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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914921/determining-the-pathogenicity-of-a-genomic-variant-of-uncertain-significance-using-crispr-cas9-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Ning Ma, Joe Zhang, Ilanit Itzhaki, Sophia L Zhang, Haodong Chen, Francois Haddad, Tomoya Kitani, Kitchener D Wilson, Lei Tian, Rajani Shrestha, Haodi Wu, Chi Keung Lam, Nazish Sayed, Joseph C Wu
Background -The progression toward low-cost and rapid next-generation sequencing has uncovered a multitude of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in both patients and asymptomatic "healthy" individuals. A VUS is a rare or novel variant for which disease pathogenicity has not been conclusively demonstrated or excluded, and thus cannot be definitively annotated. VUS, therefore, pose critical clinical interpretation and risk-assessment challenges, and new methods are urgently needed to better characterize their pathogenicity...
June 18, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903013/inhibition-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-kinase-ii-restores-contraction-and-relaxation-in-isolated-cardiac-muscle-from-type-2-diabetic-rats
#2
Lorna J Daniels, Rachel S Wallace, Olivia M Nicholson, Genevieve A Wilson, Fiona J McDonald, Peter P Jones, J Chris Baldi, Regis R Lamberts, Jeffrey R Erickson
BACKGROUND: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-delta (CaMKIIδ) activity is enhanced during hyperglycemia and has been shown to alter intracellular calcium handling in cardiomyocytes, ultimately leading to reduced cardiac performance. However, the effects of CaMKIIδ on cardiac contractility during type 2 diabetes are undefined. METHODS: We examined the expression and activation of CaMKIIδ in right atrial appendages from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients (n = 7 patients per group) with preserved ejection fraction, and also in right ventricular tissue from Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) (n = 5-10 animals per group) during early diabetic cardiac dysfunction, using immunoblot...
June 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862303/metformin-inhibits-mouse-islet-insulin-secretion-and-alters-intracellular-calcium-in-a-concentration-dependent-and-duration-dependent-manner-near-the-circulating-range
#3
Lindor Gelin, Jiewen Li, Kathryn L Corbin, Ishrat Jahan, Craig S Nunemaker
Metformin is considered the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes. While metformin primarily increases insulin sensitivity, evidence also suggests that metformin affects the activity of insulin-secreting pancreatic islets. This study was designed to systematically examine the direct effects of metformin by measuring insulin secretion and the kinetics of the calcium response to glucose stimulation in isolated mouse islets using varying concentrations (20  μ M, 200  μ M, and 1 mM) and durations (~1, 2, and 3 days) of metformin exposure...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851001/mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-and-calcium-handling
#4
Randi J Parks, Elizabeth Murphy, Julia C Liu
The opening of a large conductance channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane, known as the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), has been shown to be a primary mediator of cell death in the heart subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Inhibitors of the PTP have been shown to reduce cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury in many animal models. Furthermore, most cardioprotective strategies appear to reduce ischemic cell death either by reducing the triggers for the opening of the PTP, such as reducing calcium overload or reactive oxygen species, or by inhibiting PTP modulators...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850517/newly-developed-polyglycolic-acid-reinforcement-unified-with-sodium-alginate-to-prevent-adhesion
#5
Shinichiro Morita, Toshitaka Takagi, Rie Abe, Hiroyuki Tsujimoto, Yuki Ozamoto, Hiroko Torii, Akeo Hagiwara
Polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh fabric is widely used for reinforcing injured tissues during surgeries. However, PGA induces chronic inflammation and adhesion. The purpose of this study is to develop PGA reinforcement "without PGA-induced adhesion." We developed a reinforcement fabric unified with PGA mesh and alginate foam. The antiadhesive effects of sodium alginate foam and calcium alginate foam were evaluated in rats. Sodium alginate foam unified with PGA mesh fabric exhibited strong effects that limit the extent and severity of adhesion, whereas calcium alginate foam unified with PGA mesh was less effective in preventing adhesion...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797443/cigarette-smoke-directly-impairs-skeletal-muscle-function-through-capillary-regression-and-altered-myofiber-calcium-kinetics-in-mice
#6
Leonardo Nogueira, Breanna M Trisko, Frederico L Lima-Rosa, Jason Jackson, Helena Lund-Palau, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Ellen C Breen
Cigarette smokers exhibit exercise intolerance before a decline in respiratory function. In the present study, the direct effects of cigarette smoke on limb muscle function were tested by comparing cigarette smoke delivered to mice by weekly injections of cigarette smoke extract (CSE), or nose-only exposure (CS) five days each week both for 8 weeks. Cigarette smoke delivered by either route did not alter pulmonary airspace size. Muscle fatigue measured in situ was 50% lower in the CSE and CS groups than control...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791204/role-of-adenosine-signaling-in-coordinating-cardiomyocyte-function-and-coronary-vascular-growth-in-chronic-fetal-anemia
#7
Lowell Davis, James Musso, Divya Soman, Samantha Louey, Jonathan William Nelson, Sonnet S Jonker
Fetal anemia causes rapid and profound changes in cardiac structure and function, stimulating proliferation of the cardiac myocytes, expansion of the coronary vascular tree, and impairing early contraction and relaxation. While HIF-1α is sure to play a role, adenosine, a metabolic byproduct that increases coronary flow and growth, is implicated as a major stimulus for these adaptations. We hypothesized that genes involved in myocardial adenosine signaling would be up-regulated in chronically anemic fetuses, and that calcium handling genes would be down-regulated...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#8
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785184/theracal-lc-from-biochemical-and-bioactive-properties-to-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Naji Ziad Arandi, Tarek Rabi
Background: Direct pulp capping is a popular treatment modality among dentists. TheraCal LC is a calcium silicate-based material that is designed as a direct/indirect pulp capping material. The material might be very attractive for clinicians because of its ease of handling. Unlike other calcium silicate-based materials, TheraCal LC is resin-based and does not require any conditioning of the dentine surface. The material can be bonded with different types of adhesives directly after application...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783197/quantification-of-21-antihypertensive-drugs-in-serum-using-uhplc-ms-ms
#10
Per Ole M Gundersen, Arne Helland, Olav Spigset, Solfrid Hegstad
BACKGROUND: Poor drug adherence in hypertensive patients can lead to treatment failure and increased cardiovascular morbidity, as well as increased costs to society. An analytical method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS) was developed and validated for use in routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The method includes 21 antihypertensive drugs or active metabolites from the groups beta blockers (n=5), calcium antagonists (n=5), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (n=4), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (n=3) and diuretics (n = 3), in addition to one α1-selective alpha blocker...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781060/effects-of-physical-and-chemical-aspects-on-membrane-fouling-and-cleaning-using-interfacial-free-energy-analysis-in-forward-osmosis
#11
Wanzhu Zhang, Bingzhi Dong
Natural organic matter (NOM) in micro-polluted water purification using membranes is a critical issue to handle. Understanding the fouling mechanism in the forward osmosis (FO) process, particularly identifying the predominant factor that controls membrane fouling, could have significant effects on exerting the advantages of FO technique. Cellulose triacetate no-woven (CTA-NW) membrane is applied to experiments with a high removal efficiency (> 99%) for the model foulant. Tannic acid (TA) is used as a surrogate foulant for NOM in the membrane fouling process, thus enabling the analysis of the effects of physical and chemical aspects of water flux, retention, and adsorption...
May 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778900/hereditary-sensory-neuropathy-type-1-associated-deoxysphingolipids-cause-neurotoxicity-acute-calcium-handling-abnormalities-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-vitro
#12
Emma R Wilson, Umaiyal Kugathasan, Andrey Y Abramov, Alex J Clark, David L H Bennett, Mary M Reilly, Linda Greensmith, Bernadett Kalmar
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is a peripheral neuropathy most frequently caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 or SPTLC2 genes, which code for two subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT catalyzes the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Mutations in SPT result in a change in enzyme substrate specificity, which causes the production of atypical deoxysphinganine and deoxymethylsphinganine, rather than the normal enzyme product, sphinganine. Levels of these abnormal compounds are elevated in blood of HSN-1 patients and this is thought to cause the peripheral motor and sensory nerve damage that is characteristic of the disease, by a largely unresolved mechanism...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771311/pathobiology-of-cardiac-dyssynchrony-and-resynchronization-therapy
#13
Uyên Châu Nguyên, Nienke J Verzaal, Frans A van Nieuwenhoven, Kevin Vernooy, Frits W Prinzen
Synchronous ventricular electrical activation is a prerequisite for adequate left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Conduction abnormalities such as left bundle branch block, and ventricular pacing lead to a dyssynchronous electrical activation sequence, which may have deleterious consequences. The present review attempts to connect the various processes involved in the development of 'dyssynchronopathy', and its correction by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Abnormal electrical impulse conduction leads to abnormal contraction, characterized by regional differences in timing as well as shortening patterns and amount of external work performed...
May 15, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767557/polycystin-1-dysfunction-impairs-electrolyte-and-water-handling-in-a-renal-pre-cystic-mouse-model-for-adpkd
#14
Eric H J Verschuren, Sami G Mohammed, Wouter N Leonhard, Caro Overmars-Bos, Kimberly A M Veraar, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Dorien J M Peters, Francisco J Arjona
The PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), a mechanosensor triggering intracellular responses upon urinary flow sensing in kidney tubular cells. Mutations in PKD1 lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The involvement of PC1 in renal electrolyte handling remains unknown since renal electrolyte physiology in ADPKD patients has only been characterized in cystic ADPKD. We thus studied the renal electrolyte handling in inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout (iKsp-Pkd1-/-) mice manifesting a pre-cystic phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765562/a-myriad-of-roles-of-mir-25-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Kahán, Tamás Csont
Small non-coding RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently recognized as important regulators of gene expression. MicroRNAs play myriads of roles in physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases by translational repression or mRNA destabilization of numerous target genes. The miR-106b-25 cluster is highly conserved in vertebrates and consists of three members including miR-106b, miR-93 and miR-25. MiR-106b and miR-93 share the same seed sequences; however, miR-25 has only a similar seed sequence resulting in different predicted target mRNAs...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760186/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-mutations-increase-myofilament-ca-2-buffering-alter-intracellular-ca-2-handling-and-stimulate-ca-2-dependent-signalling
#16
Paul Robinson, Xing Liu, Alexander Sparrow, Suketu Patel, Yin Hua Zhang, Barbara Casadei, Hugh Watkins, Charles S Redwood
Mutations in thin filament regulatory proteins that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) increase myofilament Ca2+ -sensitivity. Mouse models exhibit increased Ca2+ buffering and arrhythmias, and we hypothesized that these changes are primary effects of the mutations (independent of compensatory changes) and that increased Ca2+ - buffering and altered Ca2+ -handling contribute to HCM pathogenesis via activation of Ca2+ -dependent signalling. Here, we determined the primary effects of HCM mutations on intracellular Ca2+ -handling and Ca2+ -dependent signalling in a model system possessing Ca2+ -handling mechanisms and contractile protein isoforms close to human in the absence of potentially confounding remodeling...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757281/analyses-of-mitochondrial-calcium-influx-in-isolated-mitochondria-and-cultured-cells
#17
Joshua T Maxwell, Chin-Hsien Tsai, Tahmina A Mohiuddin, Jennifer Q Kwong
Ca2+ handling by mitochondria is a critical function regulating both physiological and pathophysiological processes in a broad spectrum of cells. The ability to accurately measure the influx and efflux of Ca2+ from mitochondria is important for determining the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in these processes. In this report, we present two methods for the measurement of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in both isolated mitochondria and cultured cells. We first detail a plate reader-based platform for measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake using the Ca2+ sensitive dye calcium green-5N...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752948/functional-and-transcriptomic-insights-into-pathogenesis-of-r9c-phospholamban-mutation-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#18
Delaine K Ceholski, Irene C Turnbull, Chi-Wing Kong, Simon Koplev, Joshua Mayourian, Przemek A Gorski, Francesca Stillitano, Angelos A Skodras, Mathieu Nonnenmacher, Ninette Cohen, Johan L M Björkegren, Daniel R Stroik, Razvan L Cornea, David D Thomas, Ronald A Li, Kevin D Costa, Roger J Hajjar
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in the cardiac protein phospholamban (PLN). We used CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the R9C PLN mutation at its endogenous locus into a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line from an individual with no cardiovascular disease. R9C PLN hiPSC-CMs display a blunted β-agonist response and defective calcium handling. In 3D human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs), a blunted lusitropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation was observed with R9C PLN. hiPSC-CMs harboring the R9C PLN mutation showed activation of a hypertrophic phenotype, as evidenced by expression of hypertrophic markers and increased cell size and capacitance of cardiomyocytes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750989/altered-ca-2-signaling-in-enamelopathies
#19
REVIEW
Miriam Eckstein, Francisco J Aulestia, Meerim K Nurbaeva, Rodrigo S Lacruz
Biomineralization requires the controlled movement of ions across cell barriers to reach the sites of crystal growth. Mineral precipitation occurs in aqueous phases as fluids become supersaturated with specific ionic compositions. In the biological world, biomineralization is dominated by the presence of calcium (Ca2+ ) in crystal lattices. Ca2+ channels are intrinsic modulators of this process, facilitating the availability of Ca2+ within cells in a tightly regulated manner in time and space. Unequivocally, the most mineralized tissue produced by vertebrates, past and present, is dental enamel...
May 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748369/calcium-signaling-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mitochondria
#20
REVIEW
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
In heart failure, alterations of Na+ and Ca2+ handling, energetic deficit, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes are important pathophysiological hallmarks. Mitochondria are central to these processes because they are the main source for ATP, but also reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their function is critically controlled by Ca2+ During physiological variations of workload, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is required to match energy supply to demand but also to keep the antioxidative capacity in a reduced state to prevent excessive emission of ROS...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
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