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Animal therapy

Tianwei E Zhou, José C Rivera, Vikrant K Bhosle, Isabelle Lahaie, Zhuo Shao, Houda Tahiri, Tang Zhu, Anna Polosa, Allison Dorfman, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Santiago Costantino, Gregory A Lodygensky, Pierre Lachapelle, Sylvain Chemtob
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the most common cause of blindness in premature infants, has long been associated with inner retinal alterations. However, recent studies reveal outer retinal dysfunctions in patients formerly afflicted with ROP. We have recently demonstrated that choroidal involution occurs early in retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the choroidal involution and its long-term impact on retinal function. An oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used. In vitro and ex vivo assays were applied to evaluate cytotoxic effects of IL-1β on choroidal endothelium...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Andrea Schwab, Annick Meeuwsen, Franziska Ehlicke, Jan Hansmann, Lars Mulder, Anthal Smits, Heike Walles, Linda Kock
There is a great need for valuable ex vivo models that allow for assessment of cartilage repair strategies to reduce the high number of animal experiments. In this paper we present three studies with our novel ex vivo osteochondral culture platform. It consists of two separated media compartments for cartilage and bone which better represents the in vivo situation and enables supply of specific factors to the different needs of bone and cartilage. We investigated whether separation of the cartilage and bone compartments and/or culture media results in the maintenance of viability, structural and functional properties of cartilage tissue (study A)...
October 21, 2016: ALTEX
Ravinder Bamba, Thanapong Waitayawinyu, Ratnam Nookala, David Colton Riley, Richard B Boyer, Kevin W Sexton, Chinnakart Boonyasirikool, Sunyarn Niempoog, Nathaniel D Kelm, Mark D Does, Richard D Dortch, Robert Bruce Shack, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating impact on our military and veteran population. Current strategies for peripheral nerve repair include techniques such as nerve tubes, nerve grafts, tissue matrices, and nerve growth guides to enhance the number of regenerating axons. Even with such advanced techniques, it takes months to regain function. In animal models, polyethylene glycol (PEG) therapy has shown to improve both physiologic and behavioral outcomes after nerve transection by fusion of a portion of the proximal axons to the distal axon stumps...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Guilielmus H J M Ellenbroek, Gerardus P J van Hout, Leo Timmers, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerard Pasterkamp, Imo E Hoefer
Mortality after acute myocardial infarction remains substantial and is associated with significant morbidity, like heart failure. Novel therapeutics are therefore required to confine cardiac damage, promote survival and reduce the disease burden of heart failure. Large animal experiments are an essential part in the translational process from experimental to clinical therapies. To optimize clinical translation, robust and representative outcome measures are mandatory. The present manuscript aims to address this need by describing the assessment of three clinically relevant outcome modalities in a pig acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model: infarct size in relation to area at risk (IS/AAR) staining, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and admittance-based pressure-volume (PV) loops...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Carlota Saldanha
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells interacts with erythrocyte through band 3 protein, being scavenged by haemoglobin. A signal transduction mechanism involving protein Gi and protein band 3 stimulates erythrocyte NO efflux when acetylcholine (ACh) binds to erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase. Binding of normal plasma fibrinogen (Fib) levels, to erythrocyte membrane CD47 decreases the NO efflux. When high Fib concentration and ACh were present the efflux of NO from erythrocytes was normalized...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Young Joon Kwon, Marni J Falk, Michael J Bennett
CLN3 disease (Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease, previously known as classic juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, NCL) is a pediatric-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive vision loss, seizures, loss of cognitive and motor function, and early death. While no precise biochemical mechanism or therapies are known, the pathogenesis of CLN3 disease involves intracellular calcium accumulation that may trigger apoptosis. Our prior work in in vitro cell models of CLN3 deficiency suggested that FDA-approved calcium channel antagonists may have therapeutic value...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Carol H Miao
Current treatment of hemophilia A (HemA) patients with repeated infusions of factor VIII (FVIII; abbreviated as F8 in constructs) is costly, inconvenient, and incompletely effective. In addition, approximately 25 % of treated patients develop anti-factor VIII immune responses. Gene therapy that can achieve long-term phenotypic correction without the complication of anti-factor VIII antibody formation is highly desired. Lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) results in stable integration of FVIII gene into the host genome, leading to persistent therapeutic effect...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Ching-Tzu Yen, Meng-Ni Fan, Yung-Li Yang, Sheng-Chieh Chou, I-Shing Yu, Shu-Wha Lin
Hemophilia is the most well-known hereditary bleeding disorder, with an incidence of one in every 5000 to 30,000 males worldwide. The disease is treated by infusion of protein products on demand and as prophylaxis. Although these therapies have been very successful, some challenging and unresolved tasks remain, such as reducing bleeding rates, presence of target joints and/or established joint damage, eliminating the development of inhibitors, and increasing the success rate of immune-tolerance induction (ITI)...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Wen-Jing Yin, Xin Qi, Jia-Gen Sheng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) represents a debilitating complication following glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapy. Synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can exert protective effect in the animal model of GC-induced ONFH by inducing cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. Recent studies indicate the transplanted cells exert therapeutic effects primarily via a paracrine mechanism and exosomes are an important paracrine factor that can be directly used as therapeutic agents for tissue engineering...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Francesca Salamanna, Veronica Borsari, Silvia Brogini, Gianluca Giavaresi, Annapaola Parrilli, Simona Cepollaro, Matteo Cadossi, Lucia Martini, Antonio Mazzotti, Milena Fini
One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Wilson Kc Leung, L Gao, Parco M Siu, Christopher Wk Lai
An explosion in global epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus poses major rise in cases with vascular endothelial dysfunction ranging from micro- (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) to macro-vascular (atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy) conditions. Functional destruction of endothelium is regarded as an early event that lays the groundwork for the development of renal microangiopathy and subsequent clinical manifestation of nephropathic symptoms. Recent research has shed some light on the molecular mechanisms of type 2 diabetes-associated comorbidity of endothelial dysfunction and nephropathy...
October 17, 2016: Life Sciences
Gamze Cebi, Şenol Yildiz, Gunalp Uzun, Yeşim Oztas, Suna Sabuncuoglu, Ayhan Kutlu, Yasin Ilgaz, Iclal Karatop-Cesur, Eyup Dogan, Emin Oztas
Myoglobinuric acute renal failure (MARF) may develop after severe muscle injury. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-response protein, has been implicated as a protective agent against MARF. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) may alleviate MARF by inducing renal HO-1 expression. Wistar-Albino rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Control (n = 4), MARF (n = 8), MARF + HBO (n = 8). MARF was induced by intramuscular glycerol (50%, 8 mL/kg) injection. Saline (8 mL/kg) was injected into the hind limb of the animals in the control group...
October 20, 2016: Renal Failure
Domenico Intiso, Andrea Santamato, Filomena Di Rienzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Michelle L Delco, John G Kennedy, Lawrence J Bonassar, Lisa A Fortier
The diagnosis of ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is increasing as a result of advancements in non-invasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, improved arthroscopic surgical technology and heightened awareness among clinicians. Unlike OA of the knee, primary or age-related ankle OA is rare, with the majority of ankle OA classified as post-traumatic (PTOA). Ankle trauma, more specifically ankle sprain, is the single most common athletic injury, and no effective therapies are available to prevent or slow progression of PTOA...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Yu-Chuan Huang, Chung-Ta Lee, Jenq-Chang Lee, Yao-Wen Liu, Ying-Jen Chen, Joseph T Tseng, Jui-Wen Kang, Bor-Shyang Sheu, Bo-Wen Lin, Liang-Yi Hung
MicorRNA-137 is silenced in human colorectal cancer tissues and colon polyps. Our study showed that the decreased expression of miR-137 is significantly different in various types of polyp which maintain different potentials to lead to CRC development. The expression of miR-137 gradually decreases during the process of colorectal carcinogenesis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis indicates that the loss of miR-137 expression in colon polyps can serve as a biomarker to predict the predisposition of colorectal carcinogenesis...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Spyridon N Vasilopoulos, Robert H A Coutts, Stamatios Theocharis
Hu-antigen R (HuR) is an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator that belongs to the Hu/ELAV family. HuR expression levels are modulated by a variety of proteins, microRNAs, chemical compounds, or the microenvironment, and in turn, HuR affects mRNA stability and translation of various genes implicated in breast cancer formation, progression, metastasis, and treatment. The aim of the present review is to critically summarize the role of HuR in breast cancer development and its potential as a prognosticator and a therapeutic target...
October 17, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
K Kasarełło, A Szczepankowska, B Kwiatkowska-Patzer, A W Lipkowski, R Gadamski, D Sulejczak, M Łachwa, M Biały, J Bardowski
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune neurodegenerative disease with an unknown etiology. Despite various therapies, there is no effective cure for MS. Since the mechanism of the disease is based on autoreactive T-cell responses directed against myelin antigens, oral tolerance is a promising approach for the MS treatment. Here, the experiments were performed to assess the impact of oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis producing encephalogenic fragments of three myelin proteins: myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, on neuroimmunological changes in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) - an animal model of MS...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Viktoria Hasselhof, Anastasia Sperling, Kerstin Buttler, Philipp Ströbel, Jürgen Becker, Thiha Aung, Gunther Felmerer, Jörg Wilting
Millions of patients suffer from lymphedema worldwide. Supporting the contractility of lymphatic collectors is an attractive target for pharmacological therapy of lymphedema. However, lymphatics have mostly been studied in animals, while the cellular and molecular characteristics of human lymphatic collectors are largely unknown. We studied epifascial lymphatic collectors of the thigh, which were isolated for autologous transplantations. Our immunohistological studies identify additional markers for LECs (vimentin, CCBE1)...
2016: PloS One
Victoria Hampshire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Lab Animal
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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