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Nadia Islam, Thomas Gepts, Isaac Lief, Radhika Gore, Natalie Levy, Michael Tanner, Yixin Fang, Scott E Sherman, Mark D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 9.4% of US adults and children, while another 33.9% of Americans are at risk of DM. Health care institutions face many barriers to systematically delivering the preventive care needed to decrease DM incidence. Community health workers (CHWs) may, as frontline public health workers bridging clinic and community, help overcome these challenges. This paper presents the protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial integrating CHWs into two primary care clinics to support DM prevention for at-risk patients...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
Victor M Villegas, Stephen G Schwartz, Tina D Hamet, Craig A McKeown, Hilda Capó, Harry W Flynn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to illustrate various clinical findings associated with fovea plana in normal children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric subjects with a diagnosis of fovea plana was conducted to evaluate the characteristics associated with this condition. RESULTS: All eyes had 20/40 or better best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). In five of six subjects (83%), there was bilateral fovea plana...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Steven Johnson, Susan M Schwartz
We sought to establish the bioequivalence of 2 weight-loss aids: orlistat 27-mg chewable tablet and orlistat 60-mg capsule, measured pharmacodynamically as percentage fecal fat excretion. Two open-label, single-center, randomized, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover studies were conducted in adults with body mass index 25-33 kg/m2 . For each 9-day treatment period, subjects received orlistat 27-mg chewable tablet, 60-mg capsule, or 120-mg capsules (2 60-mg capsules) 3 times daily; a 2-day washout separated treatments...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Galit Almosnino, Samantha Anne, Seth R Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate usage trends of neural response telemetry (NRT) in cochlear implant centers across the nation and assess reported benefits of intraoperative NRT for pediatric cochlear implant recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Survey. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: All US cochlear implant centers (n = 110). METHODS: A 15-question multiple-choice survey was distributed electronically to all centers. The survey captured demographic information of all centers, practice patterns surrounding the use of NRT, and the extent to which intraoperative NRT is of benefit...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Benjamin R Shuman, Marije Goudriaan, Kaat Desloovere, Michael H Schwartz, Katherine M Steele
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patient-specific differences in motor control quantified using muscle synergy analysis were associated with changes in gait after treatment in cerebral palsy across two clinical centers with different treatments and clinical protocols. DESIGN: Retrospective Cohort Study. SETTING: Clinical Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Center 1: 473 children with cerebral palsy and 84 typically-developing children...
April 9, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jon C Mills, Brian W Pence, Jonathan V Todd, Angela M Bengtson, Tiffany L Breger, Andrew Edmonds, Robert L Cook, Adebola Adedimeji, Rebecca M Schwartz, Seble Kassaye, Joel Milam, Jennifer Cocohoba, Mardge Cohen, Elizabeth Golub, Gretchen Neigh, Margaret Fischl, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Adaora A Adimora
Background: Research linking depression to mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH) has largely focused on binary "always vs. never" characterizations of depression. However, depression is chronic, and is likely to have cumulative effects on mortality over time. Quantifying depression as a cumulative exposure may provide a better indication of the clinical benefit of enhanced depression treatment protocols delivered in routine HIV care settings. Methods: Women living with HIV (WLWH), naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART), from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) were followed from their first visit in or after 1998 for up to 10 semi-annual visits (5 years)...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Fabiula Schwartz Azevedo, Marcelo Goulart Correa, Débora Holanda Gonçalves Paula, Alex Dos Santos Felix, Luciano Herman Juaçaba Belém, Ana Paula Chedid Mendes, Valeria Gonçalves Silva, Bruno Miranda Marques, Andrey José de Oliveira Monteiro, Clara Weksler, Alexandre Siciliano Colafranceschi, Daniel Arthur Barata Kasal
OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been an alternative to invasive treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in high risk patients. The primary endpoint was 30-day and 1-year mortality from any cause. Secondary endpoints were to compare the clinical and echocardiographic variation pre-and post- transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and the occurrence of complications throughout a 4-year follow-up period. METHODS: This prospective cohort, nestled to a multicenter study (Registro Brasileiro de Implante de Bioprótese por Cateter), describes the experience of a public tertiary center in transcatheter aortic valve replacement...
January 2018: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Julio A Rodriguez, Damon G Lamb, Liliana Salazar, Lauren N Correa, Diana M Mosquera, Zared J Schwartz, Ronald A Cohen, Adam D Falchook, Kenneth M Heilman
Background-objectives: When vertical lines are positioned above or below the center of the page, line bisection deviates toward the center of the page, suggesting that the edges of the page distract the allocation of attention to the line. A letter-character line (LCL) bisection requires both global and focal attention, to identify the target letter closest to the line's center. If more focal and less global attention is allocated to a LCL, more global attentional resources may be available and inadvertently allocated to the page...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Monika B Raniti, Joanna M Waloszek, Orli Schwartz, Nicholas B Allen, John Trinder
Study Objectives: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely-used self-report questionnaire that assesses general sleep quality. This study aimed to validate the single-factor scoring structure and related psychometric properties in the English language version of the PSQI in community-based adolescents. Methods: Participants were 889 (352 male, 39.6%) students (age M=15.71±1.57; 12.08-18.92 years) recruited from 14 Australian secondary schools. Participants completed the PSQI, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)...
March 28, 2018: Sleep
Kevin T Bain, Emily J Schwartz, Orsula V Knowlton, Calvin H Knowlton, Jacques Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of implementing a pharmacist-led pharmacogenomics (PGx) service for the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). SETTING: A national centralized pharmacy providing PGx services to community-based PACE centers. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Individuals 55 years of age and older enrolled in PACE who underwent PGx testing as part of their medical care (n = 296). PRACTICE INNOVATION: Pharmacist-led PGx testing, interpreting, and consulting...
March 27, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Jennifer L McLaren, Erin R Barnett, Milangel T Concepcion Zayas, Jonathan Lichtenstein, Stephanie C Acquilano, Lisa M Schwartz, Steven Woloshin, Robert E Drake
At least 20% of children in the U.S. are highly vulnerable because they lack healthcare and protection. Several factors produce vulnerability: trauma, disruptions of parenting, poverty, involvement in the juvenile justice and/or child welfare systems, residence in restrictive settings, and problems related to developmental disabilities. These children receive psychotropic medications at high rates, raising numerous concerns. Areas covered: The authors begin this review with a description of the population of highly vulnerable children...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jennifer Schwartz, Lindsey Beltz
INTRODUCTION: Women have lower rates of drunken driving than men, but their share of arrests has been climbing since 1985. These trends may stem from changes in women's lives that lead to more drinking and driving, or to greater reductions in male drinking and driving. Alternatively, changes in policy and enforcement that focus on less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female-typical offending patterns. This paper tracked male and female drunken driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1985 to 2015 across three data sources...
March 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
(no author information available yet)
Stachler RJ, Francis DO, Schwartz SR, et al. Clinical practice guideline: hoarseness (dysphonia) (update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;158:S1-S42. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0194599817751030) Stachler RJ, Francis DO, Schwartz SR, et al. Clinical practice guideline: hoarseness (dysphonia) (update) executive summary. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;158:409-426. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0194599817751031) Krouse HJ, Reavis CW, Stachler RJ, Francis DO, O'Connor S. Plain language summary: hoarseness (dysphonia). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Chen Avni, Shmuel Stienlauf, Eyal Meltzer, Yechezkel Sidi, Eli Schwartz, Eyal Leshem
We characterized posttravel hospitalizations of citizens returning to Israel by summarizing the returning traveler hospitalization dataset of the national referral Center for Travel Medicine and Tropical Diseases at Sheba Medical Center in Israel. Of 722 hospitalizations, 181 (25%) infections were life-threatening; most would have been preventable by chemoprophylaxis and pretravel vaccination.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Laura B Monico, Elizabeth Lertch, Sharon M Kelly, Jan Gryczynski, Jerome H Jaffe, Kevin E O'Grady, Robert P Schwartz
Conflicts with methadone program counseling staff and violations of program rules can contribute to patients leaving treatment prematurely. This qualitative study was conducted as part of a larger trial of patient-centered methadone treatment (PCM). In-depth, semi-structured interviews at baseline and 12-month follow-up were conducted with five counselors and three clinical supervisors from the programs participating in the PCM parent study. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti. Counselors reported that, in some cases, PCM allowed them to focus on building a therapeutic alliance with patients because they were not addressing program rule issues...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
Kwai Lam, Lauren Schwartz, Jennifer Batisti, Kishore R Iyer
BACKGROUND: Teduglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog that has been approved for the treatment of adult short bowel syndrome (SBS)-associated intestinal failure (IF; SBS-IF). Teduglutide increases villus height and crypt depth in the small bowel mucosa, promoting nutrition absorption and enteral independence from parenteral nutrition (PN). We aim to report our single-center experience with teduglutide in adult patients with SBS to provide real-world context to its use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients managed within our tertiary-level intestinal rehabilitation program to identify patients with SBS-IF treated with teduglutide from 2009-2015...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yongqiang Tan, Lin Lu, Apurva Bonde, Deling Wang, Jing Qi, Lawrence H Schwartz, Binsheng Zhao
PURPOSE: Enlarged lymph nodes are indicators of cancer staging, and the change in their size is a reflection of treatment response. Automatic lymph node segmentation is challenging, as the boundary can be unclear and the surrounding structures complex. This work communicates a new three-dimensional algorithm for the segmentation of enlarged lymph nodes. METHODS: The algorithm requires a user to draw a region of interest (ROI) enclosing the lymph node. Rays are cast from the center of the ROI, and the intersections of the rays and the boundary of the lymph node form a triangle mesh...
March 3, 2018: Medical Physics
Ana Paula Vanz, Juliana van de Sande Lee, Bruna Pinheiro, Marina Zambrano, Evelise Brizola, Neusa Sicca da Rocha, Ida Vanessa D Schwartz, Maria Marlene de Souza Pires, Têmis Maria Félix
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a disorder of bone formation leading to low mineral density and fractures. Children and adolescents with OI require periodic medical follow up, corrective surgery, drug therapy and physical therapy, as well as specific daily care practices. In addition, they have an increased incidence of fractures, which require immobilization and cause severe discomfort and short-term disability. This study evaluated the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with OI in two reference centers for OI treatment in southern Brazil...
March 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Carolyn E Schwartz, Brian Stucky, Carly S Rivers, Vanessa K Noonan, Joel A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate response shift effects in spinal cord injury (SCI) over five years' post-injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study observed at one-, two- and five-years post-SCI. SETTING: 31 specialized Canadian SCI centers PARTICIPANTS: Sample included 1125, 760, and 219 at one-, two-, and five-years post-SCI. INTERVENTIONS: NA MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient-reported outcomes included the Short-Form 36v2 , and the Life Satisfaction-11...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Joseph Safdieh, Yi-Chun Lee, Andrew Wong, Anna Lee, Joseph P Weiner, David Schwartz, David Schreiber
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate usage patterns and outcomes of women who underwent open hysterectomy (OH) versus robotic assisted-hysterectomy (RAH) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Women with nonmetastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2010 and 2012, who either underwent an OH or RAH, were selected from the National Cancer Database. The χ, Fisher exact, or Mann-Whitney U tests were used where appropriate to compare outcomes between groups...
September 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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