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B M Kamath, A Baker, R Houwen, L Todorova, N Kerkar
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an inherited multisystem disorder typically manifesting as cholestasis, and potentially leading to end-stage liver disease and death. AIM: To perform the first systematic review of the epidemiology, natural history and burden of ALGS with a focus on the liver component. METHODS: Electronic databases and proceedings from key congresses were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 guidelines...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Evgeny A Kuzmin
The article presents data on the corporate survival rate in Russia in 1991-2014. The empirical survey was based on a random sample with the average number of non-repeated observations (number of companies) for the survey each year equal to 75,958 (24,236 minimum and 126,953 maximum). The actual limiting mean error ∆ p was 2.24% with 99% integrity. The survey methodology was based on a cross joining of various formal periods in the corporate life cycles (legal and business), which makes it possible to talk about a conventionally active time life of companies' existence with a number of assumptions...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Sameer Shaikh, Mohammad Aljanakh, Ibrahim Khalil Al Ibrahim, Mohammad Sohail Memon
Numerous substances may have an adverse influence on the oral region by virtue of their potentially harmful effects. Dental practitioners are often the first to see these effects in the head and neck region. Knowledge of the damaging consequences of agents such as alcohol, tobacco, areca nut, medications, alcohol-containing mouthwashes, dental devices and materials can assist the practitioners in clinical decision-making and accurate diagnosis of associated lesions. More importantly, timely diagnosis and prompt reporting of such harmful effects improve the quality of care...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Síle F Molloy, Cecilia Kanyama, Robert S Heyderman, Angela Loyse, Charles Kouanfack, Duncan Chanda, Sayoki Mfinanga, Elvis Temfack, Shabir Lakhi, Sokoine Lesikari, Adrienne K Chan, Neil Stone, Newton Kalata, Natasha Karunaharan, Kate Gaskell, Mary Peirse, Jayne Ellis, Chimwemwe Chawinga, Sandrine Lontsi, Jean-Gilbert Ndong, Philip Bright, Duncan Lupiya, Tao Chen, John Bradley, Jack Adams, Charles van der Horst, Joep J van Oosterhout, Victor Sini, Yacouba N Mapoure, Peter Mwaba, Tihana Bicanic, David G Lalloo, Duolao Wang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Olivier Lortholary, Shabbar Jaffar, Thomas S Harrison
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for more than 100,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related deaths per year. We tested two treatment strategies that could be more sustainable in Africa than the standard of 2 weeks of amphotericin B plus flucytosine and more effective than the widely used fluconazole monotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis to receive an oral regimen (fluconazole [1200 mg per day] plus flucytosine [100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day] for 2 weeks), 1 week of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day), or 2 weeks of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Rangarirai Matima, Katherine Murphy, Naomi S Levitt, Rhonda BeLue, Tolu Oni
BACKGROUND: Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town...
2018: PloS One
Zhen Yuan, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin Yang, Shen Keng, Huifang Huang
OBJECTIVE: Vaginal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare malignant germ cell tumors largely affecting children younger than 3 years. Because of their low incidence, there is no consensus regarding diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we describe the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of 16 patients with vaginal YSTs diagnosed and managed at our center. METHODS: Diagnoses of YST of the vagina were confirmed by 2 experienced pathologists. All patients were treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (PEB) combination chemotherapy alone...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
James M Gill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Family Medicine
F Morales-Martínez
This paper reviews the specialised geriatrics healthcare services of Costa Rica, with particular emphasis on the achievements made in the field of geriatrics following the author's specialist tertiary education and training period at the Professorial Unit at the City Hospital, Edinburgh, 33 years earlier. The paper charts the development and consolidation of an educational programme of geriatrics in Costa Rica against a background of the changing demographic in this Central American nation and the consequent and compelling need for universal coverage of healthcare services targeted to meet the needs of the burgeoning population of older adults...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Eric Parmentier, Michael L Fine, Cécile Berthe, David Lecchini
Encheliophis chardewalli was described from a single cleared and stained specimen. Twelve years later, additional specimens were found in the lagoon of Moorea (French Polynesia) in association with their host, the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana. These fish were used to consolidate the species diagnosis, to validate species status and to record sound production. This species is remarkable because of its ability to penetrate inside the cloaca of sea cucumbers having anal teeth and the fact this species is largely unknown despite it lives in lagoons in 1m depth...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Wei Xiong, Luis H Reyes, William E Michener, Pin-Ching Maness, Katherine J Chou
Cellulose and hemicellulose are the most abundant components in plant biomass. A preferred Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) system is one which can directly convert both cellulose and hemicellulose into target products without adding the costly hydrolytic enzyme cocktail. In this work, the thermophilic, cellulolytic, and anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313, was engineered to grow on xylose in addition to cellulose. Both xylA (encoding for xylose isomerase) and xylB (encoding for xylulokinase) genes from the thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus were introduced to enable xylose utilization while still retaining its inherent ability to grow on 6-carbon substrates...
March 14, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Patrizia Ciammella, Giorgia Timon, Alessio Bruni, Davide Franceschini, Paolo Borghetti, Nicolò Giaj-Levra, Carlo Greco, Vieri Scotti, Marco Trovo
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of SCLC both in curative and palliative setting, however, conflicting data from clinical trials incite debate over the appropriate use of radiation therapy regarding prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and/or thoracic consolidative in extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). This survey is conducted to evaluate the current pattern of care among Italian radiation oncologists. METHODS: In June 2016, all Italian radiation oncologists were invited to a web-based survey...
March 13, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Sang-Ho Lee, Heechul Choi, Kyoung-Woong Kim
To develop a novel granular adsorbent to remove arsenic and antimony from water, calcined Mg/Al-layered double-hydroxide (CLDH)-incorporated polyethersulfone (PES) granular adsorbents (PES-LDH) were prepared using a core-shell method having 25% PES in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The PES-LDH displayed a spherical hollow shape having a rough surface and the average particle size of 1-2 mm. On the PES-LDH surface, nanosized CLDH (100-150 nm) was successfully immobilized by consolidation between PES and CLDH...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Hiroaki Kuroda, Shnsuke Mori, Hirotaka Tanaka, Tatsuya Yoshida, Tetsuya Mizuno, Noriaki Sakakura, Yasushi Yatabe, Hiroshi Iwata, Yukinori Sakao
Background: We previously proposed measuring tumor size using mediastinal window setting on high-resolution computed tomography (CT) as a simple and useful modality for preoperative prognostication of small adenocarcinoma. Hence, the importance of tumor volume and positron emission tomography (PET) for preoperative prognostication of clinical stage IA (cIA) adenocarcinoma was studied. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated total 324 patients who underwent pulmonary resection of cIA adenocarcinoma between July 2008 and August 2015...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Hannah Bergman, Marja Työläjärvi, Louise Frisén
Increasing numbers of adolescents are seeking treatment at gender identity services in Western countries. An increasingly accepted treatment model that includes puberty suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs starting during the early stages of puberty, cross-sex hormonal treatment starting at ~16 years of age and possibly surgical treatments in legal adulthood, is often indicated for adolescents with childhood gender dysphoria (GD) that intensifies during puberty. However, virtually nothing is known regarding adolescent-onset GD, its progression and factors that influence the completion of the developmental tasks of adolescence among young people with GD and/or transgender identity...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Perrine Chaurand, Wei Liu, Daniel Borschneck, Clément Levard, Mélanie Auffan, Emmanuel Paul, Blanche Collin, Isabelle Kieffer, Sophie Lanone, Jérôme Rose, Jeanne Perrin
In this methodological study, we demonstrated the relevance of 3D imaging performed at various scales for the ex vivo detection and location of cerium oxide nanomaterials (CeO2 -NMs) in mouse lung. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a voxel size from 14 µm to 1 µm (micro-CT) was combined with X-ray nano-computed tomography with a voxel size of 63 nm (nano-CT). An optimized protocol was proposed to facilitate the sample preparation, to minimize the experimental artifacts and to optimize the contrast of soft tissues exposed to metal-based nanomaterials (NMs)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dileep Unnikrishnan, Nasreen Shaikh, Ahmad Sharayah, Chandler Patton
A 47-year-old woman with a medical history of Raynaud's phenomenon presented with fever, cough and shortness of breath. She was found to have left lower lobe consolidation and pleural effusion and was treated as a case of pneumonia. During the hospital course, her respiratory status worsened, and she was intubated on the third hospital day. To investigate the high A-a gradient, a Computerized Tomographic Pulmonary Embolism (CTPE) study was done which identified a large left lower pulmonary artery embolism. She was also found to have a new murmur, and an echocardiogram demonstrated a large lesion on tricuspid valve...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jane M Garbutt, Sherry Dodd, Emily Walling, Amanda A Lee, Katharine Kulka, Rebecca Lobb
BACKGROUND: The national guideline for use of the vaccine targeting oncogenic strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is an evidence-based practice that is poorly implemented in primary care. Recommendations include completion of the vaccine series before the 13th birthday for girls and boys, giving the first dose at the 11- to 12-year-old check-up visit, concurrent with other recommended vaccines. Interventions to increase implementation of this guideline have had little impact, and opportunities to prevent cancer continue to be missed...
March 13, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
M Stanik, A Poprach, D Macik, I Capak, D Maluskova, N Mareckova, R Lakomy, J Jarkovsky, J Dolezel
Patients with clinically node-positive bladder cancer have a poor prognosis, with many receiving only palliative chemo- therapy. We evaluated oncological results in bladder cancer patients with clinically regional and supraregional lymph- adenopathy treated with induction chemotherapy (IC) and consolidative cystectomy. Twenty-five patients with clinically node-positive bladder cancer (including pelvic and retroperitoneal nodes) were treated with 2-4 cycles of IC followed by consolidative cystectomy between 2010 and 2016...
2018: Neoplasma
Helena Claerhout, Sophie Van Aelst, Celine Melis, Thomas Tousseyn, Olivier Gheysens, Peter Vandenberghe, Daan Dierickx, Nancy Boeckx
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing myeloid sarcoma remains challenging and we aimed to provide clinicopathological features to facilitate diagnosis. METHOD: Clinicopathological data from 41 patients with de novo and 31 with secondary myeloid sarcoma were reviewed. RESULTS: Most de novo cases presented with isolated myeloid sarcoma (n=19) or myeloid sarcoma with concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (n=15). Most secondary cases presented after acute myeloid leukemia (n=11), myeloproliferative neoplasm (n=9) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n=8)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
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