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Alcohol and enzyme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914133/lobeglitazone-a-novel-thiazolidinedione-improves-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-type-2-diabetes-its-efficacy-and-predictive-factors-related-to-responsiveness
#1
Yong Ho Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, So Ra Kim, Heung Yong Jin, Eun Jung Rhee, Young Min Cho, Byung Wan Lee
Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), few treatment modalities are currently available. We investigated the hepatic effects of the novel thiazolidinedione (TZDs), lobeglitazone (Duvie) in T2D patients with NAFLD. We recruited drug-naïve or metformin-treated T2D patients with NAFLD to conduct a multicenter, prospective, open-label, exploratory clinical trial. Transient liver elastography (Fibroscan®; Echosens, Paris, France) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) was used to non-invasively quantify hepatic fat contents...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909797/wd40-repeat-protein-mocrec-is-essential-for-carbon-repression-and-is-involved-in-conidiation-growth-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#2
Khalid Abdelkarim Omer Matar, Xiaofeng Chen, Dongjie Chen, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Justice Norvienyeku, Yahong Lin, Meilian Chen, Zonghua Wang, Daniel J Ebbole, Guo-Dong Lu
Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a common regulatory mechanism used by microorganisms to prioritize use of a preferred carbon source (usually glucose). The CreC WD40-repeat protein is a major component of the CCR pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. To clarify the function of the CreC ortholog from Magnaporthe oryzae in regulating gene expression important for pathogenesis, MoCreC was identified and genetically characterized. The vegetative growth rate of the MoCreC deletion mutant on various carbon sources was reduced...
December 1, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907862/alteration-of-%C3%AE-n-acetylgalactosaminidase-nagalase-concentration-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-without-liver-disease-during-the-detoxification-therapy
#3
Margarita Zoga, Thomas Nikou, Anastasios Ioannidis, Elias Tzavellas, Thomas Paparrigopoulos, Konstantinos Th Lambrokostopoulos, Vassilis G Vasdekis, Maria Magana, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate for the first time, the alteration of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) concentration in alcohol-dependent individuals without liver disease, before, during and at the end of the detoxification therapy. METHODS: Forty-eight alcohol-dependent individuals without liver disease who were admitted for alcohol detoxification, and eighty-four healthy controls participated in this study. Patients' blood was obtained upon admission, two weeks later and after the completion of the detoxification period (4-5 weeks)...
November 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906494/alcohol-dependent-molecular-adaptations-of-the-nmda-receptor-system
#4
REVIEW
Nadege Morisot, Dorit Ron
Phenotypes such as motivation to consume alcohol, goal-directed alcohol seeking and habit formation contribute to the mechanisms underlying heavy alcohol use. Learning and memory processes greatly contribute to the establishment and maintenance of these behavioral phenotypes. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a driving force of synaptic plasticity, a key cellular hallmark of learning and memory. Here, we describe data in rodents and humans linking signaling molecules that center around the NMDARs and behaviors associated with the development and/or maintenance of alcohol abuse...
December 1, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905606/a-qm-mm-study-of-the-reaction-mechanism-of-human-%C3%AE-ketoacyl-reductase
#5
Fabiola E Medina, Rui P P Neves, Maria J Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes
Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in a wide diversity of biological functions. For instance, it is a precursor of phospholipids and other complex processes such as the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acid. Human FAS is also a component of biological membranes and it is implicated in the overexpression of several types of cancers. In this work, we describe the catalytic mechanism of β-ketoreductase (KR), which is a catalytic domain of the hFAS enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of β-ketoacyl to β-hydroxyacyl with the concomitant oxidation of the NADPH cofactor...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905534/pore-scale-dynamics-of-enzyme-adsorption-swelling-and-reactive-dissolution-determine-sugar-yield-in-hemicellulose-hydrolysis-for-biofuel-production
#6
Sajal Kanti Dutta, Saikat Chakraborty
Hemicelluloses are the earth's second most abundant structural polymers, found in lignocellulosic biomass. Efficient enzymatic depolymerization of xylans by cleaving their β-(1 → 4)-glycosidic bonds to produce soluble sugars is instrumental to the cost-effective production of liquid biofuels. Here we show that the multi-scale two-phase process of enzymatic hydrolysis of amorphous hemicelluloses is dominated by its smallest scale-the pores. In the crucial first five hours, two to fourfold swelling of the xylan particles allow the enzymes to enter the pores and undergo rapid non-equilibrium adsorption on the pore surface before they hydrolyze the solid polymers, albeit non-competitively inhibited by the products xylose and xylobiose...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904391/non-alcoholic-beverages-from-fermented-cereals-with-increased-oligosaccharide-content
#7
Loreta Basinskiene, Grazina Juodeikiene, Daiva Vidmantiene, Maija Tenkanen, Tomas Makaravicius, Elena Bartkiene
The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye) and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)) to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900690/a-microtiter-plate-based-assay-to-screen-for-active-and-stereoselective-hydrolytic-enzymes-in-enzyme-libraries
#8
Dominique Böttcher, Patrick Zägel, Marlen Schmidt, Uwe T Bornscheuer
A procedure for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of esterases is described. This includes a pretest for discrimination of active and inactive clones using an agar plate overlay assay, the enzyme expression in microtiter plates and the measurement of activity and enantioselectivity (E) of the esterase variants using acetates of secondary alcohols as model substrates. Acetic acid released is converted in an enzyme cascade leading to the stoichiometric formation of NADH, which is quantified in a spectrophotometer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899932/a-wheat-cinnamyl-alcohol-dehydrogenase-tacad12-contributes-to-host-resistance-to-the-sharp-eyespot-disease
#9
Wei Rong, Meiying Luo, Tianlei Shan, Xuening Wei, Lipu Du, Huijun Xu, Zengyan Zhang
Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#10
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898047/inhibition-of-urease-by-disulfiram-an-fda-approved-thiol-reagent-used-in-humans
#11
Ángel Gabriel Díaz-Sánchez, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Alejandro Martínez-Martínez, Luis Aguirre-Reyes, Jesica Aline Orozpe-Olvera, Miguel Armando Ramos-Soto, José Alberto Núñez-Gastélum, Bonifacio Alvarado-Tenorio, Laura Alejandra de la Rosa
Urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction that constitutes an important source of nitrogen for bacteria, fungi and plants. It is recognized as a potential antimicrobial target with an impact on medicine, agriculture, and the environment. The list of possible urease inhibitors is continuously increasing, with a special interest in those that interact with and block the flexible active site flap. We show that disulfiram inhibits urease in Citrullus vulgaris (CVU), following a non-competitive mechanism, and may be one of this kind of inhibitors...
November 26, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892783/hen-egg-white-lysozyme-is-a-hidden-allergen-in-italian-commercial-ciders
#12
Federica Mainente, Barbara Simonato, Gabriella Pasini, Cinzia Franchin, Giorgio Arrigoni, Corrado Rizzi
Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) is an enzyme used in alcoholic fermentation for its ability to control the growth of Gram-positive bacteria and spoilage bacteria, without inhibiting yeast growth, and it allows a reduction in the use of sulphur dioxide. Nevertheless, considering the potential allergenicity of this protein, the presence of HEWL should be declared on the label of the final product. In this work, we analysed 18 commercial Italian ciders by LC-MS/MS, and found traces of HEWL in 12 samples without label declaration...
November 28, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891145/contrasting-proteomic-and-metabolomic-responses-of-bermudagrass-to-drought-and-salt-stresses
#13
Tiantian Ye, Haitao Shi, Yanping Wang, Fan Yang, Zhulong Chan
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is one of tolerant grass species to drought and salt. The comparative analyses of bermudagrass in response to drought and salt stresses at the physiological, proteomic, and metabolomic levels were performed in this study. The physiological results indicated that osmolytes accumulation, ROS level and antioxidant enzyme activities were extensively changed by drought and salt stresses. Through comparative proteomic analyses, we successfully identified a total of 77 proteins involved in photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis, and redox metabolic pathways when exposed to drought and salt stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890582/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-perilla-frutescens-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-that-catalyzes-the-later-steps-of-perillaldehyde-biosynthesis
#14
Yumi Fujiwara, Michiho Ito
Perilla produces the cyclohexanoid monoterpene perillaldehyde as a major constituent of an essential oil that is accumulated in its glandular trichomes. Perillaldehyde is a marker compound for quality control of soyo and has biological activities such as antibacterial, sedative, or vasodilatory effects. The predicted perillaldehyde formation involves the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate, hydroxylation, and oxidation, and cytochrome P450 plays a crucial role in perillaldehyde biosynthesis. In this study, a cytochrome P450-type enzyme with perillyl alcohol and perillaldehyde synthase activities was isolated by analyzing an expressed sequence tag library from several oil types of pure lines of perilla...
November 24, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890540/association-of-plasma-calcium-concentrations-with-alcohol-craving-new-data-on-potential-pathways
#15
Rilana Schuster, Anne Koopmann, Martin Grosshans, Iris Reinhard, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer
Recently, calcium was suggested to be the active moiety of acamprosate. We examined plasma calcium concentrations in association with severity of alcohol dependence and its interaction with regulating pathways and alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent patients. 47 inpatient alcohol-dependent patients undergoing detoxification treatment underwent laboratory testing, including calcium, sodium, liver enzymes as well as serum concentrations of calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. The psychometric dimension of craving was analyzed with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)...
November 24, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888422/enzymatic-activities-for-lignin-monomer-intermediates-highlight-the-biosynthetic-pathway-of-syringyl-monomers-in-robinia-pseudoacacia
#16
Jun Shigeto, Yukie Ueda, Shinya Sasaki, Koki Fujita, Yuji Tsutsumi
Most of the known 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) isoforms lack CoA-ligation activity for sinapic acid. Therefore, there is some doubt as to whether sinapic acid contributes to sinapyl alcohol biosynthesis. In this study, we characterized the enzyme activity of a protein mixture extracted from the developing xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia. The crude protein mixture contained at least two 4CLs with sinapic acid 4-CoA ligation activity. The crude enzyme preparation displayed negligible sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but showed ferulic acid 5-hydroxylation activity and 5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase activity; these activities were retained in the presence of competitive substrates (coniferaldehyde and 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde, respectively)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886108/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-trans-%C3%AE-aryl-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-lactones-and-enzymatic-kinetic-resolution-of-their-racemic-mixtures
#17
Andrzej Skrobiszewski, Witold Gładkowski, Gabriela Maciejewska, Czesław Wawrzeńczyk
Two novel and convenient routes to obtain enantiomerically enriched trans-β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a-d with potential antifeedant and anticancer activity were developed. In the first method starting from corresponding enantiomers of γ,δ-unsaturated esters 4a-d derived from enzymatically resolved allyl alcohols 1a-d, both enantiomers of hydroxylactones 5a-d were synthesized with high enantiomeric excesses (73%-97%). Configurations of the stereogenic centers of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on the mechanism of acidic lactonization of esters 4a-d in the presence of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (m-CPBA)...
November 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884109/cloning-functional-expression-and-characterization-of-a-bifunctional-3-hydroxybutanal-dehydrogenase-reductase-involved-in-acetone-metabolism-by-desulfococcus-biacutus
#18
Jasmin Frey, Hendrik Rusche, Bernhard Schink, David Schleheck
BACKGROUND: The strictly anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus can utilize acetone as sole carbon and energy source for growth. Whereas in aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria acetone is activated by carboxylation with CO2 to acetoacetate, D. biacutus involves CO as a cosubstrate for acetone activation through a different, so far unknown pathway. Proteomic studies indicated that, among others, a predicted medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) superfamily, zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (locus tag DebiaDRAFT_04514) is specifically and highly produced during growth with acetone...
November 25, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883174/maximization-of-cell-viability-rather-than-biocatalyst-activity-improves-whole-cell-%C3%AF-oxyfunctionalization-performance
#19
Marvin Kadisch, Mattijs K Julsing, Manfred Schrewe, Nico Jehmlich, Benjamin Scheer, Martin von Bergen, Andreas Schmid, Bruno Bühler
It is a common misconception in whole-cell biocatalysis to refer to an enzyme as the biocatalyst, thereby neglecting the structural and metabolic framework provided by the cell. Here, the low whole-cell biocatalyst stability, that is, the stability of specific biocatalyst activity, in a process for the terminal oxyfunctionalization of renewable fatty acid methyl esters was investigated. This reaction, which is difficult to achieve by chemical means, is catalyzed by Escherichia coli featuring the monooxygenase system AlkBGT and the uptake facilitator AlkL from Pseudomonas putida GPo1...
November 7, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881164/administration-of-anti-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-rankl-antibody-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis-was-associated-with-amelioration-of-hepatitis-in-a-female-patient-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-a-case-report
#20
Ayumu Takeno, Masahiro Yamamoto, Masakazu Notsu, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A recent animal study showed that hepatocyte-specific receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) knockout mice had significantly lower liver fat content compared with control mice concomitant with a decrease in production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from hepatocytes and kupffer cells. The role of anti-RANK ligand (RANKL) antibody for osteoporosis on hepatitis in patients with aGHD is still unknown...
November 24, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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