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Infant <90 days

Roberto Velasco, Helvia Benito, Rebeca Mozun, Juan E Trujillo, Pedro A Merino, Mercedes de la Torre, Borja Gomez, Santiago Mintegi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Adam W Bartlett, Ben Smith, C R Robert George, Brendan McMullan, Alison Kesson, Monica M Lahra, Dip Paed, Pamela Palasanthiran
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Early onset (<7 days) GBS disease has been well characterized, whereas the epidemiology of late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, ≥90 days) is less well understood. The aims of this study were to assess risk factors, presentation, management, and outcome for GBS LOD and VLOD. METHODS: Microbiology laboratory databases and hospital diagnostic coding for Sydney Children's Hospital and the Children's Hospital at Westmead were investigated for patients ≥ 7 days of age diagnosed with GBS bloodstream infection or meningitis from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014 (15 years)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Enza Giglione, Flavia Prodam, Simonetta Bellone, Sonia Monticone, Sheila Beux, Agostina Marolda, Alessia Pagani, Diana Di Gioia, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna, Gianni Bona
GOALS: To assess the effectiveness of Bifidobacterium breve B632 and BR03 association in the reduction of infants crying over time. The second endpoint was to observe the effect of the same strains on daily evacuations and on the number of regurgitations and vomits. BACKGROUND: Infant colics represent a clinical condition in childhood, characterized by an uncontrollable crying that occurs without any apparent organic cause. An altered intestinal microbiota composition in the very first months may induce intestinal colics in infants...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
U M Hallbauer, G Joubert, Y Goosen
BACKGROUND: Pertussis vaccination in the 1950s was associated with a decrease in the incidence of pertussis. A resurgence of pertussis has been documented, mainly in well-resourced countries since the 1990s. The burden of pertussis has not been well described in South Africa (SA). Epidemiological data are important for rational implementation of vaccination strategies. OBJECTIVE: To describe the morbidity and mortality of children with pertussis admitted to public sector hospitals in Bloemfontein, SA...
September 8, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Shwetal Lalan, Hongying Dai, Bradley A Warady
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is a severe complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) in infants. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between hypogammaglobulinemia and peritonitis risk, and the potential benefit of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) therapy in infants receiving CPD. METHODS: Patients aged 0-12 months at initiation of CPD between 1985 and 2012 were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Data collected from the start of CPD up to 2 years post-dialysis initiation included patient demographics, dialysis characteristics, serum immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, IVIG administration history, infectious complications and outcomes...
October 7, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates...
October 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Manoj Kumar Sahu, Anuradha Singal, Ramesh Menon, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Alka Mohan, Mala Manral, Divya Singh, V Devagouru, Sachin Talwar, Shiv Kumar Choudhary
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutritional supplementation in infants with cardiac malformations after surgical repair is a challenge. Critically ill infants in the early postoperative period are in a catabolic stress. The mismatch between estimated energy requirement (EER) and the intake in the postoperative period is multifactorial, predisposing them to complications such as immune deficiency, more infection, and growth failure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enriched breast milk feed on postoperative recovery and growth of infants after open heart surgery...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Franck Michel, Kristoffer Foldager Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare air-conduction thresholds obtained with ASSR evoked by narrow band (NB) CE-chirps and ABR evoked by tone pips (tpABR) in infants with various degrees of hearing loss. DESIGN: Thresholds were measured at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Data on each participant were collected at the same day. STUDY SAMPLE: Sixty-seven infants aged 4 d to 22 months (median age = 96 days), resulting in 57, 52, 87 and 56 ears for 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz, respectively...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
Kyle A Franco, Keliana O'Mara
OBJECTIVES: To determine if computerized provider order entry (CPOE) implementation impacts the time it takes for preterm neonates to reach their parenteral macronutrient goals. METHODS: Retrospective review of neonates <1750 g receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) before and after the implementation of CPOE. Primary outcome was the attainment of parenteral macronutrient goals. Secondary outcomes included time to attainment, the frequency of electrolyte abnormalities, and the incidence of required adjustments made to PN orders by verification pharmacists...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
R Sahni, X Ameer, K Ohira-Kist, J-T Wung
OBJECTIVES: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in conjunction with tracheal intubation (TI) and mechanical ventilation (MV) for treating arterial pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) in near-term and term newborns. Non-invasive respiratory support with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used to avoid morbidity associated with TI and MV, yet the effectiveness of iNO delivery via nasal CPAP remains unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of iNO delivered via the bubble nasal CPAP system in term and preterm newborns with HRF...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
R Velasco, B Gómez, S Hernández-Bou, I Olaciregui, M de la Torre, A González, A Rivas, I Durán, A Rubio
In 2015, a predictive model for invasive bacterial infection (IBI) in febrile young infants with altered urine dipstick was published. The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously published set of low risk criteria for invasive bacterial infection in febrile young infants with altered urine dipstick. Retrospective multicenter study including nine Spanish hospitals. Febrile infants ≤90 days old with altered urinalysis (presence of leukocyturia and/or nitrituria) were included. According to our predictive model, an infant is classified as low-risk for IBI when meeting all the following: appearing well at arrival to the emergency department, being >21 days old, having a procalcitonin value <0...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Nele Stahlmann, Nora Eisemann, Ute Thyen, Egbert Herting, Marion Rapp
Background Little is known about the psychosocial development and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of extremely preterm infants once they are adolescents. Methods The regional population-based study cohort included 90 extremely premature infants (< 27(+0) gestational weeks) born between January 1997 and December 1999 in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. In addition to a neurological and cognitive Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition assessment, self- and parent-reported psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and health-related quality of life (KINDL(R)) were obtained and compared with a general population of 3,737 adolescents using data from a German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS survey 2003-2006, Robert Koch Institute, Germany)...
October 4, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Farouk M Nasser, Ahmed M Shouman, Mohammed S ElSheemy, Mohammed A Lotfi, Waseem Aboulela, Mohamed El Ghoneimy, Mohammed Abdelwahab, Ahmed I Shoukry, Waleed Ghoneima, Hany Morsi, Hesham Badawy
OBJECTIVES: To compare outcome of dismembered-pyeloplasty in infants with and without external nephro-ureteric stent (ENUS) for treatment of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJ-O). METHODS: This is a parallel, randomized comparative study between October 2013 and September 2014. 30 infants ≤6 months old with UPJ-O indicated for dismembered-pyeloplasty were randomly assigned (block randomization, closed envelope method) into two groups; group-A (stentless) and group-B (ENUS)...
September 28, 2016: Urology
Katherine E A Semrau, Julie Herlihy, Caroline Grogan, Kebby Musokotwane, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Reuben Mbewe, Bowen Banda, Chipo Mpamba, Fern Hamomba, Portipher Pilingana, Andisen Zulu, Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Godfrey Biemba, Donald M Thea, William B MacLeod, Jonathon L Simon, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine umbilical cord washes reduce neonatal mortality in south Asian populations with high neonatal mortality rates and predominantly home-based deliveries. No data exist for sub-Saharan African populations with lower neonatal mortality rates or mostly facility-based deliveries. We compared the effect of chlorhexidine with dry cord care on neonatal mortality rates in Zambia. METHODS: We undertook a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia, with 90 health facility-based clusters...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Andreas Tulzer, Rudolf Mair, Michaela Kreuzer, Gerald Tulzer
OBJECTIVES: Coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch can be treated with resection and extended end-to-end anastomosis (REEEA) as well as end-to-side anastomosis (ESA). The aim of the study was to review our experience with these techniques in newborns and infants and to assess mid-term outcome with regards to morbidity, mortality, and reintervention rate in relation to operative access and technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of hospital charts and surgical reports from 183 consecutive newborns and infants with coarctation and hypoplastic aortic arch with or without ventricular septal defect between 1996 and 2013...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
L Reaney, V Livingstone, C Bogue, E M Dempsey, P M Filan
Therapeutic hypothermia is now the standard of care for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Sixty-three infants received therapeutic hypothermia at Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH) from 2010-2014. Median gestational age was 40 weeks. Eighteen (29%) infants were Sarnat grade 3, 41(65%) grade 2 and 4(6%) grade 1. Nineteen outborn infants arrived in CUMH at a median (IQR) age of 310 (270, 420) minutes. Four (21%) outborn infants were within the target temperature range on arrival...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
John Sarantopoulos, Sanjay Goel, Vincent Chung, Pamela Munster, Shubham Pant, Manish R Patel, Jeffrey Infante, Hussein Tawbi, Carlos Becerra, Justine Bruce, Fairooz Kabbinavar, A Craig Lockhart, Eugene Tan, Shu Yang, Gary Carlson, Jeffrey W Scott, Sunil Sharma
PURPOSE: A capsule formulation of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dovitinib (TKI258) was recently studied in a phase 3 renal cell carcinoma trial; however, tablets are the planned commercial formulation. Therefore, this randomized 2-way crossover study evaluated the bioequivalence of dovitinib tablet and capsule formulations in pretreated patients with advanced solid tumors, excluding breast cancer. METHODS: In this 2-part study, eligible patients received dovitinib 500 mg once daily on a 5-days-on/2-days-off schedule...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Y Qian, L Hong, Y H Chen, W L Ge, Q Y Yin, H Xian
Objective: To study the mRNA and protein expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1(ALDH1A1)in rat cryptorchidism and normal testis. Methods: We established the cryptorchidism model by flutamide and took normal testis as normal group.The testicular tissue samples were collected on 15 days, 45 days, and 90 days after birth respectively.The expression of ALDH1A1 in rat cryptorchidism and normal testis were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemisty intissue microarray. Results: The mRNA expression of ALDH1A1 in cryptorchidism group in infant, adolescent and adult period were 1...
September 13, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Guoyang Liao, Rongcheng Li, Changgui Li, Mingbo Sun, Shude Jiang, Yanping Li, Zhaojun Mo, Jielai Xia, Zhongping Xie, Yanchun Che, Jingsi Yang, Zhifang Yin, Jianfeng Wang, Jiayou Chu, Wei Cai, Jian Zhou, Junzhi Wang, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND:  The development of a Sabin strain-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is imperative to protecting against vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in developing countries. METHODS:  In this double-blind, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial, eligible infants aged 60-90 days were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive either three doses of Sabin-IPV or Salk-IPV at 30-day intervals and a booster at the age of 18 months. Immunogenicity and safety were assessed based on a protocol...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kimberly S Grant, Julie M Worlein, Jerrold S Meyer, Melinda A Novak, Rose Kroeker, Kendra Rosenberg, Caroline Kenney, Thomas M Burbacher
Cortisol is a well-known glucocorticoid that can be used as a biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. To explore basal cortisol physiology during pregnancy and infancy in Macaca nemestrina monkeys, hair was collected from a convenience sample of 22 healthy mother-infant dyads. Adult females were housed in pairs as part of a small breeding colony at the Washington National Primate Research Center and infants were reared in a specialized nursery. Maternal samples were collected from females during a pregnancy-detection ultrasound and immediately following labor and delivery...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
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