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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925238/danshen-enhanced-cardioprotective-effect-of-cardioplegia-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-model
#1
Wei Wei, Yiwei Liu, Qiang Zhang, Yangming Wang, Xiaoling Zhang, Hao Zhang
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is unavoidable during cardioplegic arrest and open-heart surgery. Danshen is one of the most popular traditional herbal medicines in China, which has entered the Food and Drug Administration-approved phase III clinical trial. This study was aimed to develop a human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) model to mimic I/R injury and evaluate the cardioprotective effect of regular cardioplegic solution with Danshen. hiPSC-CMs were cultured with the crystalloid cardioplegic solution (Thomas group) and Thomas solution with 2 or 10 µg/mL Danshen (Thomas plus Danshen groups)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921040/new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-targeting-tubular-channels-transporters-in-pkd-development
#2
REVIEW
Ming Wu, Shengqiang Yu
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or autosomal recessive PKD is caused by a mutation in the PKD1, PKD2 or PKHD1 gene, which encodes polycystin-1, polycystin-2 or fibrocystin, respectively. Embryonic and postnatal mutation studies show that transport or channel function is dysregulated before the initiation of cystogenesis, suggesting that the abnormality of transport or channel function plays a critical role in the pathology of PKD. SUMMARY: Polycystin-2 by itself is a calcium-permeable cation channel, and its channel function can be regulated by polycystin-1 or fibrocystin...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915449/common-variants-in-cldn14-are-associated-with-differential-excretion-of-magnesium-over-calcium-in-urine
#3
REVIEW
Tanguy Corre, Eric Olinger, Sarah E Harris, Michela Traglia, Sheila Ulivi, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Hendrica Belge, Sonia Youhanna, Natsuko Tokonami, Olivier Bonny, Pascal Houillier, Ozren Polasek, Ian J Deary, John M Starr, Daniela Toniolo, Paolo Gasparini, Peter Vollenweider, Caroline Hayward, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
The nature and importance of genetic factors regulating the differential handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) by the renal tubule in the general population are poorly defined. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio to identify associated common genetic variants. We included 9320 adults of European descent from four genetic isolates and three urban cohorts. Urinary magnesium and calcium concentrations were measured centrally in spot urine, and each study conducted linear regression analysis of urinary magnesium-to-calcium ratio on ~2...
December 3, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#4
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906053/attenuated-ca-2-release-in-a-mouse-model-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2a
#5
Marino DiFranco, Irina Kramerova, Julio L Vergara, Melissa Jan Spencer
BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment...
February 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882143/expression-of-connexin-43-ion-channels-and-ca-2-handling-proteins-in-rat-pulmonary-vein-cardiomyocytes
#6
Yaqiong Xiao, Xue Cai, Andrew Atkinson, Sunil Jit Logantha, Mark Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. AF is thought to be triggered by ectopic beats, originating primarily in the myocardial sleeves surrounding the pulmonary veins (PVs). The mechanisms underlying these cardiac arrhythmias remain unclear. To investigate this, frozen sections of heart and lung tissue from adult rats without arrhythmia were obtained in different planes, stained with Masson's trichrome, and immunolabeled for connexin 43 (Cx43), caveolin-3 (Cav3), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4), Nav1...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851958/alternative-splicing-of-four-trafficking-genes-regulates-myofiber-structure-and-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#7
Jimena Giudice, James A Loehr, George G Rodney, Thomas A Cooper
During development, transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks are coordinately regulated to drive organ maturation. Alternative splicing contributes by producing temporal-specific protein isoforms. We previously found that genes undergoing splicing transitions during mouse postnatal heart development are enriched for vesicular trafficking and membrane dynamics functions. Here, we show that adult trafficking isoforms are also expressed in adult skeletal muscle and hypothesize that striated muscle utilizes alternative splicing to generate specific isoforms required for function of adult tissue...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832566/sequencing-of-genes-involved-in-the-movement-of-calcium-across-human-skeletal-muscle-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-continuing-the-search-for-genes-associated-with-malignant-hyperthermia
#8
A R Bjorksten, R L Gillies, B M Hockey, D Du Sart
The genetic basis of malignant hyperthermia (MH) is not fully characterised and likely involves more than just the currently classified mutations in the gene encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (<i>RYR1</i>) and the gene encoding the α1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (<i>CACNA1S</i>). In this paper we sequence other genes involved in calcium trafficking within skeletal muscle in patients with positive in vitro contracture tests, searching for alternative genes associated with MH...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818693/electrically-induced-calcium-handling-in-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#9
Joshua T Maxwell, Mary B Wagner, Michael E Davis
For nearly a century, the heart was viewed as a terminally differentiated organ until the discovery of a resident population of cardiac stem cells known as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). It has been shown that the regenerative capacity of CPCs can be enhanced by ex vivo modification. Preconditioning CPCs could provide drastic improvements in cardiac structure and function; however, a systematic approach to determining a mechanistic basis for these modifications founded on the physiology of CPCs is lacking...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812293/atrial-electrophysiological-remodeling-and-fibrillation-in-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
Sandeep V Pandit, Antony J Workman
Heart failure (HF) causes complex, chronic changes in atrial structure and function, which can cause substantial electrophysiological remodeling and predispose the individual to atrial fibrillation (AF). Pharmacological treatments for preventing AF in patients with HF are limited. Improved understanding of the atrial electrical and ionic/molecular mechanisms that promote AF in these patients could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Animal models of HF have identified numerous changes in atrial ion currents, intracellular calcium handling, action potential waveform and conduction, as well as expression and signaling of associated proteins...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812021/mechanisms-of-arrhythmogenesis-related-to-calcium-driven-alternans-in-a-model-of-human-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Kelly C Chang, Natalia A Trayanova
The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium-driven alternans (CDA) on arrhythmia susceptibility in a biophysically detailed, 3D computer model of the human atria representing electrical and structural remodeling secondary to chronic AF...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810048/patient-specific-and-genome-edited-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-elucidate-single-cell-phenotype-of-brugada-syndrome
#12
Ping Liang, Karim Sallam, Haodi Wu, Yingxin Li, Ilanit Itzhaki, Priyanka Garg, Ying Zhang, Vittavat Vermglinchan, Feng Lan, Mingxia Gu, Tingyu Gong, Yan Zhuge, Chunjiang He, Antje D Ebert, Veronica Sanchez-Freire, Jared Churko, Shijun Hu, Arun Sharma, Chi Keung Lam, Melvin M Scheinman, Donald M Bers, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS), a disorder associated with characteristic electrocardiogram precordial ST-segment elevation, predisposes afflicted patients to ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Despite marked achievements in outlining the organ level pathophysiology of the disorder, the understanding of human cellular phenotype has lagged due to a lack of adequate human cellular models of the disorder. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine single cell mechanism of Brugada syndrome using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806245/aerobic-exercise-training-as-a-potential-cardioprotective-strategy-to-attenuate-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#13
Samir A Kouzi, Mohammad Nasir Uddin
Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs against several cancers.  Although a highly effective anticancer drug, the clinical use of doxorubicin is severely limited by its cardiotoxicity which results in morbidity, poor quality of life, and premature mortality.  Only very few clinically accepted methods to minimize doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury are available today, but none of them have proven to be completely successful.  Due to limited alternative strategies, a number of potential cardioprotective therapies are currently being investigated for treating and/or preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793852/acute-exposure-to-progesterone-attenuates-cardiac-contraction-by-modifying-myofilament-calcium-sensitivity-in-the-female-mouse-heart
#14
Hirad A Feridooni, Jennifer K MacDonald, Anjali Ghimire, W Glen Pyle, Susan E Howlett
Acute application of progesterone attenuates cardiac contraction, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated whether progesterone modified contraction in isolated ventricular myocytes and identified the Ca(2+) handling mechanisms involved in female C57BL/6 mice (6-9 mos; sodium pentobarbital anesthesia). Cells were field-stimulated (4 Hz; 37°C) and exposed to progesterone (0.001-10.0 μM) or vehicle (35 mins). Ca(2+) transients (fura-2) and cell shortening were recorded simultaneously...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776889/a-new-target-for-parkinson-s-disease-small-molecule-serca-activator-cdn1163-ameliorates-dyskinesia-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#15
Russell Dahl
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is intimately linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology. Disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis is a major cause of the ER stress seen in dopaminergic neurons, leading to the cell death and subsequent loss of movement and coordination in patients. Dysfunctional calcium handling proteins play a major role in the promulgation of ER stress in PD. Specifically, compromised sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) has been identified as a major cause of ER stress and neuron loss in PD...
October 12, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773894/calcium-silicate-based-cements-and-functional-impacts-of-various-constituents
#16
Mohammad Ali Saghiri, Jafar Orangi, Armen Asatourian, James L Gutmann, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Mehrdad Lotfi, Nader Sheibani
Calcium silicate-based cements have superior sealing ability, bioactivity, and marginal adaptation, which make them suitable for different dental treatment applications. However, they exhibit some drawbacks such as long setting time and poor handling characteristics. To overcome these limitations calcium silicates are engineered with various constituents to improve specific characteristics of the base material, and are the focus of this review. An electronic search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE via OVID databases using appropriate terms and keywords related to the use, application, and properties of calcium silicate-based cements was conducted...
October 22, 2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771862/a-protocol-for-the-refinement-of-nmr-structures-using-simultaneously-pseudocontact-shift-restraints-from-multiple-lanthanide-ions
#17
Davide Sala, Andrea Giachetti, Claudio Luchinat, Antonio Rosato
The binding of paramagnetic metal ions to proteins produces a number of different effects on the NMR spectra of the system. In particular, when the magnetic susceptibility of the metal ion is anisotropic, pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) arise and can be easily measured. They constitute very useful restraints for the solution structure determination of metal-binding proteins. In this context, there has been great interest in the use of lanthanide(III) ions to induce PCSs in diamagnetic proteins, e.g. through the replacement native calcium(II) ions...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761848/dexamethasone-induced-cardiac-deterioration-is-associated-with-both-calcium-handling-abnormalities-and-calcineurin-signaling-pathway-activation
#18
Fabiana de Salvi Guimarães, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de Moraes, Luis Henrique Marchesi Bozi, Pâmela R Souza, Ednei Luiz Antonio, Danilo Sales Bocalini, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Patricia Chakur Brum, Alessandra Medeiros
Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days...
October 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761166/cardiac-dynamics-alternans-and-arrhythmogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Gary Tse, Sheung Ting Wong, Vivian Tse, Yee Ting Lee, Hiu Yu Lin, Jie Ming Yeo
Pre-existing heterogeneities present in cardiac tissue are essential for maintaining the normal electrical and mechanical functions of the heart. Exacerbation of such heterogeneities or the emergence of dynamic factors can produce repolarization alternans, which are beat-to-beat alternations in the action potential time course. Traditionally, this was explained by restitution, but additional factors, such as cardiac memory, calcium handling dynamics, refractory period restitution, and mechano-electric feedback, are increasingly recognized as the underlying causes...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739473/associations-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-casr-rs7652589-snp-with-nephrolithiasis-and-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-haemodialysis-patients
#20
Alicja E Grzegorzewska, Mateusz Paciorkowski, Adrianna Mostowska, Bartosz Frycz, Wojciech Warchoł, Ireneusz Stolarek, Marek Figlerowicz, Paweł P Jagodziński
Nephrolithiasis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), and cardiovascular complications are associated with disturbances in Ca handling and contribute to morbidity/mortality during haemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetics, activators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), provide an effective means of reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in sHPT. Polymorphism in CaSR gene (CASR) influences Ca-related parameters, however it was not shown in HD patients for CASR rs7652589. The minor allele at this polymorphism modifies the binding sites of transcription factors and CaSR expression...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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