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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161377/transmission-and-persistence-of-incf-conjugative-plasmids-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-full-term-infants
#1
Anuradha Ravi, Lorena Valdés-Varela, Miguel Gueimonde, Knut Rudi
Conjugative plasmids represent major reservoirs for horizontal transmission of antibiotic resistance (AR) and virulence genes. Our knowledge about the ecology and persistence of these plasmids in the gut microbiota remains limited. The IncF plasmids are the most widespread in clinical samples and in healthy humans. Therefore, the main aim is to study their ecology and association with the developing gut microbiota. Using a longitudinal (2, 10, 30 and 90 days) cohort of full-term infants, we investigated the transmission and persistence of IncFIA and IncFIB plasmids...
November 17, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150375/type-i-interferon-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-newborns-with-rotavirus-associated-leukoencephalopathy
#2
Kyung Yeon Lee, Chang Hoon Moon, Seong Hoon Choi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify whether there is an increase in type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of newborns with rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: Levels of type I interferons (interferon-alpha and interferon-beta) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of 23 newborns with rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy (patient group) and 39 infants under 90 days-of-age (control group)...
November 14, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#3
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117331/neurodevelopmental-impairment-in-children-after-group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#4
Maya Kohli-Lynch, Neal J Russell, Anna C Seale, Ziyaad Dangor, Cally J Tann, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Catherine O'Sullivan, Firdose Nakwa, Hechmi Ben Hamouda, Habib Soua, Kyriaki Giorgakoudi, Shamez Ladhani, Theresa Lamagni, Hilary Rattue, Caroline Trotter, Joy E Lawn
Background: Survivors of infant group B streptococcal (GBS) disease are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a burden not previously systematically quantified. This is the 10th of 11 articles estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to estimate NDI in survivors of infant GBS disease. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data on the risk of NDI after invasive GBS disease in infants <90 days of age...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117326/infant-group-b-streptococcal-disease-incidence-and-serotypes-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#5
Lola Madrid, Anna C Seale, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Karen M Edmond, Joy E Lawn, Paul T Heath, Shabir A Madhi, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Stephanie Schrag
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis in high-income contexts, despite declines due to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Recent evidence suggests higher incidence in Africa, where IAP is rare. We investigated the global incidence of infant invasive GBS disease and the associated serotypes, updating previous estimates. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data regarding invasive GBS disease in infants aged 0-89 days...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097614/two-year-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-an-infant-born-at-21-weeks-4-days-gestation
#6
Kaashif A Ahmad, Charlotte S Frey, Mario A Fierro, Alexander B Kenton, Frank X Placencia
Recent literature confirms that, at the lower limit of extrauterine survival, substantial intercenter variability exists in resuscitation practice. The reasons for this variability are unclear, but may be related to disagreement on how to apply the best interests standard to extremely premature infants. Currently, both obstetric and pediatric societies recommend against assessing for viability or attempting resuscitation before 22 weeks' gestation. In this context, we report the unimpaired 2-year outcome of a female infant resuscitated after delivery at 21 weeks' 4 days' gestation and 410 g birth weight...
November 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096014/effects-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-infants-aged-0-to-90-days-in-madrid-spain
#7
Jesús Ruiz-Contreras, María Del Amo, Juan Picazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095773/management-of-the-febrile-young-infant-update-for-the-21st-century
#8
Christopher Woll, Mark I Neuman, Paul L Aronson
Infants aged 90 days or younger with fever are frequently evaluated in the pediatric emergency department. Physical examination findings and individual laboratory investigations are not reliable to differentiate benign viral infections from serious bacterial infections in febrile infants. Clinical prediction models were developed more than 25 years ago and have high sensitivity but relatively low specificity to identify bacterial infections in febrile infants. Newer laboratory investigations such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin have favorable test characteristics compared with traditional laboratory studies such as a white blood cell count...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095347/randomised-trial-of-a-yogurt-type-amino-acid-based-formula-in-infants-and-children-with-severe-cow-s-milk-allergy
#9
François Payot, Alain Lachaux, Florent Lalanne, Nicolas Kalach
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a spoon-fed amino acid-based formula (AAF) with a yogurt-type texture compared to the reference oral liquid formula (Neocate). METHODS: Phase III/IV, prospective, randomized (1:1), open-label, multicenter study in infants/young children (6-36 months) with severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) who had consumed AAF for ≥1 month before the study. Patients received reference+test formula (Neocate with a yogurt-type texture for spoon-feeding: Group 1) or reference formula (Group 2) for 28 days...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084407/hypoxemia-episodes-during-day-and-night-and-their-impact-on-oxygen-saturation-targeting-in-mechanically-ventilated-preterm-infants
#10
Deepak Jain, Carmen D'Ugard, Jose Bello, Eduardo Bancalari, Nelson Claure
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia episodes (HE) occur frequently in ventilated preterm infants and hinder the achievement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets. These episodes may increase the risk for retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disability. There are no data on the variation in HE and SpO2 targeting between day and night. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between day and night on the frequency and severity of HE and achievement of SpO2 targets...
October 31, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074613/the-incidence-of-congenital-hypothyroidism-ch-in-guangxi-china-and-the-predictors-of-permanent-and-transient-ch
#11
Chunyun Fu, Shiyu Luo, Yingfeng Li, Qifei Li, Shangyang She, Xuehua Hu, Mengting Li, Yue Zhang, Jiasun Su, Xuyun Hu, Yun Chen, Jin Wang, Bobo Xie, Shujie Zhang, Jingsi Luo, Xin Fan, Shaoke Chen, Yiping Shen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of CH in Guangxi, China, and to analyze the predictors that might allow for an early differentiation between permanent (P) and transient (T) CH. DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected on filter paper between 3-7 days after birth, TSH level was measured by time-resolved fluorescence assay. Individuals with increased TSH levels detected by newborn screening were recalled for further evaluation by electrochemiluminescence assay...
October 26, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072162/impact-of-homogenization-of-pasteurized-human-milk-on-gastric-digestion-in-the-preterm-infant-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Samira C de Oliveira, Amandine Bellanger, Olivia Ménard, Patrick Pladys, Yann Le Gouar, Gwénaële Henry, Emelyne Dirson, Florence Rousseau, Frédéric Carrière, Didier Dupont, Claire Bourlieu, Amélie Deglaire
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been suggested that homogenization of Holder-pasteurized human milk (PHM) could improve fat absorption and weight gain in preterm infants, but the impact on the PHM digestive kinetics has never been studied. Our objective was to determine the impact of PHM homogenization on gastric digestion in preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, eight hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control to compare the gastric digestion of PHM and of homogenized PHM (PHHM)...
August 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053703/development-of-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-is-associated-with-alterations-in-fecal-volatile-organic-compounds
#13
Daniel J C Berkhout, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Marc A Benninga, Andries E Budding, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Charlene M Pantophlet, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
BackgroundAim of this study was to evaluate the potential of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC), obtained by means of an electronic nose device (Cyranose 320®), as early non-invasive biomarker for BPD.MethodsIn this nested case-control study performed at three Neonatal Intensive Care Units, fecal samples obtained at postnatal age of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, from preterm infants with severe BPD, were compared with fecal VOC profiles from matched controls. Microbiota analysis was performed by means of IS-pro technique on fecal samples collected at 28 days postnatally...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041034/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-preventing-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#14
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants and inflammation plays a significant role in its pathogenesis. The use of inhaled corticosteroids may modulate the inflammatory process without concomitant high systemic steroid concentrations and less risk of adverse effects. This is an update of a review published in 2012 (Shah 2012). We recently updated the related review on "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for treating bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates"...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037091/an-anthropometric-survey-of-u-s-preterm-and-full-term-neonates
#15
Susan M Abdel-Rahman, Ian M Paul, Paula Delmore, Laura James, Laura Fearn, Andrew M Atz, Brenda B Poindexter, Amira Al-Uzri, Andrew Lewandowski, Barrie L Harper, P Brian Smith
BACKGROUND: Anthropometric data prove valuable for screening and monitoring various medical conditions. In young infants, however, only weight, length and head circumference are represented in publically accessible databases. AIM: To characterise length and circumferential measures in preterm and full-term infants up to 90 days postnatal age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In eight U.S. medical centres, trained raters recorded humeral, ulnar, femoral, tibial, and fibular lengths along with mid-upper arm, mid-thigh, chest, abdominal, and neck circumference...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029127/antibody-kinetics-and-response-to-routine-vaccinations-in-infants-born-to-women-who-received-an-investigational-trivalent-group-b-streptococcus-polysaccharide-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-during-pregnancy
#16
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Clare L Cutland, Lisa Jose, Niresha Govender, Frederick Wittke, Morounfolu Olugbosi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Sherryl Baker, Peter M Dull, Vas Narasimhan, Karen Slobod
Background: Maternal vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) might provide protection against invasive GBS disease in infants. We investigated the kinetics of transplacentally transferred GBS serotype-specific capsular antibodies in the infants and their immune response to diphtheria toxoid and pneumococcal vaccination. Methods: This phase 1b/2, observer-blind, single-center study (NCT01193920) enrolled infants born to women previously randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either GBS vaccine at dosages of 0...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028938/impact-of-the-us-maternal-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-program-on-preventing-pertussis-in-infants-2-months-of-age-a-case-control-evaluation
#17
Tami H Skoff, Amy E Blain, James Watt, Karen Scherzinger, Melissa McMahon, Shelley M Zansky, Kathy Kudish, Paul R Cieslak, Melissa Lewis, Nong Shang, Stacey W Martin
Background: Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life; data on effectiveness of this strategy are currently limited. Methods: We conducted a case-control evaluation among pertussis cases <2 months old with cough onset between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2014 from 6 US Emerging Infection Program Network states...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020230/effect-of-maternally-derived-anti-protein-and-anti-capsular-igg-antibodies-on-the-rate-of-acquisition-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-pneumococcus-in-newborns
#18
John Ojal, David Goldblatt, Caroline Tigoi, J Anthony G Scott
Background: In developing countries, introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not eliminated circulation of vaccine serotypes. Vaccinating pregnant mothers to increase antibody concentrations in their newborn infants may reduce the acquisition of pneumococcal carriage and subsequent risk of disease. We explored the efficacy of passive immunity, attributable to anti-protein and anti-capsular pneumococcal antibodies, against acquisition of carriage. Methods: We examined the rate of nasopharyngeal acquisition of pneumococci in the first 90 days of life associated with varying anti-capsular and anti-protein antibody concentrations in infant cord/maternal venous blood in Kilifi, Kenya...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975628/predictors-of-prolonged-length-of-hospital-stay-or-readmissions-for-acute-viral-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-among-infants-with-a-history-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#19
Carlos E Rodríguez-Martínez, Ranniery Acuña-Cordero, Monica P Sossa-Briceño
BACKGROUND: Length of hospital stay and readmissions are outcome measures that have been largely overlooked in many studies that have evaluated the clinical evolution of pediatric patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of prolonged hospitalizations or readmissions for acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in infants with BPD. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we determined independent predictors of prolonged hospitalizations or readmissions for ALRIs during the first two years of life in a population of infants with BPD living in Bogota, Colombia...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964428/surgical-interventions-in-infants-born-preterm-with-congenital-heart-defects-an-analysis-of-the-kids-inpatient-database
#20
Jagdish Desai, Sanjeev Aggarwal, Steven Lipshultz, Prashant Agarwal, Paulos Yigazu, Riddhiben Patel, Samantha Seals, Girija Natarajan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term outcomes in infants born preterm with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and the factors associated with surgery, survival, and length of hospitalization in this population. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from infants born preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) enrolled in the multicenter Kids' Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project who were admitted to the hospital within 30 days after birth. Infants with atrial septal defects were excluded...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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