX. A colonoscopy revealed appearances of severe proctitis and biopsies did not show any evidence of dysplasia or malignancy. The patient was discussed at the regional colorectal cancer multidisciplinary team meeting with a management plan for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following repeat biopsies, which were again negative for malignancy...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Stavros Petrou, Danielle Cohen, Peter MacPherson, Felistas Kumwenda, David G Lalloo, Elizabeth L Corbett, Aileen Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Although HIV infection and its associated co-morbidities remain the commonest reason for hospitalisation in Africa, their impact on economic costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are not well understood. This information is essential for decision-makers to make informed choices about how to best scale-up anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programmes. This study aimed to quantify the impact of HIV infection and ART on economic outcomes in a prospective cohort of hospitalised patients with high HIV prevalence...
2018: PloS One
Galateia J Kazakia, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Andrew Lai, Lorenzo Nardo, Luca Facchetti, Courtney Pasco, Chiyuan A Zhang, Misung Han, Amanda Hutton Parrott, Phyllis Tien, Roland Krug
Background: There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
Michael A Irvine, Bernhard P Konrad, Warren Michelow, Robert Balshaw, Mark Gilbert, Daniel Coombs
Increasing HIV testing rates among high-risk groups should lead to increased numbers of cases being detected. Coupled with effective treatment and behavioural change among individuals with detected infection, increased testing should also reduce onward incidence of HIV in the population. However, it can be difficult to predict the strengths of these effects and thus the overall impact of testing. We construct a mathematical model of an ongoing HIV epidemic in a population of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Birgit Grund, Shweta Sharma, Esteban Martinez, Nathan Cummins, Julie Fox, Karin L Klingman, Dalibor Sedlacek, Simon Collins, Patricia M Flynn, William M Chasanov, Eynat Kedem, Christine Katlama, Juan Sierra-Madero, Claudia Afonso, Pim Brouwers, David A Cooper
Background: Randomized trials have shown increased risk of suicidality associated with efavirenz (EFV). The START (Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment) trial randomized treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults with high CD4 cell counts to immediate vs deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: The initial ART regimen was selected prior to randomization (prespecified). We compared the incidence of suicidal and self-injurious behaviours (suicidal behavior) between the immediate vs deferred ART groups using proportional hazards models, separately for those with EFV and other prespecified regimens, by intention to treat, and after censoring participants in the deferred arm at ART initiation...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rebecca B Hershow, Diana S Zuskov, Nguyen Vu Tuyet Mai, Geetanjali Chander, Heidi E Hutton, Carl Latkin, Nguyen Duc Vuong, Teerada Sripaipan, Kathryn E Lancaster, Tran Viet Ha, Vivian F Go
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use, a highly normative behavior in Vietnam that is associated with high rates of HIV infection and lower antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence, has been largely overlooked by HIV prevention efforts. OBJECTIVES: Using the risk environment framework, this qualitative study aims to explore the perceived microenvironmental (community-level) and endogenous (individual-level) barriers and facilitators to alcohol reduction among people living with HIV (PLHIV) with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Vietnam...
March 14, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Julie Franks, Sharon B Mannheimer, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Eleanor Hayes-Larson, Paul W Colson, Hugo Ortega, Wafaa M El-Sadr
INTRODUCTION: Black men who have sex with men and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection, but are more likely to be unaware of their infection or not in care for diagnosed HIV compared to other races. Respondent driven sampling has been advanced as a method to reach stigmatized and hidden populations for HIV testing. We compared strategies to recruit black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women to identify newly diagnosed HIV infection, or those previously diagnosed but not in care...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Nikolaus Ackermann, Durdica Marosevic, Stefan Hörmansdorfer, Ute Eberle, Gabriele Rieder, Bianca Treis, Anja Berger, Heribert Bischoff, Katja Bengs, Regina Konrad, Wolfgang Hautmann, Katharina Schönberger, Anne Belting, Gisela Schlenk, Gabriele Margos, Martin Hoch, Friedrich Pürner, Volker Fingerle, Bernhard Liebl, Andreas Sing
Background and aimAs a consequence of socioeconomic and political crises in many parts of the world, many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries have faced an increasing number of migrants. In the German federal state of Bavaria, a mandatory health screening approach is implemented, where individuals applying for asylum have to undergo a medical examination that includes serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B, screening for tuberculosis, and until September 2015, stool examination for Salmonella spp...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Claire E Kendall, Esther S Shoemaker, Janet Raboud, Amy E Mark, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Ann N Burchell, Mona Loutfy, Sean B Rourke, Clare E Liddy, Ron Rosenes, Timothy Rogers, Tony Antoniou
Timely presentation to care for people newly diagnosed with HIV is critical to optimize health outcomes and reduce onward HIV transmission. Studies describing presentation to care following diagnosis during a hospital admission are lacking. We sought to assess the timeliness of presentation to care and to identify factors associated with delayed presentation. We conducted a population-level study using health administrative databases. Participants were all individuals older than 16 and newly diagnosed with HIV during hospital admission in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015...
March 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Ikram Ul-Haq, Alessia Dalla Pria, Elisa Suardi, David J Pinato, Fieke Froeling, John Forni, Paul Randell, Mark Bower
In HIV-seronegative patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viraemia at diagnosis predicts a worse progression-free survival (PFS), independent of the International Prognostic Score. However, its role in HIV-associated HL is uncharacterised. We collected clinico-pathologic and treatment data from a prospective series of 44 HIV-associated HLs from 2000 to 2016. We evaluated circulating EBV DNA as a prognostic factor on uni- and multivariable analyses in relationship to the International Prognostic Index criteria...
March 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Cong Chen, Tao Yan, Liguo Liu, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major comorbidity in HIV patients as well as a serious co-epidemic. Traditional detection methods are not effective or sensitive for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the early stage. TB has become a major cause of lethal on HIV patients. We employed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to identify the different host responses in HIV-noTB and HIV-TB patients' sera. Given the diversity of HIV subtypes, which results in a variety of host responses in different human populations, we focused on the Chinese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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