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Toxoplasmosis gondii

Qing Liu, Wen-Wei Gao, Hany M Elsheikha, Jun-Jun He, Fa-Cai Li, Wen-Bin Yang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Growth and replication of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii within host cell entail the production of several effector proteins, which the parasite exploits for counteracting the host's immune response. Despite considerable research to define the host signaling pathways manipulated by T. gondii and their effectors, there has been limited progress into understanding how individual members of the dense granule proteins (GRAs) modulate gene expression within host cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether T...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology Research
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Reda H El Bakary, Mohamed A El Barody
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of retinochoroiditis worldwide in humans. Some studies highlighted the idea that ocular lesions differ according to the route of infection but none of them mimicked the natural route. The current study aimed to investigate the ophthalmic outcomes in congenital and oral routes of infection with Toxoplasma in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups; group I: congenital infection, group II: acquired oral infection and group III: non-infected. We used Me49 chronic low-virulence T...
June 14, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Shaban Gohardehi, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Afsaneh Amouei, Abdolsattar Pagheh, Mitra Sadeghi, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent infectious disease. Although most people infected by Toxoplasma gondii are asymptomatic, evidence has suggested that this disease might affect some aspects of a host's behavior and associate with schizophrenia, suicide attempt, changes in various aspects of personality, and poor neurocognitive performance. These associations may play roles in increasing the risk of a number of incidents, such as traffic accidents, among infected people. In this regard, this study aimed to provide summary estimates for the available data on the potential risk of toxoplasmosis for traffic accidents...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Katia Stradiotto, Emanuela Olivieri, Luca Villa, Maria Teresa Manfredi
A major public health issue, Toxoplasma gondii infection can affect humans mainly via the consumption of animal products from certain species, including small ruminants. Therefore, a regular monitoring of the infection in ovine and caprine populations is advisable for the control of human and animal toxoplasmosis. Antibody detection in individual and bulk tank milk may represent a valid alternative to serological analysis, being its collection easy and not affecting animal welfare. Many serological tools for milk analysis have already been validated for several parasites, including Apicomplexa...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Sagun Narayan Joshi, Ranjit Sah, Sushila Khadka, Anadi Khatri Kc, Bharat Mani Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Detection of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vitreous of immunocompetent patient with necrotizing retinitis is extremely rare. We herein report the isolation of Toxoplasma bradyzoites and tachyzoites from the vitreous of healthy person. RESULTS: A 19-year-old immunocompetent female presented with sudden loss of vision in left eye since 1 week. The BCVA was 6/6 and HM in right and left eye. The left eye finding was suggestive of diffuse necrotizing retinitis with retinal detachment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
William H James, Victor Grech
Humans infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii display a wide variety of abnormal behaviours, from suicide and depression to stuttering. These behaviours have been seen as so serious as to constitute a public health problem. It is not clear to what extent the parasite is a cause of, or merely a marker for, these behaviours, but there is evidence for both. Some of these behaviours are associated with changes in steroid hormones, that is, estrogen in women and testosterone in men. It is suggested here that these endocrine-related states of infected people may be better understood by studying their offspring sex ratios...
June 7, 2018: Early Human Development
Oluyomi Stephen Adeyemi, Yuho Murata, Tatsuki Sugi, Yongmei Han, Kentaro Kato
Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a common infection against which better drugs are needed. Recently, we showed that inorganic nanoparticles have anti-Toxoplasma activity. Here, we sought to enhance the anti-parasitic efficacy and host biocompatibility of these nanoparticles by modifying their surface with amino acids. The amino acids used were selected based on the nutritional requirements of Toxoplasma gondii. Amino acid-capped nanoparticles (amino-NPs) were synthesized, purified, and then screened for anti-Toxoplasma activity in in vitro infection models...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Jingjing Guo, Xiahui Sun, Huiquan Yin, Ting Wang, Yan Li, Chunxue Zhou, Huaiyu Zhou, Shenyi He, Hua Cong
Multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccines have advantages over traditional Toxoplasma gondii vaccines, but are more susceptible to enzymatic degradation. As an effective delivery system, chitosan microspheres (CS) can overcome this obstacle and act as a natural adjuvant to promote T helper 1 (Th1) cellular immune responses. In this study, we use chitosan microparticles to deliver multiple antigenic epitopes from GRA10 (G10E), containing three dominant epitopes. When G10E was entrapped within chitosan microparticles (G10E-CS), adequate peptides for eliciting immune response were loaded in the microsphere core and this complex released G10E peptides stably...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Huma Naeem, Madiha Sana, Saher Islam, Matiullah Khan, Farooq Riaz, Zunaira Zafar, Haroon Akbar, Wasim Shehzad, Imran Rashid
About one-third of the world population is prone to have infection with T. gondii, which can cause toxoplasmosis in the developing fetus and in people whose immune system is compromised through disease or chemotherapy. Surface antigen-1 (SAG1) is the candidate of vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Recent advances in biotechnology and nano-pharmaceuticals have made possible to formulate nanospheres of recombinant protein, which are suitable for sub-unit vaccine delivery. In current study, the local strain was obtained from cat feces as toxoplasma oocysts...
June 6, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Laurent Mandelbrot, François Kieffer, Rémi Sitta, Hélène Laurichesse-Delmas, Norbert Winer, Louis Mesnard, Alain Berrebi, Gwenaëlle Le Bouar, Jean-Paul Bory, Anne-Gaëlle Cordier, Yves Ville, Franck Perrotin, Jean-Marie Jouannic, Florence Biquard, Claude d'Ercole, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Isabelle Villena, Rodolphe Thiébaut
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of prophylaxis to prevent prenatal toxoplasmosis transmission is controversial, without any previous randomized clinical trial. In France, spiramycin (S) is usually prescribed for maternal seroconversions. A more potent pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine (PS) regimen is used to treat congenital toxoplasmosis and is offered in some countries as prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of PS vs S to reduce placental transmission...
June 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Zahra Hosseininejad, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Afsaneh Amouei, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Tooran Nayeri Chegeni, Davood Anvari, Reza Saberi, Shaban Gohardehi, Azadeh Mizani, Mitra Sadeghi, Ahmad Daryani
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan infection caused by an intracellular obligatory protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection to this parasite in immunocompetent patients is usually asymptomatic, but today it is believed that the infection can be a risk factor for a variety of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is an autoimmune disease and the most common type of inflammatory arthritis that is a major cause of disability. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to address the association between RA and toxoplasmosis in light of the available research...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ye-Ram Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jin-Seung Yun, Sojin Kim, Sun Young Kim, Kiseok Jang, Chul-Su Yang
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii has unique dense granule antigens (GRAs) that are crucial for host infection. Emerging evidence suggests that GRA8 of T. gondii is a promising serodiagnostic marker in toxoplasmosis. However, little is known about the intracellular regulatory mechanisms involved in GRA8-induced host responses. We found that GRA8 interacts with host proteins involved in mitochondria activation and might be useful as a therapeutic strategy for sepsis. Here, we show that protein kinase-Cα (PKCα)-mediated phosphorylation of T...
March 30, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Jingfan Qiu, Rong Zhang, Yanci Xie, Lijuan Wang, Ke Ge, Hao Chen, Xinjian Liu, Jiangping Wu, Yong Wang
Estradiol (E2) plays a crucial and intricate role during pregnancy to mediate several aspects of the pregnancy process. A perplexing phenomenon in congenital toxoplasmosis is that the severity of Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii )-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome is closely related with time of primary maternal infection during pregnancy. In this study, the results showed that T. gondii infection in early pregnancy was more likely to induce miscarriage in mice than in late pregnancy, which may be related to inflammation of the maternal-fetal interface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhenchao Zhang, Yuhua Li, Mingyong Wang, Qing Xie, Pengju Li, Suqiong Zuo, Lingmin Kong, Chenxing Wang, Shuai Wang
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry proteins (TgROPs) are the major targets as key molecules for immunodiagnosis as well as immunoprophylaxis because of their initial presentation to the host immune system. In this work, it was aimed at evaluating the protection effect of TgROP21 DNA vaccine on experimental mice subjected to T. gondii challenge. The gene sequence encoding TgROP21 was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX I, and western blotting indicates that the lysate of BHK cells transfected with pVAX-TgROP21 was specifically recognized as a band of about 82...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angelica O Gomes, Bellisa F Barbosa, Priscila S Franco, Mayara Ribeiro, Rafaela J Silva, Paula S G Gois, Karine C Almeida, Mariana B Angeloni, Andressa S Castro, Pâmela M Guirelli, João V Cândido, Javier E L Chica, Neide M Silva, Tiago W P Mineo, José R Mineo, Eloisa A V Ferro
Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in physiology, pathology, immunology and parasitology, including the control of infection by protozoa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii . As the MIF function in congenital toxoplasmosis is not fully elucidated yet, the present study brings new insights for T. gondii infection in the absence of MIF based on pregnant C57BL/6MIF-/- mouse models. Pregnant C57BL/6MIF-/- and C57BL/6WT mice were infected with 05 cysts of T...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Vincent Wong, Channa Amarasekera, Shilajit Kundu
Testicular toxoplasmosis is a very rare presentation of Toxoplasma gondii A 26-year-old immunocompetent man presented to us with right testicular pain and a right epididymal mass. Ultrasound was concerning for malignancy and a radical orchiectomy was performed. Surgical pathology revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation which stained positive for T. gondii .
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Hyun Beom Song, Bong-Kwang Jung, Jin Hyoung Kim, Young-Ha Lee, Min-Ho Choi, Jeong Hun Kim
The conversion of tachyzoites into bradyzoites is a way for Toxoplasma gondii to establish a chronic and asymptomatic infection and achieve lifelong persistence in the host. The bradyzoites form tissue cysts in the retina, but not much is known about the horizontal distribution of the cysts or their interactions with glial cells in the retina. A chronic ocular toxoplasmosis model was induced by per oral administration of T. gondii Me49 strain cysts to BALB/c mice. Two months after the infection, retinas were flat-mounted and immunostained to detect cysts, ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells, followed by observation under fluorescence and confocal microscope...
June 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
Zhenchao Zhang, Yuhua Li, Qing Xie, Pengju Li, Xiaoxu Nan, Lingmin Kong, Dapeng Zeng, Zhifang Ding, Shuai Wang
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) rhoptry proteins (TgROPs) have been considered main targets and indicator molecules for immune diagnosis and prophylaxis since they initially present during the process of invasion. In this study, the effect of intramuscularly injecting the genetic vaccine pVAX-ROP22 was evaluated, made by inserting the TgROP22 sequence into the eukaryotic expression vector of pVAX I, into BALB/c mice. The levels of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in pVAX-ROP22 vaccinated animals were integrally increased...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Tamiris Cristine Ribeiro Ferreira, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Narcisa Imaculada Brant Moreira, Claudiney Biral Santos, Júlia Gatti Ladeia Costa, Lorena Velozo Pinto, Ramon Castro de Araújo Baraviera, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor, Blima Fux
Toxoplasma gondii presents a high prevalence worldwide, infecting several animals. Felines are considered the definitive hosts and among the intermediate hosts we highlight mammals and birds. The man can become infected by ingesting tissue cysts present in birds and mammals. Biological and molecular aspects of T. gondii allows a better understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. This work is a serologic screening of 58 chickens grown (Gallus gallus domesticus) for human consumption in Espírito Santo State, by means of indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA)...
May 24, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Minoo Shaddel, Mansour Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh
Toxoplasma gondii , is a causative agent of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and congenitally-infected individuals. Attempts to construct DNA vaccines against T. gondii using surface proteins are increasing. The dense granule antigens are highly expressed in the acute and chronic phases of T. gondii infection and considered as suitable DNA vaccine candidates to control toxoplasmosis. In the present study, bioinformatics tools and online software were used to predict, analyze and compare the structural, physical and chemical characters and immunogenicity of the GRA-1, GRA-4, GRA-6 and GRA-7 proteins...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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