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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458006/mechanistic-studies-of-formate-oxidase-from-aspergillus-oryzae-a-novel-member-of-the-glucose-methanol-choline-oxidoreductase-enzyme-superfamily-that-oxidizes-carbon-acids
#1
John M Robbins, Andreas S Bommarius, Giovanni Gadda
Formate oxidase (FOX) from Aspergillus oryzae is the only GMC member that oxidizes a carbon acid rather than alcohols; thus, its catalytic mechanism may be different from that of other GMC members. We have used pH, solvent viscosity, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects, to investigate the catalytic mechanism of FOX. The enzyme followed a Bi-Bi sequential steady-state kinetic mechanism. The kcat value was pH-independent between pH 2.8 and 6.8, suggesting lack of ionizable groups in kinetic step(s) that limit the overall turnover of the enzyme...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456458/proteomic-identification-and-characterization-of-hepatic-glyoxalase-1-dysregulation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Christos Spanos, Elaina M Maldonado, Ciarán P Fisher, Petchpailin Leenutaphong, Ernesto Oviedo-Orta, David Windridge, Francisco J Salguero, Alexandra Bermúdez-Fajardo, Mark E Weeks, Caroline Evans, Bernard M Corfe, Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley, Michael H Miller, Huan Wang, John F Dillon, Alberto Quaglia, Anil Dhawan, Emer Fitzpatrick, J Bernadette Moore
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. However, its molecular pathogenesis is incompletely characterized and clinical biomarkers remain scarce. The aims of these experiments were to identify and characterize liver protein alterations in an animal model of early, diet-related, liver injury and to assess novel candidate biomarkers in NAFLD patients. Methods: Liver membrane and cytosolic protein fractions from high fat fed apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/- ) animals were analyzed by quantitative proteomics, utilizing isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with nano-liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS)...
2018: Proteome Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452206/snx10-mediates-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-and-steatosis-via-regulating-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-activation
#3
Yan You, Wan-Zhen Li, Sulin Zhang, Bin Hu, Yue-Xuan Li, Hai-Dong Li, Huan-Huan Tang, Qian-Wen Li, Yun-Yun Guan, Li-Xin Liu, Wei-Lian Bao, Xiaoyan Shen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the cellular defense mechanisms underlying ALD are not well understood. Recent studies highlight the involvement of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. Sorting nexin (SNX) 10 has a regulatory function in endo-lysosomal trafficking and stabilization. Here we investigated the roles of SNX10 in CMA activation and the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452130/magnetic-combined-cross-linked-enzyme-aggregates-combi-cleas-for-cofactor-regeneration-in-the-synthesis-of-chiral-alcohol
#4
Erzheng Su, Yang Meng, Chenxi Ning, Xiaoqiang Ma, Senwen Deng
Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared and embedded into the Combi-CLEAs to produce the magnetic Combi-CLEAs in this work. The process for magnetic Combi-CLEAs preparation was optimized, and its properties were investigated. The optimum temperature, thermal stability and optimum pH of magnetic Combi-CLEAs were similar to those of Combi-CLEAs. The catalytic performance of magnetic Combi-CLEAs was tested with the biosynthesis of (S)-ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate ((S)-CHBE). Magnetic Combi-CLEAs could tolerate higher substrate concentration in the biphasic system...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449533/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-severity-is-modulated-by-transglutaminase-type-2
#5
Mauro Piacentini, Andrea Baiocchini, Franca Del Nonno, Gerry Melino, Nickolai A Barlev, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Laura Falasca
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important liver diseases worldwide. Currently, no effective treatment is available, and NAFLD pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous enzyme whose dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Here we examined the impact of TG2 on NAFLD progression using the high-fat-diet-induced model in both wild-type and TG2-deficient mice. Animals were fed with a standard chow diet or a high-fat diet (42% of the energy from fat) for 16 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445375/the-role-of-cytochromes-p450-in-infection
#6
REVIEW
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Cytochromes are expressed in many different tissues of the human body. They are found mostly in intestinal and hepatic tissues. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes that oxidize substances using iron and are able to metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. CYP enzymes are linked to a wide array of reactions including and O-dealkylation, S-oxidation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. The activity of the typical P450 cytochrome is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genus, environment, disease state, herbicide, alcohol, and herbal medications...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438919/perspectives-for-the-microbial-production-of-methyl-propionate-integrated-with-product-recovery
#7
Joana P C Pereira, Luuk A M van der Wielen, Adrie J J Straathof
A new approach was studied for bio-based production of methyl propionate, a precursor of methyl methacrylate. Recombinant E. coli cells were used to perform a cascade reaction in which 2-butanol is reduced to butanone using alcohol dehydrogenase, and butanone is oxidized to methyl propionate and ethyl acetate using a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO). Product was removed by in situ stripping. The conversion was in line with a model comprising product formation and stripping kinetics. The maximum conversion rates were 1...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434690/changes-in-inflammatory-factors-and-prognosis-of-patients-complicated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#8
Lei Wang, Yuanming Li, Xiaojin Gong
This study was designed to assess the relationship between changes in peripheral inflammatory factors of patients complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) before and after operation, and their prognosis. A total of 68 patients with stable angina pectoris treated in Xinjiang Hospital who underwent CABG at some point between August of 2013 and August of 2015 were enrolled in the study, and divided into the NAFLD group (n=31) and the non-NAFLD group (n=37) according to the presence of the condition or its absence...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433191/enhanced-arginine-biosynthesis-and-lower-proteolytic-profile-as-indicators-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-stress-in-stationary-phase-during-fermentation-of-high-sugar-grape-must-a-proteomic-evidence
#9
Olta Noti, Enrico Vaudano, Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Cristina Lamberti, Laura Cavallarin, Emilia Garcia-Moruno, Enrica Pessione
A strain of Saccharomyces (S) cerevisiae (ISE19), which displayed an initial good adaptation to a high sugar medium with increased acetate and glycerol production but weak overall growth/fermentation performances, was selected during the alcoholic fermentation of Cortese grape must. To obtain insights into the metabolic changes that occur in the must during growth in particular conditions (high ethanol, high residual sugars and low nitrogen availability) leading to a sluggish fermentation or even fermentation arrest, comparative in-gel proteomic analyses were performed on cells grown in media containing 200g/L and 260g/L of glucose, respectively, while the YAN (Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen) concentration was maintained as it was...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431726/immobilization-of-laccase-onto-porous-polyvinyl-alcohol-halloysite-hybrid-beads-for-dye-removal
#10
Cong Chao, Huijuan Guan, Jun Zhang, Yang Liu, Yafei Zhao, Bing Zhang
Laccase was immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol beads containing halloysite nanotubes (PVA/HNTs) to improve the stability and reusability of enzyme. The porous structure of PVA/HNTs beads facilitates the entrapment of enzyme and prevents the leaching of immobilized laccase as well. Halloysite nanotubes act as bridge to connect the adjacent pores, facilitating the electron transfer and enhancing the mechanical properties. PVA/HNTs beads have high laccase immobilization capacity (237.02 mg/g) and activity recovery yield (79...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431526/the-potential-role-of-statins-in-treating-liver-disease
#11
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Anastasia Skalkou, Ioanna Zografou, Vasilios G Athyros
Statins are commonly use for the management of dyslipidemia, worldwide. Various studies have demonstrated that statins offer significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, this class of drugs has been implicated in potential liver toxicity, thus has been considered as a "forbidden-drug" in patients with increased liver enzymes. Areas covered: Studies have shown that statins might offer clinical benefits in the setting of viral hepatitis, progression of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431026/the-potential-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-cardiovascular-disease
#12
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) plays a major role in the ethanol detoxification pathway by removing acetaldehyde. Therefore, ALDH-2 inhibitors such as disulfiram represent the first therapeutic targeting of ALDH-2 for alcoholism therapy. Areas covered: Recently, ALDH-2 was identified as an essential bioactivating enzyme of the anti-ischemic organic nitrate nitroglycerin, bringing ALDH-2 again into the focus of clinical interest. Mechanistic studies on the nitroglycerin bioactivation process revealed that during bioconversion of nitroglycerin and in the presence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species the active site thiols of ALDH-2 are oxidized and the enzyme activity is lost...
February 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430381/characterization-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-family-78-%C3%AE-l-rhamnosidase-from-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-vpi-5482-and-identification-of-functional-residues
#13
Binchun Li, Yaru Ji, Yanqin Li, Guobin Ding
A putative glycoside hydrolase family 78 α-l-rhamnosidase BtRha78A from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzymatic properties of recombinant BtRha78A were characterized in detail. Recombinant BtRha78A might efficiently hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside. BtRha78A displayed the highest activity at 60 °C in pH 6.5. BtRha78A exhibited a good pH stability and relatively high thermostability. BtRha78A could be tolerant of a low concentration of alcohols...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430348/purification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-an-extracellular-%C3%AE-d-fructofuranosidase-from-aspergillus-sp
#14
Lynette Lincoln, Sunil S More
This study focused on the purification and characterization of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase or invertase from Aspergillus sojae JU12. The protein was purified by size exclusion chromatography with 5.41 fold and 10.87% recovery. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be ~ 35 kDa using SDS-PAGE and confirmed by deconvoluted mass spectrometry. The fungal β-d-fructofuranosidase was suggested to be a monomer by native PAGE and zymography, and was found to be a glycoprotein possessing 68...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429140/comparison-of-fecal-preservation-and-extraction-methods-for-steroid-hormone-metabolite-analysis-in-wild-crested-macaques
#15
Gholib Gholib, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Iman Supriatna, Bambang Purwantara, Taufiq Purna Nugraha, Antje Engelhardt
Since the non-invasive field endocrinology techniques were developed, several fecal preservation and extraction methods have been established for a variety of species. However, direct adaptation of methods from previous studies for use in crested macaques should be taken with caution. We conducted an experiment to assess the accuracy and stability of fecal estrogen metabolite (E1C) and glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) concentrations in response to several preservation parameters: (1) time lag between sample collection and fecal preservation; (2) long-term storage of fecal samples in 80% methanol (MeOH) at ambient temperature; (3) different degrees of feces drying temperature using a conventional oven; and (4) different fecal preservation techniques (i...
February 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426908/temozolomide-perillyl-alcohol-conjugate%C3%A2-downregulates-o6-methylguanin-dna-methltransferase-via-inducing-ubiquitination-dependent-proteolysis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Xingguo Song, Li Xie, Minghui Chang, Xinran Geng, Xingwu Wang, Thomas C Chen, Xianrang Song
The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanin-DNA-methltransferase (MGMT) is able to remove products of alkylating agent such as O6-meG and emerges as a central determinant of cancer resistance to temozolomide (TMZ). Temozolomide-perillyl alcohol conjugate (TMZ-POH), a novel TMZ analog developed based on the conjugation of TMZ and POH, displayed strong anticancer potency in multiple cancer types, but seemed not to experience the chemoresistance even in cells with high MGMT expression unlike TMZ and other alkylating agents...
February 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424931/calcium-signalling-in-the-acinar-environment-of-the-exocrine-pancreas-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#17
Oleksiy Gryshchenko, Julia V Gerasimenko, Shuang Peng, Oleg V Gerasimenko, Ole H Petersen
Physiological Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells control fluid and enzyme secretion, whereas excessive Ca 2+ signals induced by pathological agents induce destructive processes leading to acute pancreatitis. Ca 2+ signals in the peri-acinar stellate cells may also play a role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In this study, we have explored Ca 2+ signalling in the different cell types to be found in the acinar environment of the pancreatic tissue. We have, for the first time, recorded depolarization-evoked Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic nerves and shown that whereas acinar cells receive a functional cholinergic innervation, there is no evidence for functional innervation of the stellate cells...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422050/improved-fatty-aldehyde-and-wax-ester-production-by-overexpression-of-fatty-acyl-coa-reductases
#18
Tapio Lehtinen, Elena Efimova, Suvi Santala, Ville Santala
BACKGROUND: Fatty aldehydes are industrially relevant compounds, which also represent a common metabolic intermediate in the microbial synthesis of various oleochemicals, including alkanes, fatty alcohols and wax esters. The key enzymes in biological fatty aldehyde production are the fatty acyl-CoA/ACP reductases (FARs) which reduce the activated acyl molecules to fatty aldehydes. Due to the disparity of FARs, identification and in vivo characterization of reductases with different properties are needed for the construction of tailored synthetic pathways for the production of various compounds...
February 8, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421745/enhanced-generation-of-perfluoroalkyl-carboxylic-acids-pfcas-from-fluorotelomer-alcohols-ftohs-via-ammonia-oxidation-process
#19
Xiaolong Yu, Fumitake Nishimura, Taira Hidaka
With the phase-out of persistent, bioaccumalative, and toxic perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), it is needed to explore the potential release of PFCAs from precursors being emitted into the environment. Biotransformation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) via biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to discharge of PFCAs into receiving waters. However, the commonly existed microbial activity that can impact on FTOHs biodegradation in WWTPs remains unclear. The objective of present research was to explore the relationship between ammonia-oxidation process and the enhanced PFCAs generation from FTOHs biodegradation under aerobic activated sludge...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420618/recombinant-expression-purification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-kievitone-hydratase-from-nectria-haematococca
#20
Matthias Engleder, Melissa Horvat, Anita Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Tamara Wriessnegger, Stefanie Gabriel, Gernot Strohmeier, Hansjörg Weber, Monika Müller, Iwona Kaluzna, Daniel Mink, Martin Schürmann, Harald Pichler
Kievitone hydratase catalyzes the addition of water to the double bond of the prenyl moiety of plant isoflavonoid kievitone and, thereby, forms the tertiary alcohol hydroxy-kievitone. In nature, this conversion is associated with a defense mechanism of fungal pathogens against phytoalexins generated by host plants after infection. As of today, a gene sequence coding for kievitone hydratase activity has only been identified and characterized in Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Here, we report on the identification of a putative kievitone hydratase sequence in Nectria haematococca (NhKHS), the teleomorph state of F...
2018: PloS One
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