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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091410/molecular-mechanisms-of-increased-heart-rate-in-shenxianshengmai-treated-bradycardia-rabbits
#1
Zhou-Ying Liu, Jian Huang, Na-Na Liu, Min Zheng, Tao Zhao, Bu-Chang Zhao, Yi-Min Wang, Jie-Lin Pu
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms of Shenxianshengmai (SXSM), a traditional Chinese medicine, on bradycardia have been incompletely understood. The study tried to investigate the gene expression profile and proteomics of bradycardia rabbits' hearts after SXSM treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four adult rabbits were randomly assigned in four groups: sham, model, model plus SXSM treatment, and sham plus SXSM treatment groups. Heart rate was recorded in all rabbits. Then, total RNA of atria and proteins of ventricle were isolated and quantified, respectively...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077320/serine-threonine-phosphatases-in-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Jordi Heijman, Shokoufeh Ghezelbash, Xander H T Wehrens, Dobromir Dobrev
Serine/threonine protein phosphatases control dephosphorylation of numerous cardiac proteins, including a variety of ion channels and calcium-handling proteins, thereby providing precise post-translational regulation of cardiac electrophysiology and function. Accordingly, dysfunction of this regulation can contribute to the initiation, maintenance and progression of cardiac arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart rhythm disorder and is characterized by electrical, autonomic, calcium-handling, contractile, and structural remodeling, which include, among other things, changes in the phosphorylation status of a wide range of proteins...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065821/an-evaluation-of-the-utility-of-lvdp-dt40-qa-interval-lvdp-dtmin-and-tau-as-indicators-of-drug-induced-changes-in-contractility-and-lusitropy-in-dogs
#3
Michael K Pugsley, Brian Guth, Alan Y Chiang, Jennifer M Doyle, Michael Engwall, Jean-Michel Guillon, Peter K Hoffmann, John E Koerner, Scott W Mittelstadt, Jennifer Beck Pierson, Eric I Rossman, Dustan R Sarazan, Stanley T Parish
INTRODUCTION: The importance of drug-induced effects on the inotropic state of the heart is well known. Unlike hemodynamic and cardiac electrophysiological methods, which have been routinely used in drug safety testing for years, the non-clinical assessment of drug effects on myocardial contractility is used less frequently with no established translation to humans. The goal of these studies was to determine whether assessment of alternate measures of cardiac inotropy could detect drug-induced changes in the contractile state of the heart using drugs known to have clinically relevant positive and negative effects on myocardial contractility...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060289/high-resolution-optical-mapping-of-the-mouse-sino-atrial-node
#4
Di Lang, Alexey V Glukhov
Sino-atrial node (SAN) dysfunctions and associated complications constitute important causes of morbidity in patients with cardiac diseases. The development of novel pharmacological therapies to cure these patients relies on the thorough understanding of both normal physiology and pathophysiology of the SAN. Among the studies of cardiac pacemaking, the mouse SAN is widely used due to its feasibility for modifications in the expression of different genes that encode SAN ion channels or calcium handling proteins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011740/effects-of-glutaraldehyde-concentration-and-fixation-time-on-material-characteristics-and-calcification-of-bovine-pericardium-implications-for-the-optimal-method-of-fixation-of-autologous-pericardium-used-for-cardiovascular-surgery
#5
Cheul Lee, Hong-Gook Lim, Chang-Ha Lee, Yong Jin Kim
OBJECTIVES: Autologous pericardium, which is widely used in the field of cardiovascular surgery, is usually fixed with glutaraldehyde (GA) to improve handling and provide biomechanical stability. However, an optimal method of GA fixation of autologous pericardium is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of GA concentration and fixation time on material characteristics and calcification of bovine pericardium. METHODS: Bovine pericardial tissues were fixed with different concentrations of GA (0...
December 22, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008297/altered-calcium-handling-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-acute-ischemia
#6
REVIEW
Peter Baumeister, T Alexander Quinn
Acute ischemia results in deadly cardiac arrhythmias that are a major contributor to sudden cardiac death (SCD). The electrophysiological changes involved have been extensively studied, yet the mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias during acute ischemia remain unclear. What is known is that during acute ischemia both focal (ectopic excitation) and nonfocal (reentry) arrhythmias occur, due to an interaction of altered electrical, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the myocardium. There is particular interest in the role that alterations in intracellular calcium handling, which cause changes in intracellular calcium concentration and to the calcium transient, play in ischemia-induced arrhythmias...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994552/exercise-training-attenuates-right-ventricular-remodeling-in-rats-with-pulmonary-arterial-stenosis
#7
Brunno Lemes de Melo, Stella S Vieira, Ednei L Antônio, Luís F N Dos Santos, Leslie A Portes, Regiane S Feliciano, Helenita A de Oliveira, José A Silva, Paulo de Tarso C de Carvalho, Paulo J F Tucci, Andrey J Serra
Introduction: Pulmonary arterial stenosis (PAS) is a congenital defect that causes outflow tract obstruction of the right ventricle (RV). Currently, negative issues are reported in the PAS management: not all patients may be eligible to surgeries; there is often the need for another surgery during passage to adulthood; patients with mild stenosis may have later cardiac adverse repercussions. Thus, the search for approaches to counteract the long-term PAS effects showed to be a current target. At the study herein, we evaluated the cardioprotective role of exercise training in rats submitted to PAS for 9 weeks...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994414/clinical-and-radiographic-comparison-of-indirect-pulp-treatment-using-light-cured-calcium-silicate-and-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-in-primary-molars-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Navya P Menon, Balagopal R Varma, Sureshkumar Janardhanan, Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Bhat Sangeetha Govinda
AIM: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4-7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992670/dissection-of-the-effects-of-quercetin-on-mouse-myocardium
#9
Michel Santana Santos, Evaleide Diniz de Oliveira, Artur Santos-Miranda, Jader Santos Cruz, Antônio Nei Santana Gondim, José Evaldo Rodrigues de Menezes-Filho, Diego Santos de Souza, Leidiane Pinho-da-Silva, Itamar Couto Guedes de Jesus, Danilo Roman-Campos, Silvia Guatimosim, Aline Lara, Eduardo Antônio Conde-Garcia, Carla Maria Lins de Vasconcelos
Quercetin is a plant flavonoid with several biological activities. This study aimed to describe quercetin effects on contractile and electrophysiological properties of the cardiac muscle as well as on calcium handling. Quercetin elicited positive inotropism that was significantly reduced by propranolol indicating an involvement of the sympathetic nervous system. In cardiomyocytes, 30 μM quercetin increased ICa,L at 0 mV from -0.95 ± 0.01 A/F to -1.21 ± 0.08 A/F. The membrane potential at which 50% of the channels are activated (V0...
December 19, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984724/disease-model-of-gata4-mutation-reveals-transcription-factor-cooperativity-in-human-cardiogenesis
#10
Yen-Sin Ang, Renee N Rivas, Alexandre J S Ribeiro, Rohith Srivas, Janell Rivera, Nicole R Stone, Karishma Pratt, Tamer M A Mohamed, Ji-Dong Fu, C Ian Spencer, Nathaniel D Tippens, Molong Li, Anil Narasimha, Ethan Radzinsky, Anita J Moon-Grady, Haiyuan Yu, Beth L Pruitt, Michael P Snyder, Deepak Srivastava
Mutation of highly conserved residues in transcription factors may affect protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions, leading to gene network dysregulation and human disease. Human mutations in GATA4, a cardiogenic transcription factor, cause cardiac septal defects and cardiomyopathy. Here, iPS-derived cardiomyocytes from subjects with a heterozygous GATA4-G296S missense mutation showed impaired contractility, calcium handling, and metabolic activity. In human cardiomyocytes, GATA4 broadly co-occupied cardiac enhancers with TBX5, another transcription factor that causes septal defects when mutated...
December 15, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978950/gene-therapy-with-angiotensin-1-9-preserves-left-ventricular-systolic-function-after-myocardial-infarction
#11
Caroline Fattah, Katrin Nather, Charlotte S McCarroll, Maria P Hortigon-Vinagre, Victor Zamora, Monica Flores-Munoz, Lisa McArthur, Lorena Zentilin, Mauro Giacca, Rhian M Touyz, Godfrey L Smith, Christopher M Loughrey, Stuart A Nicklin
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-(1-9) [Ang-(1-9)] is a novel peptide of the counter-regulatory axis of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system previously demonstrated to have therapeutic potential in hypertensive cardiomyopathy when administered via osmotic mini-pump. Here, we investigate whether gene transfer of Ang-(1-9) is cardioprotective in a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluated effects of Ang-(1-9) gene therapy on myocardial structural and functional remodeling post-infarction...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965034/the-ins-and-outs-of-calcium-signalling-in-lactation-and-involution-implications-for-breast-cancer-treatment
#12
Felicity M Davis
The mammary epithelium is highly responsive to hormonal and non-hormonal signalling cues for physiological growth, function and tissue remodelling. Whilst steroid hormones freely diffuse across the cell membrane to bind to intracellular hormone receptors, cell-impermeable ligands, including many peptide hormones, growth factors and cytokines, bind to receptors on the plasma membrane and relay their message via the specific activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways. A signalling pathway that is indispensable for decoding many extracellular signals into cellular responses is calcium (Ca(2+))...
December 10, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959621/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-lung-pathogenesis
#13
Claude A Piantadosi, Hagir B Suliman
Remarkable new roles for mitochondria in calcium handling, apoptosis, heme turnover, inflammation, and oxygen and nutrient sensing have been discovered for organelles that were once thought to be simple energy converters. Although deficits in mitochondrial function are often associated with energy failure and apoptosis, working cells maintain a mitochondrial reserve that affords the organelles distinct homeostatic-sensing and regulatory abilities in lung cells. As primary intracellular sources of oxidants, mitochondria serve as critical monitors and modulators of vital oxidation-reduction processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, inflammasome activation, cell proliferation, and prevention of fibrosis...
December 7, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957351/the-biochemical-profile-of-familial-hypocalciuric-hypercalcemia-and-primary-hyperparathyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
S A Ghaznavi, N M A Saad, L E Donovan
Background. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH) result in different maternal and fetal complications in pregnancy. Calcium to creatinine clearance ratio (CCCR) is commonly used to help distinguish these two conditions. Physiological changes in calcium handling during pregnancy and lactation can alter CCCR, making it a less useful tool to distinguish PHPT from FHH. Cases. A 25-year-old female presented with hypercalcemia and an inappropriately normal PTH. Her CCCR was 0...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956363/incorporation-of-fast-dissolving-glucose-porogens-into-an-injectable-calcium-phosphate-cement-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#15
Brandon T Smith, Marco Santoro, Eline C Grosfeld, Sarita R Shah, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken, John A Jansen, Antonios G Mikos
: Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been extensively investigated as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering in light of their chemical composition closely resembling the mineral component of bone extracellular matrix. Yet, the degradation kinetics of many CPCs is slow compared to de novo bone formation. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the use of porogens within CPCs has been suggested as a potential strategy to increase scaffold porosity and promote surface degradation. This study explored the usage of glucose microparticles (GMPs) as porogens for the introduction of macroporosity within CPCs, and characterized the handling properties and physicochemical characteristics of CPCs containing GMPs...
December 10, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941647/the-role-of-erk1-2-in-the-development-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#16
REVIEW
Zheng Xu, Jian Sun, Qian Tong, Qian Lin, Lingbo Qian, Yongsoo Park, Yang Zheng
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and may impair numerous organs and functions of the organism. Cardiac dysfunction afflicts many patients who experience the oxidative stress of the heart. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the major complications that accounts for more than half of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality cases. Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from diabetes mellitus cause cardiac oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, impaired cellular calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disturbances, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, which ultimately lead to DCM...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936050/gene-targeted-mice-with-the-human-troponin-t-r141w-mutation-develop-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-calcium-desensitization
#17
Mohun Ramratnam, Guy Salama, Ravi K Sharma, David Wen Rui Wang, Stephen H Smith, Sanjay K Banerjee, Xueyin N Huang, Lindsey M Gifford, Michele L Pruce, Bethann E Gabris, Samir Saba, Sanjeev G Shroff, Ferhaan Ahmad
Most studies of the mechanisms leading to hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have been performed in reconstituted in vitro systems. Genetically engineered murine models offer the opportunity to dissect these mechanisms in vivo. We generated a gene-targeted knock-in murine model of the autosomal dominant Arg141Trp (R141W) mutation in Tnnt2, which was first described in a human family with DCM. Mice heterozygous for the mutation (Tnnt2R141W/+) recapitulated the human phenotype, developing left ventricular dilation and reduced contractility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932479/progress-in-understanding-the-genetics-of-calcium-containing-nephrolithiasis
#18
John A Sayer
Renal stone disease is a frequent condition, causing a huge burden on health care systems globally. Calcium-based calculi account for around 75% of renal stone disease and the incidence of these calculi is increasing, suggesting environmental and dietary factors are acting upon a preexisting genetic background. The familial nature and significant heritability of stone disease is known, and recent genetic studies have successfully identified genes that may be involved in renal stone formation. The detection of monogenic causes of renal stone disease has been made more feasible by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies and has also facilitated the discovery of novel monogenic causes of stone disease...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925238/danshen-enhanced-cardioprotective-effect-of-cardioplegia-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-model
#19
Wei Wei, Yiwei Liu, Qiang Zhang, Yangming Wang, Xiaoling Zhang, Hao Zhang
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unavoidable during cardioplegic arrest and open-heart surgery. Danshen is one of the most popular traditional herbal medicines in China, which has entered the Food and Drug Administration-approved phase III clinical trial. This study was aimed to develop a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) model to mimic I/R injury and evaluate the cardioprotective effect of regular cardioplegic solution with Danshen. hiPSC-CMs were cultured with the crystalloid cardioplegic solution (Thomas group) and Thomas solution with 2 or 10 µg/mL Danshen (Thomas plus Danshen groups)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921040/new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-targeting-tubular-channels-transporters-in-pkd-development
#20
REVIEW
Ming Wu, Shengqiang Yu
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or autosomal recessive PKD is caused by a mutation in the PKD1, PKD2 or PKHD1 gene, which encodes polycystin-1, polycystin-2 or fibrocystin, respectively. Embryonic and postnatal mutation studies show that transport or channel function is dysregulated before the initiation of cystogenesis, suggesting that the abnormality of transport or channel function plays a critical role in the pathology of PKD. SUMMARY: Polycystin-2 by itself is a calcium-permeable cation channel, and its channel function can be regulated by polycystin-1 or fibrocystin...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
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