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Laura Bubba, Marianna Martinelli, Laura Pellegrinelli, Valeria Primache, Elisabetta Tanzi, Elena Pariani, Sandro Binda
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) infections are widespread and can lead to a broad range of symptoms, from the common cold to severe disease. Due to the lack of Italian data, this 4-year retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the frequency, seasonality and molecular characteristics of EV and HPeV circulating in children younger than 5 years. METHODS: 812 samples were collected from children ≤5 years (56.5% males; median age: 20...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Naoki Shigemoto, Yuri Hisatsune, Yasushi Toukubo, Yukie Tanizawa, Yukie Shimazu, Shinichi Takao, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Mamoru Noda, Shinji Fukuda
Multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were modified to detect 10 types of gastroenteritis viruses by adding two further assays to a previously developed assay. Then, these assays were applied to clinical samples, which were collected between January 2006 and December 2013. All 10 types of viruses were effectively detected in the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays. In addition, various viral parameters, such as the detection rates and age distributions of each viral type, were examined...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Aksara Thongprachum, Pattara Khamrin, Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Sayaka Takanashi, Shoko Okitsu, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Niwat Maneekarn, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Multiplex RT-PCR method using five sets of panel primers was developed for the detection of diarrheal viruses, including rotavirus A, B, and C, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GI and GII, sapovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, enterovirus, cosavirus, bocavirus, and Saffold virus. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated and tested with 751 fecal specimens collected from Japanese children with acute diarrhea. Several kinds of viruses were detected in 528 out of 751 (70.3%) fecal specimens. Mixed-infection with different viruses in clinical specimens could also be effectively detected...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Yuta Aizawa, Akihide Koyama, Tomohiko Ishihara, Osamu Onodera, Akihiko Saitoh
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) is an emerging virus that causes sepsis and meningoencephalitis in neonates and young infants. Correct diagnosis of HPeV3 infection is critical in determining appropriate management and predicting patients' clinical course. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been used to diagnose HPeV3 infection; however, the assay detection limits have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that droplet digital RT-PCR (RT-ddPCR)-a novel technique that precisely quantitates low-copy target genes by diluting and partitioning samples into compartments-increases the detection rate of HPeV3 RNA as compared with real-time RT-PCR...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Krishna Chaaithanya Itta, Kirti Vittal Ghargi, Shanta Kalal, Tanmayi Patil, Subarna Roy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Dídac Casas-Alba, Antonio Martínez-Monseny, Laura Monfort, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, María Cabrerizo, Àngela Deyà, Cristian Launes
Human parechovirus-3 has been associated with severe clinical manifestations in infants, such as sepsis-like illness and meningoencephalitis. Nevertheless, the vast majority of patients have a favorable outcome. We report the occurrence of this infection in dizygotic infants with extreme hyperferritinemia and a transient impairment of natural-killer cell cytotoxicity.
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Julian W Tang, Christopher W Holmes, Fadwa A Elsanousi, Ayushi Patel, Fazila Adam, Rachel Speight, Savitha Shenoy, Daniel Bronnert, Gary Stiefel, Premkumar Sundaram, Suchandra Pande, Arani Sridhar, Venkatesh Kairamkonda, Srini Bandi
We report an unusually high number of cases (n = 26) of parechovirus infections in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates and infants admitted with sepsis in the United Kingdom during 8 May to 2 August 2016. Although such infections in neonates and infants are well-documented, parechovirus has not been routinely included in many in-house and commercial PCR assays for CSF testing. Clinicians should consider routine parechovirus testing in young children presenting with sepsis.
August 25, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Jung Sook Yeom, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Chan-Hoo Park, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Ok Jeong Lee, Tae-Hee Han, Ju-Young Chung
We report a human parechovirus-3 (HPeV-3) infection in 2 neonates who had prolonged fever (>5 days) with palmar-plantar erythema. This distinctive rash was observed 4-5 days after fever onset, just before defervescence. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels were characteristic laboratory findings in the 2 cases, suggesting tissue damage caused by hypercytokinemia. Case 1 was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, considering the possibility of severe systemic inflammatory responses...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
K Watanabe, C Hirokawa, T Tazawa
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) mainly infect young children, causing mild gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases; however, HPeV type 3 (HPeV3) causes severe systemic diseases in young infants. To clarify the characteristics of HPeV infections from the aspects of seropositivity and epidemiology, we measured neutralizing antibody titres against HPeVs in individuals of in different age groups and isolated HPeVs from various clinical specimens in Niigata, Japan. The seropositivity to HPeV1, 3, and 6 was higher in older age group...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Volker Strenger, Sabine Diedrich, Sindy Boettcher, Susanne Richter, Peter Maritschnegg, Dietmar Gangl, Simone Fuchs, Gernot Grangl, Bernhard Resch, Berndt Urlesberger
In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns.
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
María Cabrerizo, María Díaz-Cerio, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Núria Rabella, David Tarragó, María Pilar Romero, María José Pena, Cristina Calvo, Sonia Rey-Cao, Antonio Moreno-Docón, Inés Martínez-Rienda, Almudena Otero, Gloria Trallero
The epidemiology and clinical association of enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) infections, as well as the type-distribution-according-to-age, were determined during a 4-year study period in Spain. During 2010-2013, a total of 21,832 clinical samples were screened for EV and the detection frequency was 6.5% (1,430). Of the total EV-negative samples, only 1,873 samples from 2011 to 2013 were available for HPeV testing. HPeV was detected in 42 (2%) of them. Positive samples were genotyped using PCR and sequencing...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Camilla Loi, Michela Magnano, Giulia Maria Ravaioli, Iria Neri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Shabih Shakeel, Brenda M Westerhuis, Ausra Domanska, Roman I Koning, Rishi Matadeen, Abraham J Koster, Arjen Q Bakker, Tim Beaumont, Katja C Wolthers, Sarah J Butcher
The poorly studied picornavirus, human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) causes neonatal sepsis with no therapies available. Our 4.3-Å resolution structure of HPeV3 on its own and at 15 Å resolution in complex with human monoclonal antibody Fabs demonstrates the expected picornavirus capsid structure with three distinct features. First, 25% of the HPeV3 RNA genome in 60 sites is highly ordered as confirmed by asymmetric reconstruction, and interacts with conserved regions of the capsid proteins VP1 and VP3. Second, the VP0 N terminus stabilizes the capsid inner surface, in contrast to other picornaviruses where on expulsion as VP4, it forms an RNA translocation channel...
2016: Nature Communications
Nina Moe, Bård Pedersen, Svein Arne Nordbø, Lars Høsøien Skanke, Sidsel Krokstad, Anastasios Smyrnaios, Henrik Døllner
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses often have been studied in children with respiratory tract infection (RTI), but less knowledge exists about viruses in asymptomatic children. We have studied the occurrence of a broad panel of respiratory viruses in apparently healthy children attending day care, taking into account the influence of possible confounding factors, such as age, clinical signs of respiratory tract infection (RTI), location (day-care section) and season. METHODS: We have studied 161 children in two day-care centers, each with separate sections for younger and older children, during four autumn and winter visits over a two-year period...
2016: PloS One
Sophie Norton, Damien V Cordery, Brett J Abbenbroek, Angela C Ryan, David J Muscatello
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of known and novel pathogens causing very severe illness increase the risk to public health in a globalised community and alarm the public. Intensive care units (ICUs) may be an underused setting for public health surveillance. This study investigates the electronic Record for Intensive Care (eRIC), an electronic clinical information and management system being developed for New South Wales ICUs, and its surveillance opportunity offerings. METHODS: The surveillance benefits being introduced by the eRIC were evaluated through consultation with stakeholders and the eRIC program team...
2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Christopher W Holmes, Sharon S F Koo, Husam Osman, Steven Wilson, Jacqueline Xerry, Chris I Gallimore, David J Allen, Julian W Tang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic or lymphocytic meningitis, particularly in children. With reports of unusually severe neurological disease in some patients infected with enterovirus D68 in North America, and a recent increase in the number of paediatric enterovirus meningitis cases presenting in this UK Midlands population, a retrospective regional surveillance study was performed. STUDY DESIGN: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples received were tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV-1/2, VZV, enteroviruses and parechoviruses...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
James J Dunn
Infections with enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Individuals with B-cell-related immunodeficiencies are at risk for severe enteroviral infections, usually a chronic and fatal meningoencephalitis. In transplant recipients and patients with malignancy, enterovirus infections typically involve the respiratory tract, but cases of severe, disseminated infection have been described. The mainstay of diagnosis for enterovirus and human parechovirus infections involves the use of molecular diagnostic techniques...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Amy L Leber, Kathy Everhart, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Jillian Cullison, Judy Daly, Sarah Holt, Paul Lephart, Hossein Salimnia, Paul C Schreckenberger, Sharon DesJarlais, Sharon L Reed, Kimberle C Chapin, Lindsay LeBlanc, J Kristie Johnson, Nicole L Soliven, Karen C Carroll, Jo-Anne Miller, Jennifer Dien Bard, Javier Mestas, Matthew Bankowski, Tori Enomoto, Andrew C Hemmert, Kevin M Bourzac
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Anna Warvsten, Martin Björnfors, Michael Arvidsson, Fariba Vaziri-Sani, Ida Jönsson, Gert E Olsson, Clas Ahlm, Helena Elding Larsson, Åke Lernmark, Anna-Lena Nilsson
: Bank voles are known reservoirs for Puumala hantavirus and probably also for Ljungan virus (LV), a suggested candidate parechovirus in type 1 diabetes etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether wild bank voles had been exposed to LV and if exposure associated to autoantibodies against insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GADA) or islet autoantigen-2 (IA-2A). Serum samples from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) captured in early summer or early winter of 1997 and 1998, respectively, were analyzed in radiobinding assays for antibodies against Ljungan virus (LVA) and Puumala virus (PUUVA) as well as for IAA, GADA and IA-2A...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jun Nirei, Yuta Aizawa, Minoru Okazaki, Akira Kobayashi, Junya Onozuka, Osamu Numata, Tomohiro Oishi, Akihiko Saitoh
Four infants born prematurely presented with multiple apnea episodes caused by human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) infection. All patients required oxygen supplementation, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. HPeV3 infection might be included in the differential diagnosis of apnea in neonates and young infants, especially those born prematurely.
May 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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