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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#1
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814592/fever-and-generalised-lymphadenopathy-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-a-diagnostic-challenge
#2
Bernardo Neves, Pedro Raimundo, Pedro Farinha
Fever and generalised lymphadenopathy is a common presentation of a variety of diseases and a thorough investigation is often necessary for appropriate diagnosis.We present a 53-year-old male patient admitted with fever, weight loss of 15 kg in 3 months and abdominal discomfort. Examination was only remarkable for axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Blood tests showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, cholestasis and a previously unknown HIV-1 infection with lymphocyte CD4 +count of 239 cells/mm(3) and viral load 3...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#3
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813256/parenting-and-hiv
#4
REVIEW
Tamsen Rochat, Elena Netsi, Stephanie Redinger, Alan Stein
With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810475/hiv-symptom-management-self-efficacy-mediates-the-relationship-of-internalized-stigma-and-quality-of-life-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-china
#5
Guangyu Zhou, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou
HIV-related stigma negatively influences quality of life among people living with HIV. Little is known about psychological protective factors that mitigate negative impacts. This study aims to examine the role of self-efficacy in reducing effects of stigma on quality of life. A total of 2987 people living with HIV (age: M = 42.46 years, SD = 12.83; time since diagnosis: M = 3.23 years, SD = 2.39) provided data on internalized stigma, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life, as well as covariates...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808319/ip-10-levels-as-an-accurate-screening-tool-to-detect-acute-hiv-infection-in-resource-limited-settings
#6
Lucía Pastor, Aina Casellas, Jorge Carrillo, Sergi Alonso, Erica Parker, Laura Fuente-Soro, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the period prior to seroconversion characterized by high viral replication, hyper-transmission potential and commonly, non-specific febrile illness. AHI detection requires HIV-RNA viral load (VL) determination, which has very limited access in low-income countries due to restrictive costs and implementation constraints. We sought to identify a biomarker that could enable AHI diagnosis in scarce-resource settings, and to evaluate the feasibility of its implementation. HIV-seronegative adults presenting at the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique, with reported-fever were tested for VL...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807740/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-the-americas
#7
B Crabtree Ramírez, Y Caro Vega, B E Shepherd, C Le, M Turner, C Frola, B Grinsztejn, C Cortes, D Padgett, T R Sterling, C C McGowan, A Person
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is associated with substantial mortality in HIV-infected patients. Optimal timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in persons with CM represents a clinical challenge, and the burden of CM in Latin America has not been well described. Studies suggest that early ART initiation is associated with higher mortality, but data from the Americas are scarce. METHODS: HIV-infected adults in care between 1985-2014 at participating sites in the Latin America (the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet)) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC) and who had CM were included...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807189/effect-of-non-monetary-incentives-on-uptake-of-couples-counselling-and-testing-among-clients-attending-mobile-hiv-services-in-rural-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#8
Euphemia L Sibanda, Mary Tumushime, Juliet Mufuka, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Stephano Gudukeya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Karin Hatzold, Harsha Thirumurthy, Sandra I McCoy, Nancy Padian, Andrew Copas, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Couples' HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is associated with greater engagement with HIV prevention and care than individual testing and is cost-effective, but uptake remains suboptimal. Initiating discussion of CHTC might result in distrust between partners. Offering incentives for CHTC could change the focus of the pre-test discussion. We aimed to determine the impact of incentives for CHTC on uptake of couples testing and HIV case diagnosis in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised trial, 68 rural communities (the clusters) in four districts receiving mobile HIV testing services were randomly assigned (1:1) to incentives for CHTC or not...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806372/exploring-rural-disparities-in-medical-diagnoses-among-veterans-with-transgender-related-diagnoses-utilizing-veterans-health-administration-care
#9
Leigh A Bukowski, John Blosnich, Jillian C Shipherd, Michael R Kauth, George R Brown, Adam J Gordon
OBJECTIVES: Research shows transgender individuals experience pronounced health disparities compared with their nontransgender peers. Yet, there remains insufficient research about health differences within transgender populations. This study seeks to fill this gap by exploring how current urban/rural status is associated with lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder, alcohol dependence disorder, illicit drug abuse disorder, tobacco use, posttraumatic stress disorder, human immunodeficiency virus, and suicidal ideation or attempt among veterans with transgender-related diagnoses...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806198/pre-treatment-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-resistance-in-north-carolina-from-2010-2016
#10
Timothy W Menza, Rachael Billock, Erika Samoff, Joseph J Eron, Ann M Dennis
OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the prevalence of pre-treatment INSTI resistance and assess the transmission networks of those with pre-treatment INSTI resistance. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive patients with genotypic resistance testing sent to a single referral laboratory in North Carolina between 2010 and 2016. METHODS: We linked genotype and public health data for in-care HIV-positive individuals to determine the prevalence of INSTI resistance among treatment-naïve (defined as those with a first genotype ≤3 months after diagnosis) and treatment-experienced (defined as those with a first genotype >3 months after diagnosis) patients...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803888/cancer-risk-in-hiv-infected-people-in-the-usa-from-1996-to-2012-a-population-based-registry-linkage-study
#11
Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, Meredith S Shiels, Robert Dubrow, Eric A Engels
BACKGROUND: Monitoring cancer risk among HIV-infected people in the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era is essential given their elevated risk for many cancers and prolonged survival with immunosuppression, ART exposure, and ageing. We aimed to examine cancer risk in HIV-infected people in the USA as compared with that in the general population. METHODS: We did a registry-linkage study with data from population-based HIV and cancer registries in the USA (the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study)...
August 10, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800923/-squamous-cell-carcinoma-associated-with-use-of-skin-lightening-cream
#12
O Faye, A-A Dicko, S Berthé, L Cissé, B Traoré, A Keita, Y Fofana, K Coulibaly, B Keita
BACKGROUND: Women widely use skin-lightening products for cosmetic purposes in sub-Saharan Africa despite numerous reported cutaneous and systemic complications. The occurrence of epidermoid carcinoma has long been reported, but only three cases have been published so far. We report the first case in Mali. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 30-year old woman with no noteworthy medical history was seen at our outpatient center for cervical ulceration that had been present for the last 5 years...
August 8, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800284/survival-after-hiv-infection-stage-3-aids-diagnosis-by-population-density-areas-united-states-2005-2010
#13
Karin A Bosh, Jing Shi, Mi Chen
OBJECTIVES: We examined the survival rates after diagnosis of HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) in the United States by population density area of residence at diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from the National HIV Surveillance System to calculate survival rates among people aged ≥13 with HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosed from 2005 through 2010. We determined survival rates for more than 12, 24, and 36 months after diagnosis; overall and by demographic characteristics; and across 3 population density area categories (large metropolitan statistical areas [MSAs, ≥500 000 people], small-to-medium MSAs [50 000 to 499 999 people], and nonmetropolitan areas [<50 000 people])...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800008/epstein-barr-virus-infection-can-be-a-secondary-event-in-b-cell-lymphomas-a-review-of-338-cases-and-a-novel-finding-of-zonal-eber-tumor-cells-showing-features-of-progression-from-underlying-ebv-negative-lymphoma
#14
Ira J Miller
Cases of B-cell lymphoma over an 8-year interval with diagnosis of EBER positivity were retrieved from archives and reviewed for classification and pattern of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) expression. Of 46 cases that were EBV early RNA (EBER)+ by in situ hybridization staining, 7 had nonuniform staining among the neoplastic cells. Four of those cases showed a uniform admixture of EBER+ and EBER- tumor cells, compatible with the prevailing theory of episomal EBV loss with cell replication. Three cases of lymphomas showed a partial and zonal pattern and other features suggest that EBV infection occurred after the lymphoma was already established...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799847/the-willingness-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-boston-to-use-a-supervised-injection-facility
#15
Casey León, Lena Cardoso, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased 350% since 2000. In the setting of increasing overdose deaths, one potential intervention is Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs). This study explores willingness of people who inject drugs in Boston to use a SIF and examines factors associated with willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 237 people who inject drugs and utilize Boston's needle exchange program (NEP)...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799825/progress-toward-elimination-of-perinatal-hiv-transmission-in-kenya-analysis-of-early-infant-diagnosis-data
#16
Dunstan Achwoka, Justin Mandala, Mutugi Muriithi, Yanwu Zeng, Mario Chen, Rebecca Dirks, Martin Sirengo, Rose Wafula, Kwasi Torpey
Interrupting vertical transmission of HIV from mothers to infants provides opportunity to transform the HIV/AIDS epidemic by eliminating new infections among children. We estimate mother-to-child transmission rates of infants born to known HIV-positive mothers offered prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions and provide an indication of Kenya's progress toward elimination of perinatal transmission. We obtained from the Kenya National Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) database, all 131,451 DNA polymerase chain reaction test results of HIV-exposed infants aged 0-18 months who had dried blood spot samples taken between January 2008 and October 2013...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799180/accuracy-of-octa-polar-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-total-and-appendicular-body-composition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-comparison-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#17
J A C de Castro, L R A de Lima, D A S Silva
BACKGROUND: Body composition analysis has been used to investigate fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Investigating the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is interesting with respect to testing useful techniques for monitoring body composition in children and adolescents in clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the validity of body composition analysis by BIA compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents an HIV diagnosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798802/prescribed-renoprotective-chinese-herbal-medicines-were-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-all-cause-and-disease-specific-mortality-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-population-based-follow-up-study-in-taiwan
#18
Chuan-Fa Hsieh, Huan-Cheng Chang, Song-Lih Huang, Chien-Lung Chen, Wei-Ta Chen, Chen-Chang Yang
Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) containing aristolochic acid (AA) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some prescribed CHMs have been shown to possess renoprotective effects. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study to delineate the role of prescribed CHMs on the CKD progression. Renoprotective CHM (RPCHM) was defined if a CHM contained dong chong xia cao (Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.), da huang (Rheum palmatum L), huang qi (Astragalus membranaceus), dan shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798771/diagnosis-of-oral-hairy-leukoplakia-the-importance-of-ebv-in-situ-hybridization
#19
Luana L Martins, José Henrique F Rosseto, Natália Silva Andrade, Juliana Bertoldi Franco, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Karem L Ortega
Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which has been related to HIV infection. In situ hybridization (ISH) is the gold-standard diagnosis of OHL, but some authors believe in the possibility of performing the diagnosis based on clinical basis. The aim of this study is diagnose incipient lesions of OHL by EBV ISH of HIV-infected patients and the possible correlations with clinical characteristics of the patients. Ninety-four patients were examined and those presenting with clinical lesions compatible to OHL were submitted to biopsy prior to EBV ISH...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797489/approach-to-fungal-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-pneumocystis-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Richard J Wang, Robert F Miller, Laurence Huang
Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are frequently nonspecific, a high index of suspicion for fungal infection is required for diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in HIV-infected patients frequently depend on the degree of immunosuppression and the CD4(+) helper T cell count...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
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