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Moritz Lindner, Sebastian Kosanetzky, Maximilian Pfau, Jennifer Nadal, Lukas A Gördt, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Matthias Schmid, Frank G Holz, Monika Fleckenstein
Purpose: To assess the impact of distinct atrophy border characteristics based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging on local atrophy progression. Methods: Patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD were recruited in the context of the Longitudinal Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-related Macular Degeneration and Directional Spread in Geographic Atrophy studies (NCT00393692, NCT02051998). Horizontal and vertical SD-OCT scans were acquired at sequential visits using a device allowing for anatomically accurate registration of follow-up to baseline scans...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Johannes Birtel, Tobias Eisenberger, Martin Gliem, Philipp L Müller, Philipp Herrmann, Christian Betz, Diana Zahnleiter, Christine Neuhaus, Steffen Lenzner, Frank G Holz, Elisabeth Mangold, Hanno J Bolz, Peter Charbel Issa
Macular and cone/cone-rod dystrophies (MD/CCRD) demonstrate a broad genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, with retinal alterations solely or predominantly involving the central retina. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an efficient diagnostic tool for identifying mutations in patient with retinitis pigmentosa, which shows similar genetic heterogeneity. To detect the genetic causes of disease in patients with MD/CCRD, we implemented a two-tier procedure consisting of Sanger sequencing and targeted NGS including genes associated with clinically overlapping conditions...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chenzhou Wu, John Gleysteen, Nutte Tarn Teraphongphom, Yi Li, Eben Rosenthal
Head and neck cancers become a severe threat to human's health nowadays and represent the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Surgery remains the first-line choice for head and neck cancer patients. Limited resectable tissue mass and complicated anatomy structures in the head and neck region put the surgeons in a dilemma between the extensive resection and a better quality of life for the patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of the pre-malignancies, as well as real-time in vivo detection of surgical margins during en bloc resection, could be leveraged to minimize the resection of normal tissues...
March 18, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Jason M Rohde, Kyle R Brimacombe, Li Liu, Michael E Pacold, Adam Yasgar, Dorian M Cheff, Tobie D Lee, Ganesha Rai, Bolormaa Baljinnyam, Zhuyin Li, Anton Simeonov, Matthew D Hall, Min Shen, David M Sabatini, Matthew B Boxer
Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, obtain serine both exogenously and via the metabolism of glucose. By catalyzing the first, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serine from glucose, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) controls flux through the biosynthetic pathway for this important amino acid and represents a putative target in oncology. To discover inhibitors of PHGDH, a coupled biochemical assay was developed and optimized to enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of human PHGDH...
February 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Sandra Claes, Thomas D'huys, Anneleen Van Hout, Dominique Schols, Tom Van Loy
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry as they are involved in many human diseases and include well-validated targets for therapeutic intervention. Discovery of lead compounds, including small synthetic molecules, that specifically inhibit the receptor's function, is an important initial step in drug development and relies on sensitive, specific, and robust cell-based assays. Here, we describe a kinetic cellular assay with a fluorescent readout primarily designed to identify receptor-specific antagonists that inhibit the intracellular Ca2+ release evoked upon the activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) by its endogenous ligand, the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael M Goodin
Protein interaction and localization studies in plants are a fundamental component of achieving mechanistic understanding of virus:plant interactions at the systems level. Many such studies are conducted using transient expression assays in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, the most widely used experimental plant host in virology, examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. This chapter provides a workflow for protein interaction and localization experiments, with particular attention to the many control and supporting assays that may also need to be performed...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Laura E Downie, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Merry Chen, Ngoc Ho, Cam Hoac, Dasun Liyanapathirana, Carol Luo, Ruo Bing Wu, Holly R Chinnery
Our aim was to compare regeneration of the sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) and superficial nerve terminals (SNT) following corneal epithelial injury. We also sought to compare agreement when quantifying nerve parameters using different image-analysis techniques. Anesthetized, female C57BL/6 mice received central 1-mm corneal epithelial abrasions. Four-weeks post-injury, eyes were enucleated and processed for PGP9.5 to visualize the corneal nerves using wholemount immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jesse D Sengillo, Winston Lee, Takayuki Nagasaki, Kaspar Schuerch, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, K Bailey Freund, Janet Sparrow, Rando Allikmets, Stephen H Tsang
PURPOSE: Mutations in the eyes shut homolog (EYS) gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). This study used multi-modal retinal imaging to elucidate genotype-phenotype relationships in EYS-related RP (EYS-RP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Multimodal retinal imaging and electrophysiologic testing was assessed for 16 patients with genetic confirmation of EYS-RP. RESULTS: A total of 27 unique EYS variants were identified in 16 patients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Efrat Fleissig, Mor Pavlovksy, Anat Loewenstein, Dinah Zur, Hadas Newman, Shay Keren, Dafna Goldenberg, Efrat Bar-Ilan, Michaella Goldstein
PURPOSE: To investigate ocular manifestations in patients with vitiligo by multimodal imaging, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), color fundus photography, and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). METHODS: In this prospective, observational clinical study, vitiligo patients underwent ophthalmologic and dermatologic clinical assessment and imaging by spectral-domain OCT, FAF, and color fundus imaging. Ocular echography was performed as indicated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired T test and Pearson correlation...
March 16, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
David Chi-Leung Lam, Hoi-Hin Kwok, Wai-Cho Yu, Fanny Wai-San Ko, Cheuk-Yin Tam, Arthur Chun-Wing Lau, Daniel Yee-Tak Fong, Mary Sau-Man Ip
BACKGROUND: Club cell protein-16 (CC16) expression has been associated with smoking-related lung function decline. The study hypothesis was that CC16 expression in both serum and bronchial epithelium is associated with lung function decline in smokers, and exposure to cigarette smoke will lead to reduction in CC16 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: In a cohort of community-based male Chinese subjects recruited for lung function test in 2000, we reassessed their lung function ten years later and measured serum levels of CC16...
March 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Jitka Rybová, Ladislav Kuchar, Helena Hulková, Befekadu Asfaw, Robert Dobrovolný, Jakub Sikora, Vladimír Havlícek, Ludovít Škultéty, Jana Ledvinová
Blood group B glycosphingolipids (B-GSLs) are substrates of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL). Similar to its major substrate - globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - B-GSLs are not degraded and accumulate in the cells of patients affected by an inherited defect of AGAL activity (Fabry disease - FD).The pancreas is a secretory organ known to have high biosynthesis of blood group GSLs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical and structural abnormalities in pancreatic tissue from two male FD patients with blood group B...
March 14, 2018: Glycobiology
Leonardo R C Mesquita, Maria L G da Fonseca, Rodrigo M da Silva, Eduardo H Morizot
PURPOSE: To report a case involving a patient with presumed panretinal ritonavir-induced retinopathy. METHODS: A 52-year-old, HIV-positive patient, with no criteria for AIDS associated with the use of ritonavir for more than 10 years, underwent clinical examination, fundus photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Fundus examination revealed areas of atrophy and hypertrophy in the retinal pigment epithelium throughout the retina...
March 15, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Shulian Wu, Yudian Huang, Qinggong Tang, Zhifang Li, Hannah Horng, Jiatian Li, Zaihua Wu, Yu Chen, Hui Li
Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer is recognized as an effective adjuvant therapy, as it improves treatment outcomes. However, the potential complications remain a threat, so there is an urgent clinical need to assess both the tumor response and changes in its microenvironment using non-invasive and precise identification techniques. Here, two-photon microscopy was employed to detect morphological alterations in breast cancer progression and recession throughout chemotherapy...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Nicole M Cordina, Nima Sayyadi, Lindsay M Parker, Arun Everest-Dass, Louise J Brown, Nicolle H Packer
Bio-imaging is a key technique in tracking and monitoring important biological processes and fundamental biomolecular interactions, however the interference of background autofluorescence with targeted fluorophores is problematic for many bio-imaging applications. This study reports on two novel methods for reducing interference with cellular autofluorescence for bio-imaging. The first method uses fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs), containing nitrogen vacancy centers. FNDs emit at near-infrared wavelengths typically higher than most cellular autofluorescence; and when appropriately functionalized, can be used for background-free imaging of targeted biomolecules...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manjunath Siddaramaiah, BolaSadashiva Satish Rao, Manjunath B Joshi, Anirbit Datta, S Sandya, Vasudha Vishnumurthy, Subhash Chandra, Subramanya G Nayak, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Krishna Kishore Mahato
In the present study, we have designed a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) based instrumentation and developed a sensitive methodology for the effective separation, visualization, identification and analysis of proteins on a single platform. In this method, intrinsic fluorescence spectra of proteins were detected after separation on one or two dimensional Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (SDS-TCEP) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the data were analyzed. The MATLAB assisted software was designed for the development of PAGE fingerprint for the visualization of protein after one and two-dimensional protein separation...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Carl Arndt, Mathieu Costantini, Christophe Chiquet, Mickael Afriat, Sylvie Berthemy, Vivien Vasseur, Alain Ducasse, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse
PURPOSE: Pericentral visual field changes and disruption of the ellipsoid layer on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) are the main features of antimalarial retinal toxicity. C-Scan OCT or "en face" enables a topographic frontal view of the changes observed within the different retinal layers in particular the ellipsoid layer. The aim of this prospective study was to compare multifocal ERG (mfERG) responses with the results of C-Scan OCT ("en face" OCT) in patients with abnormal visual field and to analyze relationships between the structural and functional abnormalities...
March 13, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
P F Alesina, B Meier, J Hinrichs, W Mohmand, M K Walz
PURPOSE: Visualization and precise dissection of the parathyroid glands are a crucial step of thyroidectomy. Moreover, identification of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism can be challenging due to the possible abnormal location of the enlarged parathyroid. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIR) can be adopted during video-assisted neck surgery in addition to standard endoscopic magnification to enhance the visualization of the parathyroid tissue. METHODS: Between July and August 2017, five patients (one male, four females) underwent video-assisted neck surgery at our hospital...
March 13, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
John Quan Minh Nguyen, Melanie McWade, Giju Thomas, Bryce T Beddard, Jennifer L Herington, Bibhash C Paria, Herbert S Schwartz, Jennifer L Halpern, Ginger E Holt, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Fluorescence imaging is a well-established optical modality that has been used to localize and track fluorophores in vivo and has demonstrated great potential for surgical guidance. Despite the variety of fluorophores currently being researched, many existing intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are specifically designed for a limited number of applications. We present a modular wide-field fluorescence overlay tissue imaging system for intraoperative surgical guidance that is comprised of commercially available standardized components...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Amal Lahiani, Eldad Klaiman, Oliver Grimm
Context: Medical diagnosis and clinical decisions rely heavily on the histopathological evaluation of tissue samples, especially in oncology. Historically, classical histopathology has been the gold standard for tissue evaluation and assessment by pathologists. The most widely and commonly used dyes in histopathology are hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) as most malignancies diagnosis is largely based on this protocol. H&E staining has been used for more than a century to identify tissue characteristics and structures morphologies that are needed for tumor diagnosis...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Xu Zhen, Chen Xie, Kanyi Pu
Nanoparticles for photothermal therapy: Real-time temperature monitoring is critical to reduce the nonspecific damage during photothermal therapy (PTT); however, PTT agents that can emit temperature-related signals are rare and limited to few inorganic nanoparticles. We herein synthesize a semiconducting polymer nanococktail (SPNCT ) that can not only convert photo-energy to heat but also emit temperature-correlated luminescence after cessation of light excitation. Such an afterglow luminescence of the SPNCT detects tumors more sensitively than fluorescence as a result of the elimination of tissue autofluorescence, while its temperature-dependent nature allows tumor temperature to be optically monitored under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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