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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284750/cyclic-amp-dependent-plasticity-underlies-rapid-changes-in-odor-coding-associated-with-reward-learning
#1
Thierry Louis, Aaron Stahl, Tamara Boto, Seth M Tomchik
Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is critically involved in olfactory classical conditioning, and cAMP signaling molecules are necessary and sufficient for normal memory in intrinsic MB neurons. To evaluate the role of cAMP-dependent plasticity in learning, we examined how cAMP manipulations and olfactory classical conditioning modulate olfactory responses in the MB with in vivo imaging...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279411/removal-of-perineuronal-nets-disrupts-recall-of-a-remote-fear-memory
#2
Elise Holter Thompson, Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Mattis Brænne Wigestrand, Anders Malthe-Sørenssen, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn
Throughout life animals learn to recognize cues that signal danger and instantaneously initiate an adequate threat response. Memories of such associations may last a lifetime and far outlast the intracellular molecules currently found to be important for memory processing. The memory engram may be supported by other more stable molecular components, such as the extracellular matrix structure of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Here, we show that recall of remote, but not recent, visual fear memories in rats depend on intact PNNs in the secondary visual cortex (V2L)...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279390/locus-coeruleus-input-to-hippocampal-ca3-drives-single-trial-learning-of-a-novel-context
#3
Akiko Wagatsuma, Teruhiro Okuyama, Chen Sun, Lillian M Smith, Kuniya Abe, Susumu Tonegawa
The memory for a new episode is formed immediately upon experience and can last up to a lifetime. It has been shown that the hippocampal network plays a fundamental role in the rapid acquisition of a memory of a one-time experience, in which the novelty component of the experience promotes the prompt formation of the memory. However, it remains unclear which neural circuits convey the novelty signal to the hippocampus for the single-trial learning. Here, we show that during encoding neuromodulatory input from locus coeruleus (LC) to CA3, but not CA1 or to the dentate gyrus, is necessary to facilitate novel contextual learning...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209962/effects-of-location-and-extent-of-spine-clustering-on-synaptic-integration-in-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons-a-computational-study
#4
Mrunal Rane, Rohit Manchanda
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known widely for its role in the reward circuit, which is dysregulated in a number of psychological disorders. Recent evidence also suggests the contribution of this structure in spatial and gustatory memories. Because of its role in different types of memories, similar to the hippocampus, we assumed the formation of spine clusters, which are engrams of memory, to be present on dendrites of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that the activation of clustered inputs resulted in sublinear summation when clusters were present on the same branch and also when inputs were distributed on different branches...
December 6, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187215/criteria-for-identifying-the-molecular-basis-of-the-engram-camkii-pkmzeta
#5
REVIEW
John Lisman
The engram refers to the molecular changes by which a memory is stored in the brain. Substantial evidence suggests that memory involves learning-dependent changes at synapses, a process termed long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, understanding the storages process that underlies LTP may provide insight into how the engram is stored. LTP involves induction, maintenance (storage), and expression sub-processes; special tests are required to specifically reveal properties of the storage process. The strongest of these is the Erasure test in which a transiently applied agent that attacks a putative storage molecule may lead to persistent erasure of previously induced LTP/memory...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136107/contextual-fear-extinction-induces-hippocampal-metaplasticity-mediated-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5
#6
Branden J Stansley, Nicole M Fisher, Rocco G Gogliotti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Dysregulated fear memory can lead to a broad spectrum of anxiety disorders. The brain systems underlying fear memory are manifold, with the hippocampus being prominently involved by housing fear-related spatial memories as engrams, which are created and stored through neural changes such as synaptic plasticity. Although metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors contribute significantly to both fear behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the relationship between these two phenomena has not been fully elucidated...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078397/silent-memory-engrams-as-the-basis-for-retrograde-amnesia
#7
Dheeraj S Roy, Shruti Muralidhar, Lillian M Smith, Susumu Tonegawa
Recent studies identified neuronal ensembles and circuits that hold specific memory information (memory engrams). Memory engrams are retained under protein synthesis inhibition-induced retrograde amnesia. These engram cells can be activated by optogenetic stimulation for full-fledged recall, but not by stimulation using natural recall cues (thus, amnesia). We call this state of engrams "silent engrams" and the cells bearing them "silent engram cells." The retention of memory information under amnesia suggests that the time-limited protein synthesis following learning is dispensable for memory storage, but may be necessary for effective memory retrieval processes...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031791/biofeedback-in-dysphonia-progress-and-challenges
#8
Geová Oliveira de Amorim, Patrícia Maria Mendes Balata, Laís Guimarães Vieira, Thaís Moura, Hilton Justino da Silva
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that all the complex machinery involved in speech acts along with the auditory system, and their adjustments can be altered. OBJECTIVE: To present the evidence of biofeedback application for treatment of vocal disorders, emphasizing the muscle tension dysphonia. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Scielo, Lilacs, PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, using the combination of descriptors, and admitting as inclusion criteria: articles published in journals with editorial committee, reporting cases or experimental or quasi-experimental research on the use of biofeedback in real time as additional source of treatment monitoring of muscle tension dysphonia or for vocal training...
August 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891529/nonsynaptic-plasticity-model-of-long-term-memory-engrams
#9
L A Cacha, J Ali, Z H Rizvi, P P Yupapin, R R Poznanski
Using steady-state electrical properties of non-ohmic dendrite based on cable theory, we derive electrotonic potentials that do not change over time and are localized in space. We hypothesize that clusters of such stationary, local and permanent pulses are the electrical signatures of enduring memories which are imprinted through nonsynaptic plasticity, encoded through epigenetic mechanisms, and decoded through electrotonic processing. We further hypothesize how retrieval of an engram is made possible by integration of these permanently imprinted standing pulses in a neural circuit through neurotransmission in the extracellular space as part of conscious recall that acts as a guiding template in the reconsolidation of long-term memories through novelty characterized by uncertainty that arises when new fragments of memories reinstate an engram by way of nonsynaptic plasticity that permits its destabilization...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772119/the-biology-of-forgetting-a-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Ronald L Davis, Yi Zhong
Pioneering research studies, beginning with those using Drosophila, have identified several molecular and cellular mechanisms for active forgetting. The currently known mechanisms for active forgetting include neurogenesis-based forgetting, interference-based forgetting, and intrinsic forgetting, the latter term describing the brain's chronic signaling systems that function to slowly degrade molecular and cellular memory traces. The best-characterized pathway for intrinsic forgetting includes "forgetting cells" that release dopamine onto engram cells, mobilizing a signaling pathway that terminates in the activation of Rac1/Cofilin to effect changes in the actin cytoskeleton and neuron/synapse structure...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700099/potential-avenues-for-exercise-to-activate-episodic-memory-related-pathways-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Paul D Loprinzi, Meghan K Edwards, Emily Frith
Memory function plays an important role in activities of daily living, and consequently, quality and quantity of life. In this narrative review, we discuss the anatomical components of episodic memory, including the structure of the hippocampus and the routes of communication to and from this structure. We also highlight cellular traces of memory, such as the engram cell and pathway. To provide etiological insight, the biological mechanisms of episodic memory are discussed, including factors subserving memory encoding (e...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683265/toward-a-neurocentric-view-of-learning
#12
REVIEW
Heather K Titley, Nicolas Brunel, Christian Hansel
Synaptic plasticity (e.g., long-term potentiation [LTP]) is considered the cellular correlate of learning. Recent optogenetic studies on memory engram formation assign a critical role in learning to suprathreshold activation of neurons and their integration into active engrams ("engram cells"). Here we review evidence that ensemble integration may result from LTP but also from cell-autonomous changes in membrane excitability. We propose that synaptic plasticity determines synaptic connectivity maps, whereas intrinsic plasticity-possibly separated in time-amplifies neuronal responsiveness and acutely drives engram integration...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667669/optogenetic-stimulation-of-dentate-gyrus-engrams-restores-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#13
Jennifer N Perusini, Stephanie A Cajigas, Omid Cohensedgh, Sean C Lim, Ina P Pavlova, Zoe R Donaldson, Christine A Denny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice have been developed as an AD model and are characterized by plaque formation at 4-6 months of age. Here, we sought to better understand AD-related cognitive decline by characterizing various types of memory. In order to better understand how memory declines with AD, APP/PS1 mice were bred with ArcCreER(T2) mice. In this line, neural ensembles activated during memory encoding can be indelibly tagged and directly compared with neural ensembles activated during memory retrieval (i...
October 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649195/modulating-stdp-balance-impacts-the-dendritic-mosaic
#14
Nicolangelo Iannella, Thomas Launey
The ability for cortical neurons to adapt their input/output characteristics and information processing capabilities ultimately relies on the interplay between synaptic plasticity, synapse location, and the nonlinear properties of the dendrite. Collectively, they shape both the strengths and spatial arrangements of convergent afferent inputs to neuronal dendrites. Recent experimental and theoretical studies support a clustered plasticity model, a view that synaptic plasticity promotes the formation of clusters or hotspots of synapses sharing similar properties...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625209/involvement-of-the-left-supramarginal-gyrus-in-manipulation-judgment-tasks-contributions-to-theories-of-tool-use
#15
Mathieu Lesourd, François Osiurak, Jordan Navarro, Emanuelle Reynaud
OBJECTIVES: Two theories of tool use, namely the gesture engram and the technical reasoning theories, make distinct predictions about the involvement of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in manipulation judgement tasks. The objective here is to test these alternative predictions based on previous studies on manipulation judgment tasks using transcranial magnetic stimulations (TMS) targeting the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). METHODS: We review recent TMS studies on manipulation judgement tasks and confront these data with predictions made by both tool use theories...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611219/inhibitory-engrams-in-perception-and-memory
#16
Helen C Barron, Tim P Vogels, Timothy E Behrens, Mani Ramaswami
Nervous systems use excitatory cell assemblies to encode and represent sensory percepts. Similarly, synaptically connected cell assemblies or "engrams" are thought to represent memories of past experience. Multiple lines of recent evidence indicate that brain systems create and use inhibitory replicas of excitatory representations for important cognitive functions. Such matched "inhibitory engrams" can form through homeostatic potentiation of inhibition onto postsynaptic cells that show increased levels of excitation...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585731/intracellular-determinants-of-hippocampal-cell-assembly-formation-during-associative-learning
#17
Jérôme Epsztein, Julie Koenig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577978/social-memory-engram-in-the-hippocampus
#18
REVIEW
Teruhiro Okuyama
Social memory is one of the crucial components of episodic memories. Gregarious animals living in societies utilize social memory to exhibit the appropriate social behaviors such as aggression, avoidance, cooperative behavior, and even mating behavior. However, the neural mechanisms underlying social memory in the hippocampus remains mysterious. Here, I review some evidence from work done in rodents and primates on the brain region(s) and circuits encoding and/or retrieving social memory, as well as a storage for social memory (i...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#19
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
July 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#20
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
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