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Infant <90 days

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343585/rhinovirus-in-febrile-infants-and-risk-of-bacterial-infection
#1
Anne J Blaschke, E Kent Korgenski, Jacob Wilkes, Angela P Presson, Emily A Thorell, Andrew T Pavia, Elizabeth D Knackstedt, Carolyn Reynolds, Jeff E Schunk, Judy A Daly, Carrie L Byington
BACKGROUND: Febrile infants with viral respiratory infections have a reduced risk of bacterial infection compared with virus-negative infants. The risk of concomitant bacterial infection in febrile infants positive for human rhinovirus (HRV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is unknown. METHODS: Infants 1-90 days old managed using the care process model for well-appearing febrile infants and with respiratory viral testing by PCR (RVPCR) in the emergency department or inpatient setting of 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system from 2007-2016 were identified...
January 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339564/accuracy-of-the-urinalysis-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-febrile-infants-60-days-and-younger
#2
Leah Tzimenatos, Prashant Mahajan, Peter S Dayan, Melissa Vitale, James G Linakis, Stephen Blumberg, Dominic Borgialli, Richard M Ruddy, John Van Buren, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Reports of the test accuracy of the urinalysis for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young febrile infants have been variable. We evaluated the test characteristics of the urinalysis for diagnosing UTIs, with and without associated bacteremia, in young febrile infants. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of febrile infants ≤60 days old at 26 emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338079/nutrition-delivery-and-growth-outcomes-in-infants-with-gastroschisis
#3
Charles R Hong, David Zurakowski, Brenna S Fullerton, Katelyn Ariagno, Tom Jaksic, Nilesh M Mehta
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe nutrient intake and growth in infants with gastroschisis and identify factors associated with impaired growth. METHODS: Retrospective study of neonates who underwent gastroschisis repair from 2010 to 2015. Nutrient intake and weight-for-age z scores (WAZ) were recorded. RESULTS: Data from 60 eligible infants with median (Q1, Q3) gestational age of 36 weeks (35, 37) and birth weight 2418 g (2098, 2665) were analyzed...
January 8, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334920/factors-influencing-access-of-pregnant-women-and-their-infants-to-their-local-healthcare-system-a-prospective-multi-centre-observational-study
#4
Shabir A Madhi, Luis M Rivera, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Clara Menéndez, Nazira Carrim-Ganey, Mark F Cotton, Darren Katzman, Mariëtha M Luttig, Rosalba Candelario, Sherryl Baker, Mahua Roychoudhury
BACKGROUND: The successful implementation of maternal vaccination relies on results of clinical trials, considering the prenatal and postnatal attendance at selected healthcare institutions. This study evaluated factors influencing maternal/infant access to healthcare facilities to identify potential barriers to participation in future clinical trials on maternal vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective, multi-centre, observational study, pregnant women (N = 3243) were enrolled at ten sites across Panama, the Dominican Republic, South Africa, and Mozambique between 2012 and 2014...
January 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298827/herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-infants-undergoing-meningitis-evaluation
#5
Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Dina M Kulik, Pamela J Okada, Alesia H Fleming, Rakesh D Mistry, Joanna E Thomson, David Schnadower, Joseph L Arms, Prashant Mahajan, Aris C Garro, Christopher M Pruitt, Fran Balamuth, Neil G Uspal, Paul L Aronson, Todd W Lyons, Amy D Thompson, Sarah J Curtis, Paul T Ishimine, Suzanne M Schmidt, Stuart A Bradin, Kendra L Grether-Jones, Aaron S Miller, Jeffrey Louie, Samir S Shah, Lise E Nigrovic
BACKGROUND: Although neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially devastating infection requiring prompt evaluation and treatment, large-scale assessments of the frequency in potentially infected infants have not been performed. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old who had cerebrospinal fluid culture testing performed in 1 of 23 participating North American emergency departments. HSV infection was defined by a positive HSV polymerase chain reaction or viral culture...
January 3, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282333/topiramate-use-early-in-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-oral-clefts-a-pregnancy-cohort-study
#6
Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Krista F Huybrechts, Rishi J Desai, Jacqueline M Cohen, Helen Mogun, Page B Pennell, Brian T Bateman, Elisabetta Patorno
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative risk of oral clefts associated with maternal use of high and low doses of topiramate during the first trimester for epilepsy and nonepilepsy indications. METHODS: This population-based study nested in the US 2000-2010 Medicaid Analytic eXtract included a cohort of 1,360,101 pregnant women with a live-born infant enrolled in Medicaid from 3 months before conception through 1 month after delivery. Oral clefts were defined as the presence of a recorded diagnosis in claims during the first 90 days after birth...
December 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281750/urine-dipstick-tests-can-aid-decision-making-when-treating-infants-with-unexplained-fever-but-more-research-is-needed
#7
Astha Panghal, Aakash Pandita, Girish Gupta, Kirti Naranje, Anita Singh
A recent paper by Herreros et al in Acta Paediatrica reported, for the first time, that performing a dipstick test on a clean-catch urine sample was an accurate way of diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in a febrile infant under 90 days of age (1), without the need for invasive procedures. We have a number of comments on this study. It would have been useful to know how old the youngest infants were and the duration of unexplained fever. In addition, they used low-risk Rochester criteria to select the infants and one criterion is normal urinalysis, which may have affected the consistency of the study...
December 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261707/field-evaluation-of-hiv-point-of-care-testing-for-early-infant-diagnosis-in-cape-town-south-africa
#8
Lorna Dunning, Max Kroon, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) coverage and uptake remains challenging. Point-of-care (POC) testing may improve access and turn-around-times, but, while several POC technologies are in development there are few data on their implementation in the field. METHODS: We conducted an implementation study of the Alere q Detect POC system for EID at two public sector health facilities in Cape Town. HIV-exposed neonates undergoing routine EID testing at a large maternity hospital and a primary care clinic received both laboratory-based HIV PCR testing per local protocols and a POC test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249076/endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-in-children-with-a-fiber-optic-neuroendoscopy
#9
Wenjun Shen, Hasan R Syed, Gurpreet Gandhoke, Roxanna Garcia, Tatiana Pundy, Tadanori Tomita
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) provides a shunt-free treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus children. With rapidly evolving technology, the semi-rigid fiber optic neuroendoscopy shows a potential application in ETV by blunt fenestration. A retrospective analysis of our experience is reviewed. METHODS: The authors review infants and children who underwent ETV using this technique from June 2004 to June 2016 with radiological and clinical follow-up done by a single surgeon...
December 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248358/risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-colonization-among-patients-admitted-to-obstetrical-units-a-nested-case-control-study
#10
Bing Wang, Kathryn N Suh, Katherine A Muldoon, Natalie Oake, Alan Forster, Karam Ramotar, Virginia R Roth
OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among obstetrical patients can increase birth complications for both mothers and infants, but little is known about the risk factors for MRSA in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA among obstetrical patients and identify risk factors associated with MRSA colonization. METHODS: This nested case-control study used obstetrical patients with MRSA colonization identified through a universal screening program at The Ottawa Hospital (February 2008-January 2010)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246348/effectiveness-of-a-pediatric-primary-care-intervention-to-increase-maternal-folate-use-results-from-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Nymisha Chilukuri, Tina L Cheng, Kevin J Psoter, Kamila B Mistry, Katherine A Connor, Daniel J Levy, Krishna K Upadhya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of provision of folate vitamins and a preconception health intervention on folate use among mothers bringing infants to pediatric primary care. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cluster randomized trial in mothers presenting with their infants (<12 months) at 4 urban pediatric practices in the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area. There were 45 clinicians randomized into an intervention group (15-item preconception health screening and counseling and 90-day multivitamin supply) and control group (preconception health and community resource handouts and 90-day multivitamin supply)...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221672/cost-and-use-of-pasteurized-donor-human-milk-at-a-children-s-hospital
#12
Diane L Spatz, Abbey C Robinson, Elizabeth B Froh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost and use of pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) at a children's hospital with a strong human milk culture. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive cohort study. SETTING: A children's hospital in the northeastern region of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Infants (N = 281) younger than 1 year of age at the time of hospitalization who received PDHM between January 2011 and November 2014. Infants older than 1 year of age at the time of hospitalization were excluded from the study sample...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217372/acute-peritoneal-dialysis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-an-8-year-experience-of-a-referral-hospital
#13
Aslihan Kara, Metin Kaya Gurgoze, Mustafa Aydin, Erdal Taskin, Unal Bakal, Aysen Orman
BACKGROUND: The aim of present study was to evaluate the indications, complications and outcomes of acute peritoneal dialysis (APD) in neonates at a referral university hospital during the previous 8 years. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included a total of 52 newborn infants who underwent APD in a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2008 and March 2016. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were extracted from patients' medical files...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212619/zinc-protoporphyrin-to-heme-ratio-and-ferritin-as-measures-of-iron-sufficiency-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
Kendell German, Phuong T Vu, Kimberly N Grelli, Christopher Denton, Gina Lee, Sandra E Juul
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme (ZnPP/H) ratios as biomarkers of iron status in neonates, determine how specific clinical events affected these measures, and assess how iron status changed during hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of all infants with paired ferritin and ZnPP/H measurements between October 2014 and May 2016. Concordance of these measurements, effects of sepsis, red blood cell transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and iron supplementation were assessed...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210924/intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-moderate-to-severe-congenital-heart-disease
#15
Cynthia M Ortinau, Jagruti S Anadkat, Christopher D Smyser, Pirooz Eghtesady
OBJECTIVES: Determine the prevalence of intraventricular hemorrhage in infants with moderate to severe congenital heart disease, investigate the impact of gestational age, cardiac diagnosis, and cardiac intervention on intraventricular hemorrhage, and compare intraventricular hemorrhage rates in preterm infants with and without congenital heart disease. DESIGN: A single-center retrospective review. SETTING: A tertiary care children's hospital...
January 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208736/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-deficits-in-developing-mice-following-rotational-acceleration-deceleration-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Guoxiang Wang, Yi Ping Zhang, Zhongwen Gao, Lisa B E Shields, Fang Li, Tianci Chu, Huayi Lv, Thomas Moriarty, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80, and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Under 60 times of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206783/protocol-for-objective-measurement-of-infants-physical-activity-using-accelerometry
#17
Luiza Isnardi Cardoso Ricardo, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Rafaela Costa Martins, Andrea Wendt, Helen Gonçalves, Pedro Rodrigues Curi Hallal, Fernando César Wehrmeister
PURPOSE: To evaluate methods for infants' physical activity measurement based on accelerometry, including the minimum number of measurement days and placement of a wrist or ankle device. We also evaluated the acceptability of the device among infants and mothers. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed-methods study was conducted on a convenience sample of 90 infants. Physical activity was measured using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer placed on the wrist and/or ankle for seven consecutive days (worn for 24 hours), and a qualitative interview was performed to verify acceptability...
December 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205679/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-human-parechovirus-and-enterovirus-infections-in-febrile-infants
#18
Kentaro Sano, Hiromichi Hamada, Shoko Hirose, Kenta Sugiura, Satoko Harada, Mai Koizumi, Mayumi Hara, Haruna Nishijima, Masakatsu Taira, Atsushi Ogura, Tomoko Ogawa, Jun-Ichi Takanashi
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human non-polio enterovirus (EV) are important causes of fever without sources (FWS) in young infants. Their prevalence and clinical characteristics are largely unknown in Asian countries. This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infections in febrile young infants in Japan. METHODS: During February 2010 - August 2015, we obtained 53 stool, 44 throat swab, and 20 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 56 infants (<3 months) with FWS at a single hospital...
December 5, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187358/vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy-state-of-the-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-trials
#19
Daniel E Roth, Michael Leung, Elnathan Mesfin, Huma Qamar, Jessica Watterworth, Eszter Papp
Objectives To estimate the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on 11 maternal and 27 neonatal/infant outcomes; to determine frequencies at which trial outcome data were missing, unreported, or inconsistently reported; and to project the potential contributions of registered ongoing or planned trials.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials; systematic review of registered but unpublished trials.Data sources Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials...
November 29, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165640/toxicokinetics-of-deltamethrin-dosage-dependency-vehicle-effects-and-low-dose-age-equivalent-dosimetry-in-rats
#20
Tanzir Mortuza, Chen Chen, Catherine A White, Brian S Cummings, S Muralidhara, Darren Gullick, James V Bruckner
There is increasing concern that infants and children may be at increased risk of neurological effects of pyrethroids, the most widely used class of insecticide. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) characterize the dose-dependent toxicokinetics (TK) of deltamethrin (DLM) for exposures ranging from environmentally-relevant to acutely toxic; (2) determine the influence of an aqueous versus oil vehicle on oral absorption and bioavailability; and (3) determine whether DLM exhibits low-dose, age-equivalent internal dosimetry...
November 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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