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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640600/horse-liver-alcohol-dehydrogenase-zinc-coordination-and-catalysis
#1
Bryce V Plapp, Baskar Raj Savarimuthu, Daniel J Ferraro, Jon K Rubach, Eric N Brown, Subramanian Ramaswamy
: During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism may involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1 and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. Apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174 and a water molecule...
June 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636366/oxygenation-via-c-h-c-c-bond-activation-with-molecular-oxygen
#2
Yu-Feng Liang, Ning Jiao
The selective oxidation of organic molecules is a fundamentally important component of modern synthetic chemistry. In the past decades, direct oxidative C-H and C-C bond functionalization has proved to be one of the most efficient and straightforward methods to synthesize complex products from simple and readily available starting materials. Among these oxidative processes, the use of molecular oxygen as a green and sustainable oxidant has attracted considerable attention because of its highly atom-economical, abundant, and environmentally friendly characteristics...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633318/evaluation-of-oral-fluid-as-a-specimen-for-duid
#3
Allison M Veitenheimer, Jarrad R Wagner
Drugged driving has become more prevalent than drunk driving and is quickly gaining national attention due to increased prescription drug abuse and recent cannabis legalization. Unlike alcohol, police officers do not generally have access to approved devices to screen for drugs at the roadside. Onsite drug screening devices do exist and are used in other countries, but have not garnered widespread approval for use in the United States in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases. One reason for this is that the devices are designed to test oral fluid, which is not a commonly accepted specimen for DUID...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630316/recombinant-silicateins-as-model-biocatalysts-in-organosiloxane-chemistry
#4
S Yasin Tabatabaei Dakhili, Stephanie A Caslin, Abayomi S Faponle, Peter Quayle, Sam P de Visser, Lu Shin Wong
The family of silicatein enzymes from marine sponges (phylum Porifera) is unique in nature for catalyzing the formation of inorganic silica structures, which the organisms incorporate into their skeleton. However, the synthesis of organosiloxanes catalyzed by these enzymes has thus far remained largely unexplored. To investigate the reactivity of these enzymes in relation to this important class of compounds, their catalysis of Si-O bond hydrolysis and condensation was investigated with a range of model organosilanols and silyl ethers...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629367/african-american-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-expression-profile-reveals-dysregulation-of-stress-response-and-detox-networks
#5
Hayriye Verda Erkizan, Kory Johnson, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Deepa Karkera, Gregory Trachiotis, Houtan Adib, Eric P Hoffman, Robert G Wadleigh
BACKGROUND: Esophageal carcinoma is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy worldwide and is largely unresponsive to therapy. African-Americans have an increased risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the subtype that shows marked variation in geographic frequency. The molecular architecture of African-American ESCC is still poorly understood. It is unclear why African-American ESCC is more aggressive and the survival rate in these patients is worse than those of other ethnic groups...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628786/btex-and-naphthalene-degrading-bacterium-microbacterium-esteraromaticum-strain-sbs1-7-isolated-from-estuarine-sediment
#6
Akanit Wongbunmak, Sansanee Khiawjan, Manop Suphantharika, Thunyarat Pongtharangkul
In this study, a non-pathogenic, BTEX-degrading Microbacterium esteraromaticum SBS1-7 was isolated from estuarine sediment in Thailand via an enrichment technique. M. esteraromaticum SBS1-7 was able to degrade all six BTEX components, in both liquid medium and soil slurry system, when BTEX was supplied as an individual component or a mixture. It exhibited a high level of tolerance towards a wide range of hydrocarbons and also utilized alkanes and naphthalene. Detection of metabolites produced during BTEX and naphthalene degradation revealed highly extensive biodegradation pathways used by M...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628674/hepatic-microvascular-dysfunction-and-increased-advanced-glycation-end-products-are-components-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva Pereira, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita Flores, Karine Lino Rodrigues, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Igor José da Silva, Marcelo Pelajo Machado, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Cassiano F Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibiriça, Anissa Daliry
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626835/disrupted-er-to-golgi-trafficking-underlies-anti-hiv-drugs-and-alcohol-induced-cellular-stress-and-hepatic-injury
#8
Hui Han, Yuxin He, Jay Hu, Rhema Lau, Harrison Lee, Cheng Ji
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs and alcohol-induced liver disease in a significant number of patients infected with HIV. However, the precise mechanism by which the drugs and alcohol cause ER stress remains elusive. We found that ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (RL) activated two canonical UPR branches without activation of the third canonical activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) branch in either HepG2 cells or primary mouse hepatocytes...
April 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621383/peach-and-cherry-agroindustrial-wastes-new-and-economic-sources-for-the-production-of-lignocellulolytic-enzymes
#9
Merve Akpinar, Raziye Urek
Pleurotus eryngii was incubated on both peach and cherry agroindustrial wastes by solid state fermentation for 30 days without/with pretreatment conditions. The lignocellulosic substrates were pretreated with dilute acid and alkaline solutions, hot water before incubation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and xylanase activities peaked on 3rd and 5th days under control conditions of both wastes, respectively. The highest laccase and manganese peroxidase activities reached to their maximum on 17th day as 2193...
June 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620249/comparison-of-surti-goat-milk-with-cow-and-buffalo-milk-for-physicochemical-characteristics-selected-processing-related-parameters-and-activity-of-selected-enzymes
#10
Darshna B Prajapati, Dharti B Kapadiya, Amit Kumar Jain, Bhavbhuti M Mehta, Vijaykumar B Darji, Kishorkumar D Aparnathi
AIM: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618204/bacterial-weathering-of-fossil-organic-matter-and-organic-carbon-mobilization-from-subterrestrial-kupferschiefer-black-shale-long-term-laboratory-studies
#11
Robert Stasiuk, Agnieszka Włodarczyk, Przemysław Karcz, Marcin Janas, Aleksandra Skłodowska, Renata Matlakowska
A large part of the organic carbon present in the lithosphere is trapped in fossil organic matter deposited in sedimentary rocks. Only specialized microorganisms are able to degrade it contributing to the return of the carbon to the global cycle. The role of bacteria in this process is not yet completely understood. In the present laboratory studies, subterrestrial organic-rich ∼256-million-year-old Kupferschiefer black shale was exposed to the activity of an indigenous consortium of lithobiontic bacteria for 365 days under aerobic conditions...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615690/cathepsin-d-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-murine-steatohepatitis
#12
Tom Houben, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Tim Hendrikx, Albert V Bitorina, Sofie M A Walenbergh, Patrick J van Gorp, Marion J J Gijbels, Silvia Friedrichs, Jogchum Plat, Frank G Schaap, Dieter Lütjohann, Marten H Hofker, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
Due to the obesity epidemic, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a prevalent liver disease, characterized by fat accumulation and inflammation of the liver. However, due to a lack of mechanistic insight, diagnostic and therapeutic options for NASH are poor. Recent evidence has indicated cathepsin D (CTSD), a lysosomal enzyme, as a marker for NASH. Here, we investigated the function of CTSD in NASH by using an in vivo and in vitro model. In addition to diminished hepatic inflammation, inhibition of CTSD activity dramatically improved lipid metabolism, as demonstrated by decreased plasma and liver levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613876/on-the-origin-of-non-arrhenius-behavior-of-the-rates-of-enzymatic-reactions
#13
Subhendu Roy, Patrick Schopf, Arieh Warshel
The origin of the non-Arrhenius behavior of the rate constant for hydride transfer enzymatic reactions has been a puzzling problem since its initial observation. This effect has been used originally to support the idea that enzymes work by dynamical effects and more recently to suggest an entropy funnel model. Our analysis, however, has advanced the idea that the reason for the non-Arrhenius trend reflects the temperature dependence of the rearrangements of the protein polar groups in response the change in the charge distribution of the reacting system, during the transition from the ground state (GS) to the transition state (TS)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612750/genetic-and-epigenetic-profile-of-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease
#14
Luigi Boccuto, Ludovico Abenavoli
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a definition encompassing a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Excessive alcohol consumption triggers a series of metabolic reactions that affect the liver by inducing lipogenesis, increasing oxidative stress, and causing abnormal inflammatory responses. The metabolic pathways regulating lipids, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and immune system are closely related and in some cases cross-regulate each other. Therefore, it must be taken into account that major genetic and epigenetic abnormalities affecting enzymes involved in one of such pathways can play a pivotal role in ALD pathogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612359/the-relationship-between-moderate-alcohol-consumption-depressive-symptomatology-and-c-reactive-protein-the-health-and-retirement-study
#15
Daniel Paulson, Mona Shah, Danielle Herring, Rosanna Scott, Manuel Herrera, David Brush, Rachel Bassett
OBJECTIVE: Moderate alcohol use has been broadly associated with health benefits among older adults, including improved mood. Aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship of moderate alcohol use and depressive symptomatology over a period of eight years, and to examine inflammation, indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), as one mechanism by which this relationship functions. METHODS: The study included 3177 community-dwelling participants over the age of 65 in 2008 drawn from the Health and Retirement Study...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610454/genetic-polymorphisms-of-alcohol-metabolizing-enzymes-and-their-association-with-alcoholism-risk-personality-and-anthropometric-traits-among-malaysian-university-students
#16
Hing-Huat Ong, Foong-Vai Khor, Kausalyah Balasupramaniam, Yee-How Say
Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol-metabolizing genes - ADH1B (Arg47His), ADH1C (Ile350Val) and ALDH2 (Glu504Lys) have been extensively associated with flush reaction and alcoholism. Therefore, we investigated the association of these three SNPs with alcohol-induced reactions (AIRs), alcoholism risk, personality and anthropometric traits among Malaysian university students. AIRs, Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) and Ten-Item Personality were surveyed, anthropometric measurements and DNA samples were taken...
June 14, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607029/age-dependent-protein-abundance-of-cytosolic-alcohol-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenases-in-human-liver
#17
Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic cytosolic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs and ALDHs) catalyze the biotransformation of xenobiotics (e.g., cyclophosphamide and ethanol) and vitamin A. Because age-dependent hepatic abundance of these proteins is unknown, we quantified protein expression of ADHs and ALDH1A1 in a large cohort of pediatric and adult human livers by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Purified proteins were used as calibrators. Two to three surrogate peptides per protein were quantified in trypsin digests of liver cytosolic samples and calibrator proteins under optimal conditions of reproducibility...
June 12, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606901/enzyme-activity-and-substrate-specificity-of-the-major-cinnamyl-alcohol-dehydrogenases-in-sorghum
#18
Se-Young Jun, Alexander M Walker, Hoon Kim, John Ralph, Wilfred Vermerris, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, reducing sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and p-coumaraldehyde to their corresponding alcohols in an NADPH-dependent manner. Because of its terminal location in monolignol biosynthesis, variation in substrate specificity and activity of CAD can result in significant changes in overall composition and amount of lignin. Our in-depth characterization of two major CAD isoforms, SbCAD2 (Brown midrib6) and SbCAD4, in lignifying tissues of sorghum, a strategic plant for generating renewable chemicals and fuels, indicates their similarity in both structure and activity to Arabidopsis thaliana CAD5 and Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), respectively...
June 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606738/engineering-high-level-production-of-fatty-alcohols-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-from-lignocellulosic-feedstocks
#19
Leo d'Espaux, Amit Ghosh, Weerawat Runguphan, Maren Wehrs, Feng Xu, Oliver Konzock, Ishaan Dev, Melissa Nhan, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Christopher J Petzold, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
Fatty alcohols in the C12-C18 range are used in personal care products, lubricants, and potentially biofuels. These compounds can be produced from the fatty acid pathway by a fatty acid reductase (FAR), yet yields from the preferred industrial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae remain under 2% of the theoretical maximum from glucose. Here we improved titer and yield of fatty alcohols using an approach involving quantitative analysis of protein levels and metabolic flux, engineering enzyme level and localization, pull-push-block engineering of carbon flux, and cofactor balancing...
June 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606046/converting-enzymes-into-tools-of-industrial-importance
#20
Ipsita Roy, Shivcharan Prasad
The term enzyme ('in yeast') was first used by Wilhelm Kuhne while describing the ability of yeast to produce alcohol from sugars. Since then, there has been a determined effort to use enzymes for catalysing reactions. When compared with chemical catalysts, enzymes offer very high selectivity when acting as catalysts. This could be in terms of chemo- (functional group), regio- (positional) or stereo- (chirality) selectivity. Such selectivity yields a product which is free from impurities; the cost of the product is also reduced as the number of steps is less...
June 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
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