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Alcohol and enzyme

Danfeng Jin, Bintao Gu, Dawei Xiong, Guochang Huang, Xiaoping Huang, Lan Liu, Jun Xiao
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is a kind of advanced aromatic alcohol with rose fragrance, which is wildly used for the deployment of flavors and fragrances. Microbial transformation is the most feasible method for the production of natural 2-PE. But a bottleneck problem is the toxicity of 2-PE on the cells. The molecular mechanisms of the toxic effect of 2-PE to Saccharomyces cerevisiae are not well studied. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of S. cerevisiae in the media with and without 2-PE, respectively, using Illumina RNA-Seq technology...
April 17, 2018: Current Microbiology
Konstantin V Moiseenko, Daria V Vasina, Katerina T Farukshina, Olga S Savinova, Olga A Glazunova, Tatiana V Fedorova, Tatiana V Tyazhelova
Laccase (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC is an enzyme that has been studied for over 100 y and is present in virtually all fungi. As increasing numbers of fungal genomes have been sequenced, it has become apparent that the laccase genes in white-rot fungi commonly form multigene families consisting of many nonallelic genes. Although a number of reports focussing on laccase gene expression in different fungal species were published over the decades, the fundamental questions of why fungi need such a redundant array of genes and how they manage this array to perform biological function(s) remain far from answered...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Laurence A N Egue, Florent K N'guessan, Solange Aka-Gbezo, Jean-Paul K M Bouatenin, Marina Koussemon-Camara
The increase of infections due to non-Candida albicans species made it very necessary to conduct adequate characterization to be able to identify the species of Candida isolated from traditional fermented foods. In this study, based on their hue on Candida Chromogenic Agar medium, a total of 136 yeast strains were isolated from tchapalo and bangui. Molecular identification based on PCR-RFLP of internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS) and sequencing of the ITS and the D1/D2 regions allowed us to assign these isolates to seven species: Candida tropicalis, Candida inconspicua, Candida rugosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Trichosporon asahii...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
Ádám Ferenc Kiss, Dorottya Vaskó, Máté Tamás Déri, Katalin Tóth, Katalin Monostory
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, responsible for metabolism of approximately 10% of the drugs on the market. Large inter-individual differences exist in metabolic activities, which are primarily attributed to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 gene. Conflicting results have been published about the role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates and clinical outcomes; thus, we aimed to investigate CYP2C19 genotype-phenotype associations, and we sought to elicit potential causes of discrepancies in the genotype-based prediction by incorporating the liver donors' demographic data, drug administration events and pathological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Takahisa Okuda, Takeshi Haseba, Midori Katsuyama, Motoyo Maruyama, Toshio Akimoto, Tsutomu Igarashi, Youkichi Ohno
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1 and 3 are responsible for systemic alcohol metabolism. The current study investigated the contribution of liver ADH1 and ADH3 to the metabolic pharmacokinetics of chronic alcohol consumption (CAC). METHODS: The 9-week-old male mice of different ADH genotypes [wild-type (WT), Adh1-/- , and Adh3-/- ] were administered 10% ethanol solution for 1 month, followed by acute ethanol administration (4.0 g/kg). The alcohol elimination rate (AER), area under the blood alcohol concentration curve (AUC), and the maximum blood alcohol concentration (Cmax ) were calculated...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Min-Ju Kim, Sang-Wook Lim, Jong-Hyun Kim, Da-Jeong Choe, Jung-In Kim, Min-Jung Kang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed fruit and vegetable juice on alcohol hangover in healthy adults in a randomized crossover trial. Angelica keiskei /green grape/pear juice (AGP juice) was a mixture of A. keiskei juice, green grape juice, and pear juice at 1:1:1 ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities of AGP juice were measured in vitro . Fifteen healthy adults consumed alcohol (1.25 g/kg weight), and either water (control group) or AGP juice (AGP juice group)...
March 2018: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Levi Kramer, Erome Hankore, Yilan Liu, Kun Liu, Esteban Jimenez, Jiantao Guo, Wei Niu
Carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) catalyze the reduction of a broad range of carboxylic acids into aldehydes, which can serve as common biosynthetic precursors to many industrial chemicals. This work presents a systematic biochemical characterization of five carboxylic acid reductases from different microorganisms, including two known and three new ones, using a panel of short-chain dicarboxylic acids and hydroxyacids, which are common cellular metabolites. All enzymes displayed broad substrate specificities...
April 16, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Amani A Awaad, Reham M El-Meligy, Ghada M Zain, Amal A Safhi, Noura A Al Qurain, Shekhah S Almoqren, Yara M Zain, Vidya D Sesh Adri, Fahad I Al-Saikhan
Three different extracts of Matricaria chamomilla L. were evaluated for their antihypertensive activity, these extracts were total alcohol extract (Extract 1), oil extracted (Extract 2), and water lifted after oil extraction (Extract 3). Quantitative and Qualitative analyses were carried out for all extracts. The 3 extracts were proved to be safe for human use. A single oral administration of the plant extracts (200 mg/kg) decreases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure of normotensive rats after 1, 1...
April 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Raj Kumar Pandey, Salil Tewari, Lakshmi Tewari
A mycoremedial study was undertaken for decolourization of synthetic dyes using wood rot fungal culture Lenzites elegans WDP2. The culture was isolated from decaying wood as fruiting body, and identified on the basis of 5.8S ITS rRNA gene sequence analysis. Qualitative plate screening of culture showed extracellular laccase and lignin peroxidase production, while only laccase enzyme was produced in higher amount (156.793 Uml-1 ) in minimal salt broth medium containing glucose and veratryl alcohol. Laccase activity was increased up to 189...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mohamed El-Sherbiny, Mohamed Eldosoky, Mohamed El-Shafey, Gamal Othman, Hany A Elkattawy, Tamer Bedir, Nehal Mohsen Elsherbiny
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and type II diabetes. Due to increasing prevalence of these diseases globally, NAFLD is considered as a common form of chronic liver diseases. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin with reported anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating activity. Hypovitaminosis D often coexists with NAFLD and various studies reported beneficial role of vitamin D in modulating NAFLD. However, variable oral bioavailability, poor water solubility, and chemical degradation hinder the clinical application of vitamin D...
April 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Ju Young Kim, Jinmin Cho, Hye Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their associated risk factors are not well-established in young children with obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early onset NAFLD and identify its biochemical predictors in obese children aged less than 10 years. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Emmanuel A Adeniji, Fisayo A Olotu, Mahmoud E S Soliman
Liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme is responsible for the rapid conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. ALDH2 (E487K) polymorphism results in an inactive allele (ALDH2*2) which cause dysfunctional acetaldehyde metabolism. The 3D structure of an enzyme is crucial to its functionality and a disruption in its structural integrity could result in its metabolic inefficiency and dysfunctionality. Allosteric targeting of polymorphs could facilitate the restoration of wildtype functionalities in ALDH2 polymorphs and serve as an advancement in the treatment of associated diseases...
April 12, 2018: Protein Journal
Unisha Patel, Kishor Chauhan, Shilpa Gupte
In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical precipitation of trivalent and divalent iron ions which were functionalized using citric acid. The bacterial isolate Staphylococcus epidermidis KX781317 was isolated from oil-contaminated site. The isolate produced lipase, which was purified and immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for ester synthesis from waste frying oil (WFO). The characterization of MNPs employed conventional TEM, XRD and FTIR techniques. TEM analysis of MNPs showed the particle size in the range of 20-50 nm...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Haiyang Xu, Daniel Lybrand, Stefan Bennewitz, Alain Tissier, Robert L Last, Eran Pichersky
The pyrethrum plant, Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Asteraceae) synthesizes a class of compounds called pyrethrins that have strong insecticidal properties but are safe to humans. Class I pyrethrins are esters of the monoterpenoid trans-chrysanthemic acid with one of three jasmonic-acid derived alcohols. We reconstructed the trans-chrysanthemic acid biosynthetic pathway in tomato fruits, which naturally produce high levels of the tetraterpene pigment lycopene, an isoprenoid which shares a common precursor, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), with trans-chrysanthemic acid...
April 9, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Dimkpa Uchechukwu, Kelechi Loveth Ezeudensi, Babatunde Ishola Adejumo, Chinwe Obianuju Ewenighi, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Grace Ottah Umahi, Albert Nkereuwem Eteudo, Bright Uneze
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of information on the adverse effects of alcohol - chloroquine interaction on hematological parameters. To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of chloroquine and ethanol on hematologic parameters of adult Wistar rats and the ameliorative role of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on any adverse effects. METHODS: Some 30 adult Wistar rats weighing 120-200 g were assigned to six major groups of five rats each according to their weights...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Carla Gonçalves, Jennifer H Wisecaver, Jacek Kominek, Madalena Salema Oom, Maria José Leandro, Xing-Xing Shen, Dana A Opulente, Xiaofan Zhou, David Peris, Cletus P Kurtzman, Chris Todd Hittinger, Antonis Rokas, Paula Gonçalves
Fructophily is a rare trait that consists of the preference for fructose over other carbon sources. Here, we show that in a yeast lineage (the Wickerhamiella / Starmerella , W/S clade) comprised of fructophilic species thriving in the high-sugar floral niche, the acquisition of fructophily is concurrent with a wider remodeling of central carbon metabolism. Coupling comparative genomics with biochemical and genetic approaches, we gathered ample evidence for the loss of alcoholic fermentation in an ancestor of the W/S clade and subsequent reinstatement through either horizontal acquisition of homologous bacterial genes or modification of a pre-existing yeast gene...
April 12, 2018: ELife
Grzegorz Kłosowski, Dawid Mikulski, Oliwia Jankowiak
One of the key steps in the production of phytases of microbial origin is selection of culture parameters, followed by isolation of the enzyme and evaluation of its catalytic activity. It was found that conditions for S. cerevisiae yeast culture, strain Finarome, giving the reduction in phytic acid concentration of more than 98% within 24 h of incubation were as follows: pH 5.5, 32 °C, continuous stirring at 80 rpm, the use of mannose as a carbon source and aspartic acid as a source of nitrogen. The highest catalytic activity of the isolated phytase was observed at 37 °C, pH 4...
April 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gudrun Gygli, Ronald P de Vries, Willem J H van Berkel
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) is a fungal flavoenzyme that converts a wide range of para-substituted phenols. The products of these conversions, e.g. vanillin, coniferyl alcohol and chiral aryl alcohols, are of interest for several industries. VAO is the only known fungal member of the 4-phenol oxidising (4PO) subgroup of the VAO/PCMH flavoprotein family. While the enzyme has been biochemically characterised in great detail, little is known about its physiological role and distribution in fungi. We have identified and analysed novel, fungal candidate VAOs and found them to be mostly present in Pezizomycotina and Agaricomycotina...
April 4, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Xiao-Yu Hu, Yun Li, Long-Quan Li, Yuan Zheng, Jia-Hong Lv, Shu-Chun Huang, Weinong Zhang, Liang Liu, Ling Zhao, Zhuiguo Liu, Xiu-Ju Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health burden in China, and its prevalence is increasing. This study aimed to determine the risk factors and biomarkers of NAFLD. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional primary survey. SETTING: Central China. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1479 participants aged over 18 and below 80 years, not currently being treated for cancer or infectious disease or no surgery in the previous year, and no history of cancer or an infectious disease...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Xinling Song, Qiang Shen, Min Liu, Chen Zhang, Lan Zhang, Zhenzhen Ren, Wenshuai Wang, Yuhan Dong, Xiuxiu Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Le Jia
In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of intracellular mycelium polysaccharides from Pleurotus geesteranus (IMPP) to address acute alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Animal studies have demonstrated that the hepatic parameters of CYP2E1, MPO, TC, ALT, AST and ALP, HDLC, LDL-C and VLDL-C were improved; the inflammatory factor levels, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, were decreased; the hepatic ADH and ALDH activities were inhibited; the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC were enhanced; and the MDA and LPO contents were reduced by IMPP treatment...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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