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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235509/in-vivo-metabolic-imaging-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Caroline Guglielmetti, Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Chloe Najac, Xi Feng, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Susanna Rosi, Myriam M Chaumeil
Complex alterations in cerebral energetic metabolism arise after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, methods allowing for metabolic evaluation are highly invasive, limiting our understanding of metabolic impairments associated with TBI pathogenesis. We investigated whether 13C MRSI of hyperpolarized (HP) [1-13C] pyruvate, a non-invasive metabolic imaging method, could detect metabolic changes in controlled cortical injury (CCI) mice (n = 57). Our results show that HP [1-13C] lactate-to-pyruvate ratios were increased in the injured cortex at acute (12/24 hours) and sub-acute (7 days) time points after injury, in line with decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, suggesting impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235456/infection-via-mosquito-bite-alters-zika-virus-tissue-tropism-and-replication-kinetics-in-rhesus-macaques
#2
Dawn M Dudley, Christina M Newman, Joseph Lalli, Laurel M Stewart, Michelle R Koenig, Andrea M Weiler, Matthew R Semler, Gabrielle L Barry, Katie R Zarbock, Mariel S Mohns, Meghan E Breitbach, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Eric Peterson, Wendy Newton, Emma L Mohr, Saverio Capuano Iii, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, David H O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, Matthew T Aliota
Mouse and nonhuman primate models now serve as useful platforms to study Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis, candidate therapies, and vaccines, but they rely on needle inoculation of virus: the effects of mosquito-borne infection on disease outcome have not been explored in these models. Here we show that infection via mosquito bite delays ZIKV replication to peak viral loads in rhesus macaques. Importantly, in mosquito-infected animals ZIKV tissue distribution was limited to hemolymphatic tissues, female reproductive tract tissues, kidney, and liver, potentially emulating key features of human ZIKV infections, most of which are characterized by mild or asymptomatic disease...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235249/anticancer-effects-of-resveratrol-in-canine-hemangiosarcoma-cell-lines
#3
A Carlson, K S Alderete, M K O Grant, D M Seelig, L C Sharkey, B N M Zordoky
Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly malignant tumour with aggressive biological behaviour. HSAs are more common in dogs than other domestic animals. The median survival time of dogs with HSA remains short, even with chemotherapy and surgery. Therefore, there is a critical need to improve the adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimens to improve clinical outcomes in dogs with HSA. Resveratrol has been shown to possess strong anti-proliferative and/or pro-apoptotic properties in human cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, the potential anticancer effects of resveratrol have not been reported in canine HSAs...
December 13, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235200/concise-review-the-cellular-conspiracy-of-als
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234895/intestinal-stem-cells-to-advance-drug-development-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-a-paradigm-shift-in-translational-research
#5
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#6
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234418/effects-of-acupuncture-on-alzheimer-s-disease-in-animal-based-research
#7
REVIEW
Sunjung Park, Jun-Hwan Lee, Eun Jin Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and severe functional deficits in the brain. The pathogenesis and treatment of AD remain topics of investigation and significant global socioeconomic issues. The effect of complementary medicine has been investigated in managing AD. Acupuncture, a form of therapy practiced for more than 3000 years, has shown positive effects on several neurological disorders including AD...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234400/effect-of-acupotomy-on-fak-pi3k-signaling-pathways-in-koa-rabbit-articular-cartilages
#8
Shi-Ning Ma, Zhan-Guo Xie, Yan Guo, Jia-Ni Yu, Juan Lu, Wei Zhang, Li-Juan Wang, Jing Xu, Rui-Li Zhao, Shuai Zhou, Chang-Qing Guo
Objective: By observing the needle-knife of KOA rabbit morphology, knee joint cartilage p-FAK, p-PI3K, Aggrecan gene, and protein expression, to study the effect of needle-knife to promote cartilage cell synthesis metabolism mechanism. Method: 49 male New Zealand rabbits, randomly divided into normal group (Z), model group (M), model-inhibitors (MP), needle-knife group (D), needle-knife inhibitors group (DP), electroacupuncture group (E), and electroacupuncture inhibitors (EP)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234369/bufei-yishen-granules-combined-with-acupoint-sticking-therapy-suppress-inflammation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-rats-via-jnk-p38-signaling-pathway
#9
Yange Tian, Ya Li, Jiansheng Li, Suxiang Feng, Suyun Li, Jing Mao, Yang Xie, Xuefang Liu, Haoran Dong, Wanchun Zheng, Minghang Wang
The present study was initiated to explore the mechanism of the effects of Bufei Yishen granules combined with acupoint sticking therapy (Shu-Fei Tie) on inflammation regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK signaling in COPD rats. Seventy-two rats were divided into healthy control (Control), Model, Bufei Yishen (BY), acupoint sticking (AS), Bufei Yishen + acupoint sticking (BY + AS), and aminophylline (APL) groups (n = 12 each). COPD rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and bacteria and were given the various treatments from weeks 9 through 20; all animals were sacrificed at the end of week 20...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233822/hematopoietic-stem-cell-gene-therapy-for-ifn%C3%AE-r1-deficiency-protects-mice-from-mycobacterial-infections
#10
Miriam Hetzel, Adele Mucci, Patrick Blank, Ariane Hai Ha Nguyen, Jan Schiller, Olga Halle, Mark-Philipp Kühnel, Sandra Billig, Robert Meineke, Daniel Brand, Vanessa Herder, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Franz-Christoph Bange, Ralph Goethe, Danny Jonigk, Reinhold Förster, Bernhard Gentner, Jean-Laurent Casaova, Jacinta Bustamante, Axel Schambach, Ulrich Kalinke, Nico Lachmann
Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency, characterized by severe infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria. Bi-allelic null mutations in genes encoding interferon gamma (IFNγ) receptor 1 or -2 (IFNGR1, IFNGR2) result in a life-threatening disease phenotype in early childhood. Recombinant IFNγ therapy is inefficient and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has a poor prognosis. Thus, we developed a HSC gene therapy approach using lentiviral vectors expressing Ifnγr1 either constitutively or myeloid-specifically...
December 12, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233642/acute-inescapable-stress-alleviates-fear-extinction-recall-deficits-caused-by-serotonin-transporter-abolishment
#11
Pieter Schipper, Marloes J A G Henckens, Dora Lopresto, Tamas Kozicz, Judith R Homberg
Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/-) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats and wildtype controls...
December 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233522/subcutaneous-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-a-modern-challenge-in-postmastectomy-radiation-planning
#12
Melissa P Mitchell, Jamie Wagner, James Butterworth
PURPOSE: A growing trend in breast reconstruction has been placement of tissue expanders in the pre pectoral space. This is a change from the practice of placement under the pectoralis major with or without an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) sling. The move toward pre pectoral placement with an ADM wrap has the intent of decreasing post-operative pain and decreasing animation deformities. The cosmesis of pre pectoral reconstructions in the setting of post mastectomy radiation has also appeared improved in our early experience, when compared to submuscular reconstructions...
September 8, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233239/perfluorocarbon-in-delayed-recompression-with-a-mixed-gender-swine-model-of-decompression-sickness
#13
William A Cronin, Aaron A Hall, Charles R Auker, Richard T Mahon
INTRODUCTION: Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. METHODS: Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233023/improving-the-efficacy-safety-balance-of-polypharmacology-in-multi-target-drug-discovery
#14
Balaguru Ravikumar, Tero Aittokallio
Polypharmacology has emerged as an essential paradigm for modern drug discovery process. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that agents capable of modulating multiple targets in a selective manner may offer also improved balance between therapeutic efficacy and safety compared to single-targeted agents. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the recent progress made in experimental and computational strategies for addressing the critical challenges with rational discovery of selective multi-targeted agents within the context of polypharmacological modelling...
December 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232851/a-novel-prebiotic-blend-product-prevents-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-mice-by-improving-gut-microbiota-and-modulating-immune-response
#15
Qian Chen, Yiping Ren, Jihong Lu, Mark Bartlett, Lei Chen, Yan Zhang, Xiaokui Guo, Chang Liu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder yet it still lacks effective prevention therapies. The aim of this study is to determine whether a novel prebiotic blend (PB) composed of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin and anthocyanins could be effective in preventing the development of IBS. We explored the possible mechanisms both in animal and in cells. Post-infectious IBS models in C57BL/6 mice were established and were pretreated with the PB, PB and probiotic strains 8 weeks in advance of infection...
December 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232698/low-energy-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-eswt-improves-metaphyseal-fracture-healing-in-an-osteoporotic-rat-model
#16
Gina A Mackert, Matthias Schulte, Christoph Hirche, Dimitra Kotsougiani, Julian Vogelpohl, Bernd Hoener, Teresa Fiebig, Stefanie Kirschner, Marc A Brockmann, Marcus Lehnhardt, Ulrich Kneser, Leila Harhaus
PURPOSE: As result of the current demographic changes, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are becoming an increasing social and economic burden. In this experimental study, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), was evaluated as a treatment option for the improvement of osteoporotic fracture healing. METHODS: A well-established fracture model in the metaphyseal tibia in the osteoporotic rat was used. 132 animals were divided into 11 groups, with 12 animals each, consisting of one sham-operated group and 10 ovariectomized (osteoporotic) groups, of which 9 received ESWT treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230608/combinatorial-therapy-with-two-pro-coagulants-and-one-osmotic-agent-reduces-the-extent-of-the-lesion-in-the-acute-phase-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-rat
#17
Mathieu Boutonnet, Elisabeth Laemmel, Eric Vicaut, Jacques Duranteau, Marc Soubeyrand
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex disease that leads to a motor, sensitive, and vegetative impairment. So far, single therapies are ineffective for treating SCI in humans and a multifactorial therapeutic approach may be required. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of a triple therapy (TT) associating two pro-coagulant therapies (tranexamic acid and fibrinogen) with an anti-edema therapy (hypertonic saline solution), on the extent of the lesion 24 h post-injury...
December 11, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230545/influence-of-different-types-of-light-on-the-response-of-the-pulp-tissue-in-dental-bleaching-a-systematic-review
#18
Francine Benetti, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo Lemos, Marjorie de Oliveira Gallinari, Amanda Miyuki Terayama, André Luiz Fraga Briso, Rogério de Castilho Jacinto, Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review (PROSPERO register: CRD42016053140) investigated the influence of different types of light on the pulp tissue during dental bleaching. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent authors conducted a systematic search and risk of bias evaluations. An electronic search was undertaken (PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other databases) until May 2017. The population, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICO) question was: "Does the light in dental bleaching change the response of the pulp to the bleaching procedure?" The intervention involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching with light, while the comparison involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching without light...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230179/transplacental-nutrient-transport-mechanisms-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rodent-models-and-humans
#19
REVIEW
Elke Winterhager, Alexandra Gellhaus
Although the causes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been intensively investigated, important information is still lacking about the role of the placenta as a link from adverse maternal environment to adverse pregnancy outcomes of IUGR and preterm birth. IUGR is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases later in life. Determination of the most important pathways that regulate transplacental transport systems is necessary for identifying marker genes as diagnostic tools and for developing drugs that target the molecular pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230098/circular-rnas-a-novel-type-of-non-coding-rna-and-their-potential-implications-in-antiviral-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Man Wang, Fei Yu, Wei Wu, Yuan Zhang, Wenguang Chang, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. Unlike linear RNAs, circRNAs form covalent-closed continuous loops without 5' to 3' polarities and poly (A) tails. With advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, numerous circRNAs have been identified in plants, animals and humans. Notably, circRNAs display cell-type, tissue-type and developmental-stage specific expression patterns in eukaryotic transcriptome, which reveals their significant regulatory functions in gene expression...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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