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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820393/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-omentin-1-hepatic-mrna-expression-and-serum-levels-in-morbidly-obese-women-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
M Waluga, M Kukla, M Zorniak, M Kajor, L Liszka, M Dyaczynski, G Kowalski, D Zadlo, E Waluga, P Olczyk, R J Buldak, A Berdowska, M Hartleb
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and omentin-1 have been recognized as potent antidiabetic agents with potential hepatoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression as well as their serum levels as predictive markers of liver injury and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during the bariatric surgery. Hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while their serum concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817620/gtsp1-expression-in-non-smoker-and-non-drinker-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#2
Pamela de Oliveira Soares, Patrícia Maluf Cury, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Cláudio Roberto Cernea, Erika Erina Fukuyama, David Livingstone Alves Figueiredo, Francisco Gorgonio da Nobrega, Otavio Alberto Curioni, Fabio Daumas Nunes, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Maria Lúcia Bueno Garcia
INTRODUCTION: The main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are tobacco and alcohol consumption and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, in a subset of patients, no risk factors can be identified. Glutathione S-transferase π (GTSP1) is a carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme that is activated by exposure to carcinogens, and it is associated with a reduction in response to toxic therapies. We studied the expression of GTSP1 in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with and without these risks to identify whether GTSP1 expression differs according to exposure to carcinogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817258/synthesis-of-complex-glycolates-by-enantioconvergent-addition-reactions
#3
Samuel L Bartlett, Jeffrey S Johnson
The unique role that stereochemistry plays in molecular recognition events continues to provide a driving force for synthesizing organic compounds in enantioenriched form. The tendency of enantioenriched organic compounds to revert to an entropically favored racemic state in the presence of viable racemization pathways (e.g., the enolization of stereogenic carbonyl derivatives) can sometimes interfere with this objective; however, beginning with Noyori's foundational disclosure of a dynamic kinetic transfer hydrogenation, the ability to channel racemic, configurationally labile starting materials through stereoconvergent reaction pathways has been recognized as a powerful strategy in asymmetric synthesis...
August 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816585/antioxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-akebia-quinata-extracts-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-acute-alcohol-induced-hepatotoxicity
#4
Sang Hoon Lee, Young Sun Song, Yoon Hwa Jeong, Kwang Suk Ko
This study investigated the effects of Akebia quinata (AQ) leaf and fruit extract on acute alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in AML12 cells. Different concentrations of AQ extracts (250 and 2500 μg/mL) were used to treat the AML12 cells with or without ethanol for 24 h for inducing acute alcohol cytotoxicity. AQ extract-treated AML12 cells showed enhanced expression of GSH-synthesizing enzymes and suppressed expression of oxidative stress makers such as NOX4, and decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, inflammatory marker, in acute alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815271/the-prolidase-activity-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-levels-of-bladder-tissues-with-or-without-tumor-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer
#5
İlhan Gecit, Recep Eryılmaz, Servet Kavak, İsmail Meral, Halit Demir, Necip Pirinççi, Mustafa Güneş, Kerem Taken
This study was designed to evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and also prolidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in malignant and benign cancers of bladder tissue. A total of 59 patients admitted to our clinic due to microscopic or macroscopic haematuria, were prospectively included in the study. Because of some reasons (no request to participate in the study, the inability to reach, other malignancies, alcohol consumption, metabolic disease), eight patients were excluded from study...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813159/enhancing-enzyme-activity-and-immobilization-in-nanostructured-inorganic-enzyme-complexes
#6
Xuye Lang, Lingling Zhu, Yingning Gao, Ian Wheeldon
Understanding the chemical and physical interactions at the interface of protein surfaces and inorganic crystals has important implications in the advancement of immobilized enzyme catalysis. Recently, enzyme-inorganic hybrid complexes have been demonstrated as effective materials for enzyme-immobilization. The precipitation of phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of enzymes creates enzyme-Cu3(PO4)2-3H2O particles with high surface-to-volume ratios, enhanced activity, and increased stability. Here, we begin to develop a mechanistic understanding of enzyme loading in such complexes...
August 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812605/experimental-test-and-refutation-of-a-classic-case-of-molecular-adaptation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Mohammad A Siddiq, David W Loehlin, Kristi L Montooth, Joseph W Thornton
Identifying the genetic basis for adaptive differences between species requires explicit tests of historical hypotheses concerning the effects of past changes in gene sequence on molecular function, organismal phenotype and fitness. We address this challenge by combining ancestral protein reconstruction with biochemical experiments and physiological analysis of transgenic animals that carry ancestral genes. We tested a widely held hypothesis of molecular adaptation-that changes in the alcohol dehydrogenase protein (ADH) along the lineage leading to Drosophila melanogaster increased the catalytic activity of the enzyme and thereby contributed to the ethanol tolerance and adaptation of the species to its ethanol-rich ecological niche...
January 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807679/identification-and-characterization-of-5%C3%AE-cyprinol-sulfating-cytosolic-sulfotransferases-sults-in-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Katsuhisa Kurogi, Maki Yoshihama, Austin Horton, Isaac T Schiefer, Matthew D Krasowski, Lee R Hagey, Frederick E Williams, Yoichi Sakakibara, Naoya Kenmochi, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
5α-Cyprinol 27-sulfate is the major biliary bile salt present in cypriniform fish including the zebrafish (Danio rerio). The current study was designed to identify the zebrafish cytosolic sulfotransferase (Sult) enzyme(s) capable of sulfating 5α-cyprinol and to characterize the zebrafish 5α-cyprinol-sulfating Sults in comparison with human SULT2A1. Enzymatic assays using zebrafish homogenates showed 5α-cyprinol-sulfating activity. A systematic analysis, using a panel of recombinant zebrafish Sults, revealed two Sult2 subfamily members, Sult2st2 and Sult2st3, as major 5α-cyprinol-sulfating Sults...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806973/protective-effects-of-orange-citrus-sinensis-l-peel-aqueous-extract-and-hesperidin-on-oxidative-stress-and-peptic-ulcer-induced-by-alcohol-in-rat
#9
Slimen Selmi, Kais Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
BACKGROUND: Massive alcohol drinking can lead to gastric ulcer. In the present study we investigated the gastroprotective effect of Citrus sinensis peel aqueous extract (CSPE) and Hesperidin (H) in ethanol (EtOH) induced oxidative stress and peptic ulcer in rats. METHODS: Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 each: control, EtOH (4 g/kg b.w.), EtOH + various doses of CSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), EtOH + Hesperidin (50 mg/kg, p...
August 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804911/chronic-ethanol-metabolism-inhibits-hepatic-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-via-lysine-acetylation
#10
Mohammed A Assiri, Samantha R Roy, Peter S Harris, Hadi Ali, Yongliang Liang, Colin T Shearn, David J Orlicky, James R Roede, Matthew D Hirschey, Donald S Backos, Kristofer S Fritz
BACKGROUND: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. Oxidative stress is a known consequence of ethanol metabolism and is thought to contribute significantly to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Therefore, elucidating pathways leading to sustained oxidative stress and downstream redox imbalances may reveal how ethanol consumption leads to ALD. Recent studies suggest that ethanol metabolism impacts mitochondrial antioxidant processes through a number of proteomic alterations, including hyperacetylation of key antioxidant proteins...
August 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803132/quantum-chemical-study-of-mechanism-and-stereoselectivity-of-secondary-alcohol-dehydrogenase
#11
Sara Moa, Fahmi Himo
Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter brockii (TbSADH) is a Zn- and NADP-dependent enzyme that catalyses the reversible transformation of secondary alcohols into ketones. It is of potential biocatalytic interest as it can be used in the synthesis of chiral alcohols by asymmetric reduction of ketones. In this paper, density functional theory calculations are employed to elucidate the origins of the enantioselectivity of TbSADH using a large model of the active site and considering two different substrates, 2-butanol and 3-hexanol...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802880/isobutanol-and-2-ketoisovalerate-production-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-via-a-native-pathway
#12
Jinjie Gu, Jidong Zhou, Zhongxi Zhang, Chul Ho Kim, Biao Jiang, Jiping Shi, Jian Hao
Isobutanol is a valuable chemical and is considered a new generation biofuel. Construction of isobutanol synthesis pathways in bacteria is a hot topic in isobutanol production. Here, we show that an isobutanol synthesis pathway exists naturally in Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, this pathway is dormant in the wild-type bacterium. K. pneumoniae is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and the synthesis pathways of 2,3-butanediol, valine and isobutanol all start from condensation of two pyruvate molecules to yield α-acetolactate...
August 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802074/altered-amino-acid-concentrations-in-nafld-impact-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801642/extreme-anoxia-tolerance-in-crucian-carp-and-goldfish-through-neofunctionalization-of-duplicated-genes-creating-a-new-ethanol-producing-pyruvate-decarboxylase-pathway
#14
Cathrine E Fagernes, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Åsmund K Røhr, Michael Berenbrink, Stian Ellefsen, Göran E Nilsson
Without oxygen, most vertebrates die within minutes as they cannot meet cellular energy demands with anaerobic metabolism. However, fish of the genus Carassius (crucian carp and goldfish) have evolved a specialized metabolic system that allows them to survive prolonged periods without oxygen by producing ethanol as their metabolic end-product. Here we show that this has been made possible by the evolution of a pyruvate decarboxylase, analogous to that in brewer's yeast and the first described in vertebrates, in addition to a specialized alcohol dehydrogenase...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799137/ethanol-alters-app-processing-and-aggravates-alzheimer-associated-phenotypes
#15
Daochao Huang, Mengjiao Yu, Shou Yang, Dandan Lou, Weitao Zhou, Lingling Zheng, Zhe Wang, Fang Cai, Weihui Zhou, Tingyu Li, Weihong Song
The majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic with unknown causes. Many dietary factors including excessive alcohol intake have been reported to increase the risk to develop AD. The effect of alcohol on cognitive functions and AD pathogenesis remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ethanol exposure and Alzheimer's disease. Cell cultures were treated with ethanol at different dosages for different durations up to 48 h and an AD model mouse was fed with ethanol for 4 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795696/inducing-high-activity-of-a-thermophilic-enzyme-at-ambient-temperatures-by-directed-evolution
#16
Guangyue Li, Miguel A Maria-Solano, Adrian Romero-Rivera, Sílvia Osuna, Manfred T Reetz
The long-standing problem of achieving high activity of a thermophilic enzyme at low temperatures and short reaction times with little tradeoff in thermostability has been solved by directed evolution, an alcohol dehydrogenase found in hot springs serving as the catalyst in enantioselective ketone reductions.
August 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795319/levofloxacin-is-phytotoxic-and-modifies-the-protein-profile-of-lupin-seedlings
#17
Aleksandra Orzoł, Agnieszka I Piotrowicz-Cieślak
The toxicity of levofloxacin to yellow lupin plants was evaluated in this study. Recommended indexes of plant (roots and shoots) growth were determined and new indexes were proposed which better characterise the phytotoxicity of levofloxacin. These were, in particular, the activity of antioxidative enzymes, the content of free radicals, as well as the root protein content and the root protein profile. The results showed that levofloxacin considerably affected EC50, measured as the activity of catalase in roots, and leaves (1...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794933/biosurfactant-and-enzyme-mediated-crude-oil-degradation-by-pseudomonas-stutzeri-na3-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-mn3
#18
Punniyakotti Parthipan, Punniyakotti Elumalai, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Devaraj Sabarinathan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Giovanni Benelli, Aruliah Rajasekar
The present study focuses on the optimization of biosurfactant (BS) production using two potential biosurfactant producer Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3 and role of enzymes in the biodegradation of crude oil. The optimal conditions for P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 for biodegradation were pH of 8 and 7; temperature of 30 and 40 °C, respectively. P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 produced 3.81 and 4.68 g/L of BS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that BS was mainly composed of fatty acids...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794466/a-family-of-archaea-like-carboxylesterases-preferentially-expressed-in-the-symbiotic-phase-of-the-mychorrizal-fungus-tuber-melanosporum
#19
Davide Cavazzini, Guido Grossi, Elisabetta Levati, Francesca Vallese, Barbara Montanini, Angelo Bolchi, Giuseppe Zanotti, Simone Ottonello
An increasing number of esterases is being revealed by (meta) genomic sequencing projects, but few of them are functionally/structurally characterized, especially enzymes of fungal origin. Starting from a three-member gene family of secreted putative "lipases/esterases" preferentially expressed in the symbiotic phase of the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum ("black truffle"), we show here that these enzymes (TmelEST1-3) are dimeric, heat-resistant carboxylesterases capable of hydrolyzing various short/medium chain p-nitrophenyl esters...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793018/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infection-among-alcoholic-individuals-importance-of-screening-and-vaccination
#20
Vanessa Faria Cortes, Angela Taveira, Helena Medina Cruz, Amanda Alves Reis, Jéssica Silva Cezar, Brener Santos Silva, Cintia Feliciano D'Assunção, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
Drug users have been reported to have an increased risk for acquisition of viral hepatitis. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection and usefulness of saliva for HBsAg and anti-HCV detection in alcoholic patients.A total of 90 alcoholic patients were recruited in 2013. HBsAg and anti-HCV were tested in serum and saliva, anti-HBc and anti-HBs were tested in serum using commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIA).Using serum samples, anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs prevalences were 5...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
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