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Nada Harik, Roberta L DeBiasi
Nonpolio enteroviruses and parechoviruses are frequent causes of neonatal infection. Clinical manifestations of infection range from asymptomatic infection to mild infection without sequelae to septic shock with muiltiorgan failure. Neonates with clinically apparent infection typically have mothers and/or other contacts with recent symptoms consistent with a viral illness. Severe neonatal infection with nonpolio enterovirus or parechovirus cannot be differentiated clinically from serious bacterial infection...
March 8, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Massimiliano Bergallo, Ilaria Galliano, Paola Montanari, Marco Rassu, Valentina Daprà
OBJECTIVE: Since its discovery, Aichivirus (AiV) A has been detected, with an incidence of 0.9-4.1%, primarily when studying outbreaks of diarrhea in children or young adults. In this paper, we report the first detection of AiV in Piedmont, Italy, in pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 159 fecal specimens (from 96 males and 63 females) previously screened for rotaviruses, adenoviruses, noroviruses, human parechoviruses, saliviruses, and sapoviruses were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis...
March 2, 2018: Intervirology
Maxime Bisseux, Jonathan Colombet, Audrey Mirand, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet, Christine Archimbaud, Hélène Peigue-Lafeuille, Didier Debroas, Jean-Luc Bailly, Cécile Henquell
BackgroundHuman enteric viruses are resistant in the environment and transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Viral shedding in wastewater gives the opportunity to track emerging pathogens and study the epidemiology of enteric infectious diseases in the community. Aim: The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of enteric viruses in the population of the Clermont-Ferrand area (France) by analysis of urban wastewaters. Methods: Raw and treated wastewaters were collected between October 2014 and October 2015 and concentrated by a two-step protocol using tangential flow ultrafiltration and polyethylene glycol precipitation...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Valeria Biscaro, Giorgio Piccinelli, Franco Gargiulo, Giovanni Ianiro, Arnaldo Caruso, Francesca Caccuri, Maria Antonia De Francesco
Enteric viral infections are a major concern for public health, and viral acute gastroenteritis is the principal cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of different enteric viruses detected in a pediatric population with acute gastroenteritis symptoms, and to characterize the strains detected. Stools were collected from children, aged from 2 months to 15 years old, admitted to one of the main hospitals of Northern Italy, between November 2015 and October 2016...
February 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Matthew P O'Brien, Joshua R Francis, Ian M Marr, Robert W Baird
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) multiplex assay in the diagnosis of pediatric CNS infection, and assessed for the effect on clinical management. STUDY DESIGN: A 15-month prospective cohort of pediatric patients with confirmed CNS infection was compared with a 15-month retrospective cohort from the Top End region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The study characterized all the CNS infections over the 30-month period and compared the time to organism identification and antibiotic management before and after the introduction of the multiplex assay...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hao Wang, Per Sikora, Carolin Rutgersson, Magnus Lindh, Tomas Brodin, Berndt Björlenius, D G Joakim Larsson, Heléne Norder
Sewage contains a mixed ecosystem of diverse sets of microorganisms, including human pathogenic viruses. Little is known about how conventional as well as advanced treatments of sewage, such as ozonation, reduce the environmental spread of viruses. Analyses for viruses were therefore conducted for three weeks in influent, after conventional treatment, after additional ozonation, and after passing an open dam system at a full-scale treatment plant in Knivsta, Sweden. Viruses were concentrated by adsorption to a positively charged filter, from which they were eluted and pelleted by ultracentrifugation, with a recovery of about 10%...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Donna McNeale, Claire Y T Wang, Katherine E Arden, Ian M Mackay
BACKGROUND: Parechoviruses (HPeV) are endemic seasonal pathogens detected from the respiratory tract, gut, blood and central nervous system (CNS) of children and adults, sometimes in conjunction with a range of acute illnesses. HPeV CNS infection may lead to neurodevelopmental sequelae, especially following infection by HPeV-3, hence screening and genotyping are important to inform epidemiology, aetiology and prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterise HPeVs circulating during an outbreak between November 2013 and April 2014 in Queensland, Australia...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Shipra Goel, Anita Chakravarti, Mukta Mantan, Surinder Kumar, Md Anzar Ashraf
Introduction: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kentaro Sano, Hiromichi Hamada, Shoko Hirose, Kenta Sugiura, Satoko Harada, Mai Koizumi, Mayumi Hara, Haruna Nishijima, Masakatsu Taira, Atsushi Ogura, Tomoko Ogawa, Jun-Ichi Takanashi
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human non-polio enterovirus (EV) are important causes of fever without source (FWS) in young infants. Their prevalence and clinical characteristics are largely unknown in Asian countries. This study was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HPeV and EV infection in febrile young infants in Japan. METHODS: During February 2010-August 2015, we obtained 53 stool, 44 throat swab, and 20 cerebrospinal fluid samples from 56 infants (<3 months) with FWS at a single hospital...
February 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Dawn Lee, Sin Wee Loh, Juliet Tan, Jinho Chong
We report a case of an infant who had presented with fever and an acral-accentuated rash, for which his cerebrospinal fluid returned positive for parechovirus. He was treated symptomatically and discharged well, with no long-term complications.
January 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
P R Patil, N N Ganorkar, V Gopalkrishna
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are known to cause various clinical manifestations including acute gastroenteritis. Although HPeV infections and their genotypes have been detected in human patients worldwide, no such reports are available from India to ascertain the association of HPeVs in acute gastroenteritis. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical features and genetic diversity of HPeVs detected in children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis. Stool specimens (n = 979) collected from children aged ⩽5 years hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in Pune, western India during January 2006-December 2010 were included...
January 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Eric Rhoden, W Allan Nix, William C Weldon, Rangaraj Selvarangan
Parechovirus A3 (Par-A3, formerly human parechovirus 3) is an emerging viral infection of the central nervous system in children. We used an automated, homogeneous, cell based assay to identify itraconazole and posaconazole as inhibitors of Par-A3, with antiviral activity below concentrations clinically attainable in pediatric patients. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment for Par-A3 infection, despite numerous reports of serious Par-A3 disease in neonates and infants.
January 2018: Antiviral Research
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
Laudi Olijve, Lance Jennings, Tony Walls
Human parechovirus (HPeV) is increasingly being recognized as a potentially severe viral infection in neonates and young infants. HPeV belongs to the family Picornaviridae and is currently divided into 19 genotypes. HPeV-1 is the most prevalent genotype and most commonly causes gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. HPeV-3 is clinically the most important genotype due to its association with severe disease in younger infants, which may partly be explained by its distinct virological properties. In young infants, the typical clinical presentation includes fever, severe irritability, and rash, often leading to descriptions of "hot, red, angry babies...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
N B Goecke, C K Hjulsager, H Kongsted, M Boye, S Rasmussen, F Granberg, T K Fischer, S E Midgley, L D Rasmussen, Ø Angen, J P Nielsen, S E Jorsal, L E Larsen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the syndrome New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) is associated with a viral aetiology. Four well-managed herds experiencing neonatal diarrhoea and suspected to be affected by NNPDS were included in a case-control set up. A total of 989 piglets were clinically examined on a daily basis. Samples from diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets at the age of three to seven days were selected for extensive virological examination using specific real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) and general virus detection methods...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Laura Pellegrinelli, Laura Bubba, Cristina Galli, Giovanni Anselmi, Valeria Primache, Sandro Binda, Elena Pariani
Besides the influenza virus (IV), several other viruses are responsible for influenza-like illness (ILI). Although human parechoviruses (HPeVs) and enteroviruses (EVs) may impact on ILI, limited data on their epidemiological characteristics are available. During seven consecutive winter seasons (from 2010-2011 to 2016-2017), within the framework of an influenza surveillance system (InfluNet), 593 respiratory swabs were collected from children ≤5 years of age with ILIs. Molecular detection showed that 58...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
Silke Graul, Sindy Böttcher, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Julia Käsmaier, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Jürgen May, Egbert Tannich, Marcus Panning
BACKGROUND: Little is known on human parechovirus (HPeV) infections in Africa. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and association with diarrhea of HPeV in Ghanaian children. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 682 stool samples from a pediatric case-control study on causes of diarrhea collected in 2007-2008 were used. Laboratory analysis included HPeV real-time RT-PCR and sequencing partial viral protein (VP) 1 gene region of HPeV...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Philip N Britton, Gulam Khandaker, Ameneh Khatami, Suzy Teutsch, Stephanie Francis, Brendan J McMullan, Cheryl A Jones
AIM: The human parechovirus (HPeV) is an increasingly recognised cause of sepsis and central nervous system infection in young infants for which there are limited long-term outcome data. We aimed to assess neurodevelopmental outcome and quality of life in infants following hospitalised HPeV infection. METHODS: This cohort study was a 12-month follow-up of infants who were hospitalised with confirmed HPeV infection at the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network during an outbreak in Sydney in 2013...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Eveliina Karelehto, Sabine van der Sanden, James A Geraets, Aušra Domanska, Lonneke van der Linden, Dionne Hoogendoorn, Gerrit Koen, Hetty van Eijk, Shabih Shakeel, Tim Beaumont, Menno de Jong, Dasja Pajkrt, Sarah J Butcher, Katja C Wolthers
Human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3), a member of the Picornavirus family, is frequently detected worldwide. However, the observed seropositivity rates for HPeV3 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) vary from high in Japan to low in the Netherlands and Finland. To study if this can be explained by technical differences or antigenic diversity among HPeV3 strains included in the serological studies, we determined the neutralizing activity of Japanese and Dutch intravenous immunoglobulin batches (IVIG), a rabbit HPeV3 hyperimmune polyclonal serum, and a human HPeV3-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) AT12-015, against the HPeV3 A308/99 prototype strain and clinical isolates from Japan, the Netherlands and Australia, collected between 1989 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
A Mirand, H Peigue-Lafeuille
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA) are common childhood diseases mostly associated with human enteroviruses (EV). Although usually benign illnesses, neurological complications may be observed during large epidemics when enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is involved, as observed in the Asia Pacific Region and in China since the late 1990s. The occurrence of these complications warrants reinforcing the surveillance of the emergence of EV-A71 infections in France and Europe. Monitoring EV infections associated with HFMD can be considered as an effective tool to detect an upsurge of EV-A71 infections in a timely manner...
September 8, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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