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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458151/endoscopic-management-of-pancreatobiliary-neoplasms
#1
Andrew Y Wang, Patrick S Yachimski
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are the mainstays of interventional endoscopic practice. EUS occupies a central role in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary neoplasms and offers a platform for a wide range of direct tumor therapies. Initial steps have demonstrated the feasibility of such applications in animal models and pilot studies. Larger clinical trials and incorporation of EUS-based therapies into cooperative cancer studies might demonstrate an impact in the clinical prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458076/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-improved-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury-partly-by-promoting-axonal-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are attractive therapeutic potential cell sources for SCI, and it could rebuild the injured spinal cord through neuroprotection, neural regeneration and remyelinating...
February 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457312/update-on-tuberculosis-biomarkers-from-correlates-of-risk-to-correlates-of-active-disease-and-of-cure-from-disease
#3
REVIEW
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456648/immunosuppressive-effects-of-hydroxychloroquine-and-artemisinin-combination-therapy-via-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-lupus-nephritis-mice
#4
Ning Liang, Yanchun Zhong, Jie Zhou, Bihao Liu, Ruirui Lu, Yezhi Guan, Qi Wang, Chunlin Liang, Yu He, Yuan Zhou, Jianping Song, Jiuyao Zhou
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most common and severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, leading to permanent renal damage and chronic kidney disease. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) serves a protective role against lupus-associated clinical manifestations and medical complications; however, it results in numerous adverse reactions, limiting its long-term use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effect of HCQ and artemisinin (ART) on LN, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456539/generation-of-human-immunosuppressive-myeloid-cell-populations-in-human-interleukin-6-transgenic-nog-mice
#5
Asami Hanazawa, Ryoji Ito, Ikumi Katano, Kenji Kawai, Motohito Goto, Hiroshi Suemizu, Yutaka Kawakami, Mamoru Ito, Takeshi Takahashi
The tumor microenvironment contains unique immune cells, termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that suppress host anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Although these cells are considered a key target of cancer immune therapy, in vivo animal models allowing differentiation of human immunosuppressive myeloid cells have yet to be established, hampering the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we established a novel humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse strain, human interleukin (hIL)-6-expressing NOG mice (NOG-hIL-6 transgenic mice)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456511/p2y-12-receptors-in-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#6
REVIEW
Patrizia Ballerini, Melania Dovizio, Annalisa Bruno, Stefania Tacconelli, Paola Patrignani
Platelets, beyond their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, may sustain tumorigenesis and metastasis. These effects may occur via direct interaction of platelets with cancer and stromal cells and by the release of several platelet products. Platelets and tumor cells release several bioactive molecules among which a great amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP is also formed extracellularly from ATP breakdown by the ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases. Under ATP and ADP stimulation the purinergic P2Y1 receptor (R) initiates platelet activation followed by the ADP-P2Y12 R-mediated amplification...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455639/role-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-b-cells-and-malignancies
#7
REVIEW
Simar Pal Singh, Floris Dammeijer, Rudi W Hendriks
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays a crucial role in oncogenic signaling that is critical for proliferation and survival of leukemic cells in many B cell malignancies. BTK was initially shown to be defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and is essential both for B cell development and function of mature B cells. Shortly after its discovery, BTK was placed in the signal transduction pathway downstream of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). More recently, small-molecule inhibitors of this kinase have shown excellent anti-tumor activity, first in animal models and subsequently in clinical studies...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454881/curcumin-treatment-leads-to-better-cognitive-and-mood-function-in-a-model-of-gulf-war-illness-with-enhanced-neurogenesis-and-alleviation-of-inflammation-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-hippocampus
#8
M Kodali, B Hattiangady, G A Shetty, A Bates, B Shuai, A K Shetty
Diminished cognitive and mood function are among the most conspicuous symptoms of Gulf WarIllness(GWI). Our previous studies in a rat model of GWI have demonstrated that persistent cognitive and mood impairments are associated with substantially declined neurogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. We tested the efficacy of curcumin (CUR) to maintain better cognitive and mood function in a rat model of GWI because of its neurogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and memory and mood enhancing properties...
February 15, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454391/type-1-diabetes-susceptibility-alleles-are-associated-with-distinct-alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota
#9
Jane A Mullaney, Juliette E Stephens, Mary-Ellen Costello, Cai Fong, Brooke E Geeling, Patrick G Gavin, Casey M Wright, Timothy D Spector, Matthew A Brown, Emma E Hamilton-Williams
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes (T1D). It is unknown whether changes in the gut microbiota observed in T1D are due to environmental drivers, genetic risk factors, or both. Here, we have performed an analysis of associations between the gut microbiota and T1D genetic risk using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D and the TwinsUK cohort. RESULTS: Through the analysis of five separate colonies of T1D susceptible NOD mice, we identified similarities in NOD microbiome that were independent of animal facility...
February 17, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454153/muscle-carnosine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Inez Wens, Maarten Missine, Pieter Van Noten, Frank Vandenabeele, Wim Derave, Bert O Eijnde
BACKGROUND: Muscle carnosine is related to contractile function (Ca ++ handling) and buffering of exercise-induced acidosis. As these muscular functions are altered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) it is relevant to understand muscle carnosine levels in MS. METHODS: Tibialis anterior muscle carnosine was measured in an animal MS model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, n = 40) and controls (CON, n = 40) before and after exercise training (EAE EX , CON EX , 10d, 1 h/d, 24 m/min treadmill running) or sedentary conditions (EAE SED , CON SED )...
February 11, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454023/interaction-between-hypothermia-and-delayed-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#11
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453900/downregulation-of-reticulocalbin-1-differentially-facilitates-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#12
Xiaofei Liu, Nianzhao Zhang, Dawei Wang, Deyu Zhu, Quan Yuan, Xiulei Zhang, Lilin Qian, Huanmin Niu, Yi Lu, Guijie Ren, Keli Tian, Huiqing Yuan
Reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Ca 2+ -binding protein, is dysregulated in cancers, but its pathophysiological roles are largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RCN1 is overexpressed in clinical prostate cancer (PCa) samples, associated with Cyclin B, not Cyclin D1 expression, compared to that of benign tissues in a Chinese Han population. Downregulation of endogenous RCN1 significantly suppresses PCa cell viability and arrests the cell cycles of DU145 and LNCaP cells at the S and G2/M phases, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453615/vidarabine-an-anti-herpesvirus-agent-prevents-catecholamine-induced-arrhythmias-without-adverse-effect-on-heart-function-in-mice
#13
Kenji Suita, Takayuki Fujita, Wenqian Cai, Yuko Hidaka, Huiling Jin, Rajesh Prajapati, Masanari Umemura, Utako Yokoyama, Motohiko Sato, Björn C Knollmann, Satoshi Okumura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Sympathetic activation causes clinically important arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Although the usefulness of β-adrenergic receptor blockade therapy is widely accepted, its multiple critical side effects often prevent its initiation or continuation. The aim of this study is to determine the advantages of vidarabine, an adenylyl cyclase (AC)-targeted anti-sympathetic agent, as an alternative treatment for arrhythmia. We found that vidarabine, which we identified as a cardiac AC inhibitor, consistently shortens AF duration and reduces the incidence of sympathetic activation-induced ventricular arrhythmias...
February 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453446/environmental-genetic-and-epigenetic-contributions-to-cocaine-addiction
#14
REVIEW
R Christopher Pierce, Bruno Fant, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Elizabeth A Heller, Wade H Berrettini, Mathieu E Wimmer
Decades of research on cocaine has produced volumes of data that have answered many important questions about the nature of this highly addictive drug. Sadly, none of this information has translated into the development of effective therapies for the treatment of cocaine addiction. This review endeavors to assess the current state of cocaine research in an attempt to identify novel pathways for therapeutic development. For example, risk of cocaine addiction is highly heritable but genome-wide analyses comparing cocaine-dependent individuals to controls have not resulted in promising targets for drug development...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453349/ultrasound-and-shock-wave-stimulation-to-promote-axonal-regeneration-following-nerve-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-studies
#15
Simeon C Daeschler, Leila Harhaus, Philipp Schoenle, Arne Boecker, Ulrich Kneser, Konstantin D Bergmeister
Limited regeneration after nerve injury often leads to delayed or incomplete reinnervation and consequently insufficient muscle function. Following nerve surgery, application of low-intensity ultrasound or extracorporeal shock waves may promote nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes. Because currently clinical data is unavailable, we performed a meta-analysis following the PRISMA-guidelines to investigate the therapeutic effect of ultrasound and shock wave therapies on motor nerve regeneration. Ten ultrasound-studies (N = 445 rats) and three shock-wave studies (N = 110 rats) were identified from multiple databases...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453198/targeting-kca1-1-channels-with-a-scorpion-venom-peptide-for-the-therapy-of-rat-models-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Mark R Tanner, Michael W Pennington, Brayden H Chamberlain, Redwan Huq, Elizabeth J Gehrmann, Teresina Laragione, Percio S Gulko, Christine Beeton
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are a key cell-type involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression. We previously identified the KCa1.1 potassium channel (Maxi-K, BK, Slo 1, KCNMA1) as a regulator of FLS and that KCa1.1 inhibition reduces disease severity in RA animal models. However, systemic KCa1.1 block causes multiple side effects and in this study, we aimed to determine whether the KCa1.1 β1-3-specific venom peptide blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX) reduces disease severity in animal models of RA without inducing major side effects...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452811/effects-on-adult-cognitive-function-after-neonatal-exposure-to-clinically-relevant-doses-of-ionising-radiation-and-ketamine-in-mice
#17
S Buratovic, B Stenerlöw, S Sundell-Bergman, A Fredriksson, H Viberg, T Gordh, P Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Radiological methods for screening, diagnostics and therapy are frequently used in healthcare. In infants and children, anaesthesia/sedation is often used in these situations to relieve the patients' perception of stress or pain. Both ionising radiation (IR) and ketamine have been shown to induce developmental neurotoxic effects and this study aimed to identify the combined effects of these in a murine model. METHODS: Male mice were exposed to a single dose of ketamine (7...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#18
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451877/influence-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-biomechanics-and-structural-bone-matrix-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-rats
#19
Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira Limirio, Huberth Alexandre da Rocha Junior, Richarlisson Borges de Morais, Karen Renata Nakamura Hiraki, Ana Paula Coelho Balbi, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Paula Dechichi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanics and structural bone matrix in diabetic rats subjected to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). METHODS: Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following groups: Control; Control + HBO; Diabetic, and Diabetic + HBO. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in the diabetic Groups. After 30 days, HBO was performed every 48h in HBO groups and all animals were euthanized 60 days after diabetic induction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451775/fluorescence-imaging-of-huntingtin-mrna-knockdown
#20
Eunseon Oh, Yuhong Liu, Mahesh V Sonar, Diane Merry, Eric Wickstrom
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative genetic disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Expression of the mutant gene results in the production of a neurotoxic polyglutamine (polyQ)-expanded huntingtin (Htt) protein. Clinical trials of knockdown therapy of mutant polyglutamine-encoding HTT mRNA in Huntington's disease (HD) have begun. To measure HTT mRNA knockdown effectiveness in human cells, we utilized a fluorescent hybridization imaging agent specific to the region encompassing the human HTT mRNA initiation codon...
February 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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