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Toxoplasmosis gondii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533649/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-masquerading-cns-lymphoma-on-fdg-pet-ct-in-post-renal-transplant-patient
#1
Anirban Mukherjee, Chandrasekhar Bal, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandan Jyoti Das, Shamim Ahmed Shamim
20 year old post renal transplant patient developed recurrent episodes of seizure. MRI revealed focal lesion in right parieto-occipital lobe with perilesional edema. FDG PET-CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in bilateral cerebral hemisphere. Subsequent biopsy from the lesion demonstrated bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with inflammatory cells and thereby, a confirmatory diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. This case demonstrates the fact that increased FDG uptake in cerebral lesions in post transplant patient should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with histopathological correlation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508165/frequency-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-retina-in-eye-banks-in-brazil
#2
Deise F Costa, Heloisa Nascimento, Aline Sutili, Fernando A J Nobrega, Flavio Fowler, Mario Junqueira Nobrega, Cristina Garrido, Janaina de Oliveira Dias, Consuelo B D Adán, Luiz Vicente Rizzo, Claudio Silveira, Rubens Belfort, Alessandra G Commodaro
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16)...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507471/seroepidemiological-study-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-a-population-of-iranian-epileptic-patients
#3
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Kourosh Gharagozli, Ehsan Mostafavi, Majid Golkar
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Underlying cause of epilepsy is unknown in 60 % of the patients. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite which is capable of forming tissue cysts in brain of chronically infected hosts including humans. Some epidemiological studies suggested an association between toxoplasmosis and acquisition of epilepsy. In this study we determined seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma infection in a population of Iranian epileptic patients. Participants were classified in three groups as Iranian epileptic patients (IEP, n = 414), non-epileptic patients who had other neurologic disorders (NEP, n = 150), and healthy people without any neurologic disorders (HP, n = 63)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507409/toxoplasma-gondii-type-i-predominant-genotype-isolated-from-sheep-in-south-of-iran
#4
Belal Armand, Kavous Solhjoo, Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Mohammad Hasan Davami, Morteza Pourahmad, Vahideh Orfaee
AIM: This study was performed to determine the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep using nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tissue samples of diaphragm and heart from 125 sheep were collected from the main slaughterhouses of Jahrom district in South of Fars province, Iran, between Aprils and June 2013. The DNA were extracted and analyzed by nested-PCR using specific primers for SAG2 and GRA6 loci...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506241/socio-demographic-determinants-of-toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-migrant-workers-of-peninsular-malaysia
#5
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne A L Lim, Farnaza Ariffin, Jerzy M Behnke, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Martin Walker, John W Lewis, Rahmah Noordin, Khairul Anuar Abdullah, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
BACKGROUND: The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work...
May 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506044/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-cat-sitters-in-korea
#6
Bong-Kwang Jung, Hyemi Song, Sang-Eun Lee, Min-Jae Kim, Jaeeun Cho, Eun-Hee Shin, Jong-Yil Chai
The seroprevalence of human toxoplasmosis has been increasing in Korea, and it is controversial whether cats are an important infection source or not. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a high risk group (cat sitters) and to determine the possible importance of cats as an infection source in Korea. Risk factors, including the age, sex, and diet of cat sitters, their contact experience and contact frequency with stray cats, and origin, number, and outdoor activity of their pet cats, were analyzed using structured questionnaires...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495193/first-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-stray-cats-from-algeria
#7
Feriel Yekkour, Dominique Aubert, Aurélien Mercier, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Mammar Khames, Paul Nguewa, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Isabelle Villena, Zahida Bouchene
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution and a major public health problem. In Algeria, no data are currently available about genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from animals or humans. The present study assesses for the first time the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats, and provides molecular characterization of T. gondii strains circulating in this feline population in Algiers, the capital city of Algeria. Sera from 96 stray cats were tested for the presence of antibodies against T...
May 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487847/recombinant-tghsp70-immunization-protects-against-toxoplasma-gondii-brain-cyst-formation-by-enhancing-inducible-nitric-oxide-expression
#8
Paulo Czarnewski, Ester C B Araújo, Mário C Oliveira, Tiago W P Mineo, Neide M Silva
Toxoplasma gondii is known to cause congenital infection in humans and animals and severe disease in immunocompromised individuals; consequently development of vaccines against the parasite is highly necessary. Under stress conditions, T. gondii expresses the highly immunogenic heat shock protein 70 (TgHSP70). Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of rTgHSP70 immunization combined with Alum in oral ME-49 T. gondii infection and the mechanisms involved on it. It was observed that immunized mice with rTgHSP70 or rTgHSP70 adsorbed in Alum presented a significantly reduced number of cysts in the brain that was associated with increased iNOS+ cell numbers in the organ, irrespective the use of the adjuvant...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486997/the-antifungal-aureobasidin-a-and-an-analogue-are-active-against-the-protozoan-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-but-do-not-inhibit-sphingolipid-biosynthesis
#9
A Q I Alqaisi, A J Mbekeani, M Bassas Llorens, A P Elhammer, P W Denny
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, and toxoplasmosis is an important disease of both humans and economically important animals. With a limited array of drugs available there is a need to identify new therapeutic compounds. Aureobasidin A (AbA) is an antifungal that targets the essential inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC, sphingolipid) synthase in pathogenic fungi. This natural cyclic depsipeptide also inhibits Toxoplasma proliforation, with the protozoan IPC synthase orthologue proposed as the target...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486633/development-of-a-murine-vertical-transmission-model-for-toxoplasma-gondii-oocyst-infection-and-studies-on-the-efficacy-of-bumped-kinase-inhibitor-bki-1294-and-the-naphthoquinone-buparvaquone-against-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#10
Joachim Müller, Adriana Aguado-Martínez, Luis-Miguel Ortega-Mora, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, Ignacio Ferre, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Molly C McCloskey, Lynn K Barrett, Dustin J Maly, Kayode K Ojo, Wes Van Voorhis, Andrew Hemphill
Objectives: Establishment of a mouse model for congenital toxoplasmosis based on oral infection with oocysts from Toxoplasma gondii ME49 and its application for investigating chemotherapeutic options against congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: CD1 mice were mated, orally infected with 5, 25, 100, 500 or 2000 oocysts and monitored for clinical signs and survival of dams and pups until 4 weeks post partum . The parasite burden in infected mice was quantified by real-time PCR in lungs, brains and, in the case of surviving pups, also in eyes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484433/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-induces-high-mobility-group-box-1-released-from-mouse-macrophages
#11
Hui Wang, Muzi Li, Jing Liu, Jianhai Xu, Qian Han, Qun Liu
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is abundantly expressed in intracellular engaged DNA binding ability. However, more importantly, it is a weapon against infection through proinflammatory response and immune regulation while released to extracellular. Toxoplasma gondii causes inflammatory pathological changes including ileitis and encephalitis in chronic infection. To investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to the toxoplasmosis lesions, we examined HMGB1 changes during T. gondii infection. The results showed that HMGB1 transcription was down-regulated in the murine macrophage ANA1 cell line and mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMΦs) after T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483726/prevalence-of-igg-and-igm-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-blood-donors-at-urmia-blood-transfusion-organization-iran
#12
Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh, Jalil Musavi, Mohammad Baradaran Safa, Hosein Galavani, Hamid Alizadeh
OBJECTIVE: The importance of toxoplasmosis lies in its global spread, opportunistic nature, and causative role in abortion or irreparable adverse effects on infants of infected pregnant women. Toxoplasma gondii has different transmission routes to humans, including blood transfusion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific for T. gondii in blood donors at the Urmia Blood Transfusion Organization in west Azerbaijan, Iran. METHODS: The present analytical, descriptive study evaluated the plasma of 270 randomly selected blood bags donated in 2013...
March 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483381/brains-and-brawn-toxoplasma-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-and-skeletal-muscle
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Wohlfert, Ira J Blader, Emma H Wilson
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasitic pathogen that infects over a third of the world's population. Following an acute infection, the parasite can persist within its mammalian host as intraneuronal or intramuscular cysts. Cysts will occasionally reactivate, and - depending on the host's immune status and site of reactivation - encephalitis or myositis can develop. Because these diseases have high levels of morbidity and can be lethal, it is important to understand how Toxoplasma traffics to these tissues, how the immune response controls parasite burden and contributes to tissue damage, and what mechanisms underlie neurological and muscular pathologies that toxoplasmosis patients present with...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477099/nanomedicine-advances-in-toxoplasmosis-diagnostic-treatment-and-vaccine-applications
#14
REVIEW
João Paulo Assolini, Virginia Márcia Concato, Manoela Daiele Gonçalves, Amanda Cristina Machado Carloto, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Francine Nesello Melanda, Idessania Nazareth Costa
Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii that affects about one third of the world's population. The diagnosis of this disease is carried out by parasite isolation and host antibodies detection. However, the diagnosis presents problems in regard to test sensitivity and specificity. Currently, the most effective T. gondii treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, although both drugs are toxic to the host. In addition to the problems that compromise the effective diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis, there are no reports or indications of any vaccine capable of fully protecting against this infection...
May 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474756/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-showing-unusual-magnetic-resonance-images
#15
Takahiro Tateno, Masahiro Onozawa, Junichi Hashiguchi, Takashi Ishio, Sayaka Yuzawa, Satomi Matsuoka, Mizuha Kosugi-Kanaya, Kohei Okada, Souichi Shiratori, Hideki Goto, Taichi Kimura, Junichi Sugita, Masao Nakagawa, Daigo Hashimoto, Kaoru Kahata, Katsuya Fujimoto, Tomoyuki Endo, Takeshi Kondo, Shinya Tanaka, Satoshi Hashino, Takanori Teshima
We herein report a patient who had disseminated toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation showing atypical clinical presentation and neuroimaging. Parkinsonism symptoms such as muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability were initial manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse symmetrical lesions of bilateral basal ganglia lacking ringed enhancement. Post-mortem analysis revealed multiple tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii in the basal ganglia, mid brain, cerebellum, and cardiac muscle...
May 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465425/plasma-membrane-association-by-n-acylation-governs-pkg-function-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#16
Kevin M Brown, Shaojun Long, L David Sibley
Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G [PKG]) is essential for microneme secretion, motility, invasion, and egress in apicomplexan parasites, However, the separate roles of two isoforms of the kinase that are expressed by some apicomplexans remain uncertain. Despite having identical regulatory and catalytic domains, PKG(I) is plasma membrane associated whereas PKG(II) is cytosolic in Toxoplasma gondii To determine whether these isoforms are functionally distinct or redundant, we developed an auxin-inducible degron (AID) tagging system for conditional protein depletion in T...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465107/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-humans-and-pigs-in-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#17
Josef Tuda, Sri Adiani, Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Kousuke Umeda, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a major public health concern throughout the world. Importantly, toxoplasmosis has several adverse effects, including neurological and ocular diseases. There are currently no data on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans or animals in North Sulawesi, although Indonesia is known to have a high seroprevalence of this parasite. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii was determined in samples of humans and pigs from North Sulawesi using the latex agglutination test...
April 29, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462207/toxoplasma-gondii-and-pre-treatment-protocols-for-polymerase-chain-reaction-analysis-of-milk-samples-a-field-trial-in-sheep-from-southern-italy
#18
Alice Vismarra, Elena Barilli, Maura Miceli, Carlo Mangia, Cristina Bacci, Franco Brindani, Laura Kramer
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459857/evidence-for-host-genetic-regulation-of-altered-lipid-metabolism-in-experimental-toxoplasmosis-supported-with-gene-data-mining-results
#19
Ivan Milovanović, Miloš Busarčević, Alexander Trbovich, Vladimir Ivović, Aleksandra Uzelac, Olgica Djurković-Djaković
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful parasites on Earth, infecting a wide array of mammals including one third of the global human population. The obligate intracellular protozoon is not capable of synthesizing cholesterol (Chl), and thus depends on uptake of host Chl for its own development. To explore the genetic regulation of previously observed lipid metabolism alterations during acute murine T. gondii infection, we here assessed total Chl and its fractions in serum and selected tissues at the pathophysiological and molecular level, and integrated the observed gene expression of selected molecules relevant for Chl metabolism, including its biosynthetic and export KEGG pathways, with the results of published transcriptomes obtained in similar murine models of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448521/immunization-with-toxoplasma-gondii-peroxiredoxin-1-induces-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#20
Ragab M Fereig, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
To develop a vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii, a vaccine antigen with immune-stimulating activity is required. In the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity and prophylactic potential of T. gondii peroxiredoxin 1 (TgPrx1). The TgPrx1 was detected in the ascitic fluid of mice 6 days postinfection, while specific antibody levels were low in the sera of chronically infected mice. Treatment of murine peritoneal macrophages with recombinant TgPrx1 triggered IL-12p40 and IL-6 production, but not IL-10 production...
2017: PloS One
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