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Alcohol and enzyme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022160/a-catalyst-from-burkholderia-cenocepacia-for-efficient-anti-prelog-s-bioreduction-of-3-5-bis-trifluoromethyl-acetophenone
#1
Songzhu Yu, Hongxia Li, Yan Lu, Guojun Zheng
(R)-3, 5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl ethanol is a key chiral intermediate for the synthesis of aprepitant. Through a genome mining approach, an NADPH-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases derived from Burkholderia cenocepacia (Bc-SDR) was discovered with excellent anti-Prelog's stereoselectivity of reducing 3, 5-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone. The enzyme with 247 amino acids was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and the molecular weight was about 26 kDa. Optimization of reaction conditions showed that the optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 25 °C and pH 7...
October 12, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021826/co-production-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxyprogesterone-and-ethanol-using-recombinant-yeast-expressing-fungal-steroid-hydroxylases
#2
Claire M Hull, Andrew G S Warrilow, Nicola J Rolley, Claire L Price, Iain S Donnison, Diane E Kelly, Steven L Kelly
BACKGROUND: Bioethanol production from sustainable sources of biomass that limit effect on food production are needed and in a biorefinery approach co-products are desirable, obtained from both the plant material and from the microbial biomass. Fungal biotransformation of steroids was among the first industrial biotransformations allowing corticosteroid production. In this work, the potential of yeast to produce intermediates needed in corticosteroid production is demonstrated at laboratory scale following bioethanol production from perennial ryegrass juice...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021453/severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-effectively-treated-with-vitamin-e-as-an-add-on-to-corticosteroids
#3
Yuichi Miyashima, Michihiko Shibata, Yuichi Honma, Hidehiko Matsuoka, Masaaki Hiura, Shintaro Abe, Masaru Harada
A 49-year-old woman with a history of heavy alcohol drinking was admitted to our hospital due to jaundice and abdominal distention. A blood test showed leukophilia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatobiliary injury and coagulopathy. Image studies showed an extremely enlarged fatty liver and splenomegaly. The Japan alcoholic hepatitis score and Maddrey's discriminant function were 10 and 54 points, respectively. We diagnosed her with severe alcoholic hepatitis and treated her with corticosteroids, but her liver function did not improve...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020412/emerging-role-of-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-enrichment-on-%C3%AE-containing-gabaa-receptor-expression-in-the-cerebellum-of-subjects-with-alcohol-use-disorders-aud
#4
Eleonora Gatta, James Auta, David P Gavin, Dulal K Bhaumik, Dennis R Grayson, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Cerebellum is an area of the brain particularly sensitive to the effects of acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Alcohol exposure decreases cerebellar Purkinje cell output by increasing GABA release from Golgi cells onto extrasynaptic α6/δ-containing GABAA receptors located on glutamatergic granule cells. Here, we studied whether chronic alcohol consumption induces changes in GABAA receptor subunit expression and whether these changes are associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms via DNA methylation...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020051/a-combination-of-plasma-phospholipid-fatty-acids-and-its-association-with-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-the-epic-interact-case-cohort-study
#5
Fumiaki Imamura, Stephen J Sharp, Albert Koulman, Matthias B Schulze, Janine Kröger, Julian L Griffin, José M Huerta, Marcela Guevara, Ivonne Sluijs, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Beverley Balkau, Heiner Boeing, Veronique Chajes, Christina C Dahm, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Edith J M Feskens, Paul W Franks, Diana Gavrila, Marc Gunter, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Tilman Kühn, Olle Melander, Elena Molina-Portillo, Peter M Nilsson, Anja Olsen, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Olov Rolandsson, Sabina Sieri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Nadia Slimani, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjønneland, Rosario Tumino, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Claudia Langenberg, Elio Riboli, Nita G Forouhi, Nick J Wareham
BACKGROUND: Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019564/the-impact-of-the-use-of-symbiotics-in-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-rat-model
#6
Eliane Tagliari, Antonio Carlos Campos, Thais Andrade Costa-Casagrande, Paolo Rogério Salvalaggio
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of intrahepatic lipid. The use of live microorganisms promotes beneficial effects; however, the use of symbiotic and its role in NAFLD is not yet fully understood. AIM: Verify if the symbiotic administration influences the occurrence and progression of NAFLD in rats, after induction of hepatic steatosis by high calorie diet. METHOD: Forty-five rats were divided into four groups: G1 (control); G2 (control+symbiotic); G3 (high calorie+symbiotic) and G4 (high calorie), and euthanized after 60 days of diet...
July 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018449/mechanisms-cofactors-and-augmenting-factors-involved-in-anaphylaxis
#7
REVIEW
Rosa Muñoz-Cano, Mariona Pascal, Giovanna Araujo, M J Goikoetxea, Antonio L Valero, Cesar Picado, Joan Bartra
Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening systemic reaction. Many triggers have been described, including food, drug, and hymenoptera allergens, which are the most frequently involved. The mechanisms described in anaphylactic reactions are complex and implicate a diversity of pathways. Some of these mechanisms may be key to the development of the anaphylactic reaction, while others may only modify its severity. Although specific IgE, mast cells, and basophils are considered the principal players in anaphylaxis, alternative mechanisms have been proposed in non-IgE anaphylactic reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017767/inducible-nad-h-linked-methylglyoxal-oxidoreductase-regulates-cellular-methylglyoxal-and-pyruvate-through-enhanced-activities-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-and-methylglyoxal-oxidizing-enzymes-in-glutathione-depleted-candida-albicans
#8
Min-Kyu Kwak, MyungHee Ku, Sa-Ouk Kang
BACKGROUND: High methylglyoxal content disrupts cell physiology, but mammals have scavengers to prevent glycolytic and mitochondrial dysfunctions. In yeast, methylglyoxal accumulation triggers methylglyoxal-oxidizing alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) activity. While methylglyoxal reductases and glyoxalases have been well studied in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, experimental evidence for methylglyoxal dehydrogenase (Mgd) and other catalytic activities of this enzyme affecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle is lacking...
October 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016726/genetic-polymorphisms-of-alcohol-metabolizing-enzymes-and-alcohol-consumption-are-associated-with-asymptomatic-cardiac-remodeling-and-subclinical-systolic-dysfunction-in-large-community-dwelling-asians
#9
Chung-Lieh Hung, Shun-Chuan Chang, Sheng-Hsiung Chang, Po-Ching Chi, Yu-Jun Lai, Shih-Wei Wang, Yih-Jer Wu, Hung-I Yeh, Shing-Jong Lin, Che-Hong Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Li-Yu Wang
Aims: Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cardiac remodeling and cardiomyopathy. We examined the possible association of alcohol use, common Asian genetic variants in genes involved in alcohol metabolism, and cardiac structures/functions alterations. Methods: A prospective, community-dwelling survey among individuals with available complete echocardiography examined the associations of alcohol use, cardiac structure/functions, and three common alcohol metabolizing genetic variants, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1)...
August 31, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991837/serum-osteocalcin-levels-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Saleh Amin, Doaa El Amrousy, Shaymaa Elrifaey, Rasha Gamal, Hossam Hodeib
OBJECTIVES: to investigate the relationship between osteocalcin and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. METHOD: 60 obese children with NAFLD were taken as patient group and 60 non - NAFLD children with matches age, sex and BMI were taken as control group. Anthropometric measurements, abdominal ultrasonography for diagnosis and grading of NAFLD, and laboratory investigations in the form of liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting serum glucose and insulin, and serum osteocalcin levels were done for all children...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989700/toxicological-implications-of-mitochondrial-localization-of-cyp2e1
#11
Jessica H Hartman, Grover P Miller, Joel N Meyer
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes an extensive array of pollutants, drugs, and other small molecules, often resulting in bioactivation to reactive metabolites. Therefore, it is unsurprising that it has been the subject of decades of research publications and reviews. However, while CYP2E1 has historically been studied in the endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1), active CYP2E1 is also present in mitochondria (mtCYP2E1). Relatively few studies have specifically focused on mtCYP2E1, but there is growing interest in this form of the enzyme as a driver in toxicological mechanisms given its activity and location...
2017: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986983/enzymatic-synthesis-of-chiral-amino-alcohols-by-coupling-transketolase-and-transaminase-catalyzed-reactions-in-a-cascading-continuous-flow-microreactor-system
#12
Pia Gruber, Filipe Carvalho, Marco P C Marques, Brian O'Sullivan, Fabiana Subrizi, Dragana Dobrijevic, John Ward, Helen C Hailes, Pedro Fernandes, Roland Wohlgemuth, Frank Baganz, Nicolas Szita
Rapid biocatalytic process development and intensification continues to be challenging with currently available methods. Chiral amino-alcohols are of particular interest as they represent key industrial synthons for the production of complex molecules and optically pure pharmaceuticals. (2S,3R)-2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol (ABT), a building block for the synthesis of protease inhibitors and detoxifying agents, can be synthesized from simple, non-chiral starting materials, by coupling a transketolase- and a transaminase-catalyzed reaction...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986331/expressional-divergences-of-two-desaturase-genes-determine-the-opposite-ratios-of-two-sex-pheromone-components-in-helicoverpa-armigera-and-helicoverpa-assulta
#13
Rui-Ting Li, Chao Ning, Ling-Qiao Huang, Jun-Feng Dong, Xianchun Li, Chen-Zhu Wang
The sympatric closely related species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use 97:3 and 7:93 of (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal, respectively, as their sex pheromone to find/locate correct sex mates. Moreover, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl alcohol and (Z)-9-hexadecenyl alcohol are more abundant in the pheromone gland of H. assulta than in that of H. armigera. To clarify the molecular basis of these differences, we sequenced the pheromone gland transcriptomes of the two species and compared the expression patterns of the candidate enzyme genes involved in the pheromone biosynthetic pathways by FPKM values and quantitative RT-PCR analysis...
October 3, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985219/the-ins-and-outs-of-vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-identification-of-ligand-migration-paths
#14
Gudrun Gygli, Maria Fátima Lucas, Victor Guallar, Willem J H van Berkel
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) is a homooctameric flavoenzyme belonging to the VAO/PCMH family. Each VAO subunit consists of two domains, the FAD-binding and the cap domain. VAO catalyses, among other reactions, the two-step conversion of p-creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol) to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). To elucidate how different ligands enter and exit the secluded active site, Monte Carlo based simulations have been performed. One entry/exit path via the subunit interface and two additional exit paths have been identified for phenolic ligands, all leading to the si side of FAD...
October 6, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982012/competition-between-ethanol-clearance-and-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-induction-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#15
Yehuda Shabtai, Abraham Fainsod
Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes...
October 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981243/-treatments-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#16
T Gustot
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases are highly prevalent in Western countries and associated with insulin resitance and metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning, and may be associated with liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and its complications as hepatocarcinoma. The presence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus or increased liver enzymes in patients with metabolic syndrome should prompt non-invasive screening (liver ultrasound, serum markers and/or transient elastography) to predict steatosis, NASH and fibrosis...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980219/persistent-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-fatty-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Andrea L Deierlein, Sarah Rock, Sally Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prominent chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting approximately 25% of the population worldwide. Sex-specific differences in the development of NAFLD are apparent. While obesity and insulin resistance are major contributors to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, a growing body of literature suggests that exposure to persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals (pEDCs) may also play a role. This review summarizes recent (2011 and later) scientific literature investigating exposures to pEDCs, specifically persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and NAFLD, with a focus on sex-specific associations...
October 4, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980151/epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-ctx
#18
REVIEW
Gerald Salen, Robert D Steiner
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of bile acid synthesis caused by mutations in the cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 gene that result in production of a defective sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme. CTX is associated with abnormally high levels of cholestanol in the blood and accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in the brain, tendon xanthomas, and bile. Hallmark clinical manifestations of CTX include chronic diarrhea, bilateral cataracts, tendon xanthomas, and neurologic dysfunction...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978312/enhanced-ethanol-formation-by-clostridium-thermocellum-via-pyruvate-decarboxylase
#19
Liang Tian, Skyler J Perot, Shuen Hon, Jilai Zhou, Xiaoyu Liang, Jason T Bouvier, Adam M Guss, Daniel G Olson, Lee R Lynd
BACKGROUND: Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is a well-known pathway for ethanol production, but has not been demonstrated for high titer ethanol production at temperatures above 50 °C. RESULT: Here we examined the thermostability of eight PDCs. The purified bacterial enzymes retained 20% of activity after incubation for 30 min at 55 °C. Expression of these PDC genes, except the one from Zymomonas mobilis, improved ethanol production by Clostridium thermocellum...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976245/green-enzymatic-production-of-glyceryl-monoundecylenate-using-immobilized-candida-antarctica-lipase-b
#20
Manish G Yadav, Monali R Kavadia, Rajeshkumar N Vadgama, Annamma A Odaneth, Arvind M Lali
Enzymatic synthesis of GMU was carried out using indigenously immobilized Candida anatarctica lipase B preparation (named as PyCal) using glycerol and undecylenic acid as substrates. Effect of molar ratio, enzyme load, reaction time, and organic solvent on the reaction conversion was determined. Both batch and continuous processes for GMU synthesis with shortened reaction time were developed. Under optimized batch reaction conditions such as 1:5 molar ratio of undecylenic acid and glycerol, 2 h reaction time at 30% substrate concentration in tert butyl alcohol, conversion of 82% in absence of molecular sieve and conversion of 93% in presence of molecular sieve was achieved...
October 4, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
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