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Infant <90 days

Natalia Matamoros, Silvana Visentin, Guillermina Ferrari, Mariana Falivene, Victoria Fasano, Horacio F González
OBJECTIVE: To determine vitamin A content in breast milk and evaluate whether it satisfies the recommendations for infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, prospective, cross sectional study. Milk samples were obtained between 30 and 90 days postpartum from mothers seen in public hospitals, and analyzed. Vitamin A concentration was determined by chromatography and its adequacy to the recommended dietary intake. The correlation between outcome measures was analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Takeaki Shinjo, Hironobu Hayashi, Tsunenori Takatani, Eishu Boku, Hiroyuki Nakase, Masahiko Kawaguchi
Bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) monitoring is used to assess the integrity of urinary and bowel function. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of BCR monitoring during untethering surgery in infants and children to predict postoperative urinary and bowel dysfunction. The records of 22 patients ranging from 4 days to 10 years old (mean 2.7 ± 3.3 years) were reviewed. Anesthesia was maintained by propofol or sevoflurane/opioid without neuromuscular blockade. BCR waveforms induced by electrical stimulation (20-40 mA, train-of-four pulses with 500 Hz) to the penis or clitoris were recorded from bilateral external anal sphincters...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Onyekachukwu A Illoh, Sengwee Toh, Susan E Andrade, Christian Hampp, Leyla Sahin, Kate Gelperin, Lockwood Taylor, Steven T Bird
PURPOSE: To describe the utilization of drugs with pregnancy exposure registries by trimester during pregnancy, in comparison with matched nonpregnant episodes and a pre-pregnancy period. METHODS: We identified live-born deliveries from women aged 10 to 54 years and matched the pregnancies 1:1 with nonpregnant episodes from a comparator cohort not delivering live-born infants, using data from 2001 to 2013 in the Sentinel Distributed Database. We evaluated the utilization of 34 drugs with pregnancy exposure registries, comparing utilization during pregnancy to the matched nonpregnant episodes, and to the 90 days before pregnancy...
March 8, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Tomoyuki Shimokaze, Katsuaki Toyoshima, Jun Shibasaki, Yasufumi Itani
OBJECTIVE: We often encounter infants who developed hypokalaemia following low-dose doxapram for apnea of prematurity (AOP). AIMS: To determine changes in blood potassium (K+) levels after doxapram administration. STUDY DESIGN: We studied infants born before 30 weeks gestation. Doxapram (0.1-0.3 mg/kg/h) in addition to methylxanthines was used to treat AOP refractory to methylxanthines. RESULTS: Twenty-five infants received doxapram were studied...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
David A Osborn, Tim Schindler, Lisa J Jones, John Kh Sinn, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Meredith A Baker, Paul D Mitchell, Alison A O'Loughlin, Alexis K Potemkin, Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Duy T Dao, Gillian L Fell, Kathleen M Gura, Mark Puder
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize fatty acid profiles (FAPs) in parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) receiving soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (SO) doses of ∼3 and ∼1 g/kg/d. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed. Serum FAPs of patients <1 year old who experienced development of IFALD while receiving standard PN with SO were examined before transitioning to a fish oil-based lipid emulsion for IFALD treatment...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Leesa Prunty, David Miskell
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of an infant who required high-dose vancomycin therapy after an unsuccessful gastroschisis repair surgery. CASE SUMMARY: An infant born at 35 weeks and 5 days of gestation underwent a gastroschisis repair on day of life 47. The repair was unsuccessful causing fluid backup and accumulation into the stomach. A replogle was placed to allow for suctioning of this fluid. During this admission, the patient received 3 courses of vancomycin...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Jacqueline K Kung'u, Richard Pendame, Mame Bineta Ndiaye, Mulusew Gerbaba, Sophie Ochola, Adama Faye, Sulochana Basnet, Edward A Frongillo, Sara Wuehler, Luz Maria De-Regil
Maternal undernutrition and mortality remain high in several African countries. Key nutrition and health interventions improve maternal and birth outcomes. Evidence is scarce on how to strengthen health systems to ensure pregnant women and newborns are reached with these interventions. We conducted three quasi-experimental nonrandomized Community Based Maternal and Neonatal Health and Nutrition projects in regions of Ethiopia, Senegal, and Kenya to demonstrate how proven nutrition interventions could be integrated into health programs to improve knowledge and practices during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum...
February 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Soya S Sam, Jessica Ingersoll, Lori D Racsa, Angela M Caliendo, Patrick N Racsa, Doris Igwe, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Cassandra Josephson, Colleen S Kraft
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of intrauterine and perinatal viral infection. The most common route of CMV transmission in newborns is through breastmilk and this can lead to infant morbidity and mortality. Breast milk that has been frozen for an extended period may need to be tested for CMV DNA to determine the source of infection. It has been a challenge for clinical laboratories to ensure the stability of CMV DNA in frozen breast milk for accurate viral load measurement...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Laurence Collin-Lévesque, Yosra El-Ghaddaf, Madeleine Genest, Martin Jutras, Grégoire Leclair, Etienne Weisskopf, Alice Panchaud, Ema Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Duloxetine and methylphenidate are commonly prescribed for the management of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively. However, little information is available concerning their safety during lactation. The purpose of this case series was to provide additional information to the medical literature concerning infant exposure to methylphenidate and duloxetine through breast milk. METHOD: Bioanalytical method (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) was developed and validated before its use to determine the concentrations of both medications in breast milk samples...
February 27, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
MarÃa Luisa Herreros, Alfredo Tagarro, Alfonso Caà Ete, Pablo Gili
We would like to thank Dr Panghal et al (1) for their insightful comments on our paper on how urine dipsticks can aid decision-making when treating infants with unexplained fever (2). The applicability of the study may have been affected by our inclusion criteria, namely patients at high risk for invasive bacterial infection, and that limitation is assessed and justified in the paper (2). This selection bias avoided the ethical dilemma of performing invasive tests for urine collection on healthy young patients...
February 20, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Evangelia Petridou, Christel Barker Jensen, Athanasios Arvanitidis, Maria Giannaki-Psinaki, Athanasios Michos, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Randi Føns Petersen
PURPOSE: To determine the predominant strains of Bordetella pertussis in Greece during 2010-2015. METHODOLOGY: Infants and children (n=1150) (15 days to 14 years) of Greek, Roma and immigrant origin with different vaccination statuses were hospitalized in Athens, Greece with suspected pertussis infection. IS481/IS1001 real-time PCR confirmed Bordetella spp./B. pertussis infection in 300 samples. A subset of samples (n=153) were analysed by multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and (n=25) by sequence-based typing of the toxin promotor region (ptxP) on DNA extracted from clinical specimens...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Josh E Petrikin, Julie A Cakici, Michelle M Clark, Laurel K Willig, Nathaly M Sweeney, Emily G Farrow, Carol J Saunders, Isabelle Thiffault, Neil A Miller, Lee Zellmer, Suzanne M Herd, Anne M Holmes, Serge Batalov, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Laurie D Smith, David P Dimmock, J Steven Leeder, Stephen F Kingsmore
Genetic disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICU/PICU). While genomic sequencing is useful for genetic disease diagnosis, results are usually reported too late to guide inpatient management. We performed an investigator-initiated, partially blinded, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial to test the hypothesis that rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) increased the proportion of NICU/PICU infants receiving a genetic diagnosis within 28 days...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
Santiago Mintegi, Borja Gomez, Alba Carro, Haydee Diaz, Javier Benito
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of invasive bacterial infections (IBI, pathogenic bacteria in blood or cerebrospinal fluid) in infants less than 90 days old with fever without a source related to the presence or absence of fever on arrival to the emergency department (ED). DESIGN: Prospective registry-based cohort study. SETTING: Paediatric ED of a tertiary teaching hospital. PATIENTS: We included infants less than 90 days old with a history of fever evaluated in the ED from 2003 to 2016...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Elsa Regina Justo Giugliani, Leandro Meirelles Nunes, Roberto Mário Silveira Issler, Lilian Cordova do Espírito Santo, Luciana Dias de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an intervention for teenage mothers with the involvement of maternal grandmothers on the prevalence of pacifier use in the first six months of life. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial involved 323 teenage mothers, allocated to four groups: intervention with teenagers only, intervention with teenagers and their mothers, and respective controls. Six breastfeeding counseling sessions, including the recommendation to avoid the use of a pacifier, were delivered at the maternity ward and subsequently at the teenagers' homes, at seven, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum...
February 12, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Helong Dai, Longkai Peng, Fenghua Peng, Gongbin Lan, Yu Wang, Jingjing Chen, Lei Liu, Chen Gao, Yong Guo, Chunhua Fang, Manhua Nie, Wang Long, Shaojie Yu
Pediatric kidney donors remain underutilized due to the high risk of postoperative thrombosis. To address this problem, we developed a novel en bloc kidney transplantation technique using donor thoracic aorta and the distal abdominal aorta as inflow and outflow tracts, respectively. Briefly, 8 kidneys from deceased infant donors under 5 months old and with low body weight (1.9-4.9 kg) were transplanted en bloc into 4 pediatric and 4 adult patients. The donor's common iliac artery or external iliac artery was anastomosed to the recipient's distal external iliac artery or inferior epigastric artery, respectively, as an outflow tract...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Nina B Masters, Abram L Wagner, Bradley F Carlson, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Timely administration of recommended vaccines requires children to have multiple vaccines co-administered in the first year of life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of timely vaccinations and the proportion of co-administered vaccines, and to assess the relationship between vaccine co-administration and vaccine timeliness in Kenyan children. METHODS: Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we calculated the proportion of children who received co-administered and timely vaccine doses...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
James M Meza, Paul J Devlin, David M Overman, David Gremmels, Gina Baffa, Meryl S Cohen, Michael D Quartermain, Christopher A Caldarone, Kamal Pourmoghadam, William M DeCampli, Cheryl T Fackoury, Luc Mertens
OBJECTIVE: Quantifying unbalance, the threshold for single ventricle palliation vs biventricular repair in patients with unbalanced complete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), is challenging. Utilizing a core lab review of baseline echocardiograms, we sought to assess the correlations among commonly used measures of unbalance and common atrioventricular valve (AVV) and ventricular sizes. METHODS: A single reviewer evaluated baseline echocardiograms from an inception cohort of babies < age 1 year with complete AVSD admitted to one of 25 CHSS institutions...
February 8, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Chia-Hung Yo, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee, Lorenzo Porta, Po-Yang Tsou, Yu-Hsun Wang, Wan-Chien Lee, Szu-Ta Chen, Chien-Chang Lee
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of incidence and outcome of paediatric sepsis in a population-based database. METHODS: Children with sepsis were identified from the 23 million nationwide health insurance claims database of Taiwan. Sepsis was defined by the presence of single ICD-9 code for severe sepsis or septic shock or a combination of ICD-9 codes for infection and organ dysfunction. We analysed the trend of incidence, mortality and source of infection in three age groups: infant (28 days to 1 year), child (1-9 years) and adolescent (10-18 years)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Chatarina A Löfqvist, Svetlana Najm, Gunnel Hellgren, Eva Engström, Karin Sävman, Anders K Nilsson, Mats X Andersson, Anna-Lena Hård, Lois E H Smith, Ann Hellström
Importance: Mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy fed matched diets except for ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) vs ω-6 LC-PUFAs demonstrate relative antiangiogenic and neuroprotective associations of ω-3 LC-PUFAs. However, supplementing preterm infants with LC-PUFAs has been inconsistent in reducing major preterm morbidities. However, few studies measured serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To examine the associated risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from the levels of circulating ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
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