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Toxoplasmosis gondii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926748/association-between-infection-burden-and-adult-height
#1
Dawson W Hedges, Andrew N Berrett, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Shawn D Gale
Although highly heritable, adult height is also associated with numerous environmental factors, including exposure to infection. Particularly in developing regions of the world, infection burden appears to slow growth during childhood. Using a large database representative of the US population, we examined associations between adult height and leg length and an infection-burden index based on past exposure to Toxocara species, Toxoplasmosis gondii, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpes simplex virus 1, and herpes simplex virus 2...
September 2, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920819/disseminated-toxoplasmosis-in-a-captive-adult-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius
#2
Jennifer Riley, Michael M Garner, Matti Kiupel, Elizabeth E Hammond
An 11-yr-old dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) at a zoo in south Florida presented with diarrhea while being treated with enrofloxacin and dexamethasone for a chronic skin condition. Three weeks after initiation of therapy with dexamethasone, the camel developed diarrhea, which worsened despite treatment with antibiotics. The animal became increasingly debilitated, developed hemorrhagic diarrhea, declined rapidly over the next 3 days, and died despite aggressive fluid therapy and supportive care. Histologic examination revealed intralesional protozoal tissue cysts consistent with Toxoplasma gondii in the intestines, lungs, and liver, as well as lymphoid depletion of the spleen suggesting immunosuppression...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920810/newly-described-toxoplasma-gondii-strain-causes-high-mortality-in-red-necked-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus-in-a-zoo
#3
Amanda Guthrie, Leah Rooker, Rommel Tan, Richard Gerhold, Karen Trainor, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su
This manuscript describes an outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis in wallabies. Ten adult red necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) were imported from New Zealand to the Virginia Zoo. Agglutination testing upon admission into quarantine showed all animals to be negative for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Nine of these wallabies died from acute toxoplasmosis within 59-565 (average 224) days after being moved onto exhibit. Clinical signs included lethargy, diarrhea, tachypnea, and ataxia that progressed rapidly; death without premonitory signs occurred in one case...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917302/the-global-seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-among-wild-boars-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Ali Rostami, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Yadollah Fakhri, Vafa Saber, Hooman Hanifehpour, Soghra Valizadeh, Majid Gholizadeh, Rokhsane Hosseini Pouya, H Ray Gamble
This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the worldwide seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among wild boar. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in wild boars between January 1995 and March 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. We estimated the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild boars using a random-effects model, and evaluated overall seroprevalence in different geographical areas...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#5
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902298/nursing-infant-with-acquired-toxoplasmosis-in-the-first-months-of-life-a-case-report
#6
Hanstter Hallison Alves Rezende, Heloísa Ribeiro Storchilo, Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima, Antônio Roberto Gomes, Taynara Cristina Gomes, Jéssica Yonara de Souza, Mariza Martins Avelino, Waldemar Naves do Amaral, Marina Clare Vinaud, Ana Maria de Castro
Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii and the probability of this infection occurring in the first months of life is usually low because its transmission is related to eating habits. A 6-month-old nursing infant was diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis, which was identified through anti- T. gondii IgA, IgM and low-avidity IgG serologic assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mouse bioassay test although its mother was seronegative. This serological divergence between mother and child led us to interview the mother regarding epidemiological factors...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895246/influence-of-indigenous-microbiota-on-experimental-toxoplasmosis-in-conventional-and-germ-free-mice
#7
Bruna B Nascimento, Christiane T Cartelle, Maria de L Noviello, Breno V Pinheiro, Ricardo W de Almeida Vitor, Danielle da G Souza, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Valbert N Cardoso, Flaviano Dos S Martins, Jacques R Nicoli, Rosa M E Arantes
Toxoplasmosis represents one of the most common zoonosis worldwide. Its agent, Toxoplasma gondii, causes a severe innate pro-inflammatory response. The indigenous intestinal microbiota promotes host animal homoeostasis and may protect the host against pathogens. Germ-free (GF) animals provide an important tool for the study of interactions between host and microbiota. In this study, we assessed the role of indigenous microorganisms in disease development utilizing a murine toxoplasmosis model, which includes conventional (CV) and GF NIH Swiss mice...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887145/role-of-an-estradiol-regulatory-factor-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd-in-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-pathogenicity
#8
Xiao Zhang, Jing Liu, Muzi Li, Yong Fu, Taotao Zhang, Qian Han, Qun Liu
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that infects most species of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and causes abortions and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, while the hormones progesterone and estradiol simultaneously increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones could affect parasite reproduction. This study was mainly focused on an estradiol regulatory factor-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) gene in T...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883820/decidual-macrophage-functional-polarization-during-abnormal-pregnancy-due-to-toxoplasma-gondii-role-for-lilrb4
#9
Zhidan Li, Mingdong Zhao, Teng Li, Jing Zheng, Xianbing Liu, Yuzhu Jiang, Haixia Zhang, Xuemei Hu
During gestation, Toxoplasma gondii infection produces a series of complications including stillbirths, abortions, and congenital malformations. The inhibitory receptor, LILRB4, which is mainly expressed by professional antigen-presenting cells (especially macrophages and dendritic cells) may play an important immune-regulatory role at the maternal-fetal interface. To assess the role of LILRB4 during T. gondii infection, LILRB4(-/-) and T. gondii infected pregnant mouse models were established. Further, human primary-decidual macrophages were treated with anti-LILRB4 neutralizing antibody and then infected with T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883687/experimental-porcine-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-as-a-representative-model-for-human-toxoplasmosis
#10
Julia Nau, Silvia Kathrin Eller, Johannes Wenning, Katrin Henrike Spekker-Bosker, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk, Andrea Hotop, Uwe Groß, Walter Däubener
Porcine infections are currently not the state-of-the-art model to study human diseases. Nevertheless, the course of human and porcine toxoplasmosis is much more comparable than that of human and murine toxoplasmosis. For example, severity of infection, transplacental transmission, and interferon-gamma-induced antiparasitic effector mechanisms are similar in pigs and humans. In addition, the severe immunosuppression during acute infection described in mice does not occur in the experimentally infected ones...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882612/proposed-panel-of-diagnostic-tools-for-accurate-temporal-classification-of-symptomatic-t-gondii-infection
#11
Geisa Baptista Barros, Elenice Moreira Lemos, Priscila Pinto E Silva-Dos-Santos, Reynaldo Dietze, Eliana Zandonade, José Roberto Mineo, Deise Aparecida de Oliveira Silva, Ana Cláudia Marquez Pajuaba, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, José Carlos Serufo
Serological tests available for the diagnosis of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection have limitations in establishing the temporal diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. The present analytical-descriptive investigation comprises of a prospective longitudinal cohort study to search for accurate biomarkers to distinguish acute, early and late convalescent T. gondii infection. Classic methods (immunofluorescence-IFA along with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent-ELISA and fluorescent-ELFA assays) for IgM, IgA, IgG and IgG avidity were employed in parallel with flow cytometry-based anti-fixed T...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879584/adverse-event-profile-of-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-in-toxoplasmosis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Ruben R Ben-Harari, Elizabeth Goodwin, Julio Casoy
INTRODUCTION: Approximately a third of the population worldwide is chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Pyrimethamine-based regimens are recommended for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the safety profile of pyrimethamine-based treatment for the three main Toxoplasma manifestations: toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), ocular toxoplasmosis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched through August 1, 2016...
September 6, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877569/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-detected-by-rdt-in-residents-near-the-dmz-demilitarized-zone-of-cheorwon-gun-gangwon-do-korea
#13
Yeong Hoon Kim, Jihoo Lee, Young-Eun Kim, Seongkyu Ahn, Tong-Soo Kim, Sung-Jong Hong, Chom-Kyu Chong, Hye-Jin Ahn, Ho-Woo Nam
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among the residents of Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea, which partly includes the demilitarized zone (DMZ), were surveyed for 4 years and evaluated by RDT using recombinant fragment of major surface antigen (SAG1A). Sera from 1336, 583, 526, and 583 adult residents were collected on a yearly basis from 2010 to 2013, respectively. The total positive seroprevalence was 19.3, 21.9, 23.4, and 26.8% from 2010 to 2013, respectively. The positive seroprevalence in men (23...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875149/resistance-to-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-induced-by-a-dna-vaccine-expressing-gra16
#14
Ling-Ying Hu, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Fu-Kai Zhang, Meng Wang, Qi Gao, Jin-Lei Wang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals including human beings. T. gondii dense granule protein 16 (TgGRA16) as a crucial virulence factor could modulate the host gene expression. Here, a DNA vaccine expressing TgGRA16 was constructed to explore the protective efficacy against T. gondii infection in Kunming mice. The immune responses induced by pVAX-GRA16 were also evaluated. Mice immunized with pVAX-GRA16 could elicit higher levels of specific IgG antibody and strong cellular response compared to those in controls...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870339/birds-and-poultries-toxoplasmosis-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Azar Shokri, Mehdi Sharif, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Azadeh Mizani, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mahboobeh Montazeri, Ahmad Daryani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among birds and poultries in Iran. METHODS: Data were systematically collected from 1983 to 2016 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database. Additionally, the abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. RESULTS: A total of 20 articles in the field of birds and poultries toxoplasmosis, totally examining 4563 cases with 754 positive results reporting the overall prevalence of infection from all parts of Iran could fulfill our eligibility criteria...
July 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867819/gliding-motility-powers-invasion-and-egress-in-apicomplexa
#16
REVIEW
Karine Frénal, Jean-François Dubremetz, Maryse Lebrun, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Protozoan parasites have developed elaborate motility systems that facilitate infection and dissemination. For example, amoebae use actin-rich membrane extensions called pseudopodia, whereas Kinetoplastida are propelled by microtubule-containing flagella. By contrast, the motile and invasive stages of the Apicomplexa - a phylum that contains the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum (which causes malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (which causes toxoplasmosis) - have a unique machinery called the glideosome, which is composed of an actomyosin system that underlies the plasma membrane...
September 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860577/humans-with-latent-toxoplasmosis-display-altered-reward-modulation-of-cognitive-control
#17
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Danica Dajkic, Hedda Luise Köhling, Evelyn Heintschel von Heinegg, Melanie Fiedler, Christian Beste
Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii has repeatedly been shown to be associated with behavioral changes that are commonly attributed to a presumed increase in dopaminergic signaling. Yet, virtually nothing is known about its effects on dopamine-driven reward processing. We therefore assessed behavior and event-related potentials in individuals with vs. without latent toxoplasmosis performing a rewarded control task. The data show that otherwise healthy young adults with latent toxoplasmosis show a greatly diminished response to monetary rewards as compared to their non-infected counterparts...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851620/diagnosis-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-mother
#18
M Hermann, H Yéra, I Villena, B Cimon, E Thervet, A Benachi
We report the case of a first trimester toxoplasmosis infection in a renal transplant recipient. Real-time polymerase chain reaction in amniotic fluid at 18 weeks was negative for Toxoplasma gondii but at 26 weeks major fetal hydrocephalus was discovered leading to medical termination of pregnancy. Pathological examination confirmed lesions consistent with congenital toxoplasmosis. The herein case report, as well as data from the French reference centre for congenital Toxoplamosis (1835 cases in the past eight years), suggests that the strategy of management of pregnancy's first trimester Toxoplasmosis infection in patients treated by immunosuppressive therapy needs to be reconsidered...
August 26, 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838776/the-effect-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-on-experimental-toxoplasmosis
#19
Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga, Eman Dorry El Kerdany, Rasha Fadly Mady, Thanaa Ibrahim Shalaby, Enas Mohammed Zaytoun
A marked reduction has been achieved in the incidence and clinical course of toxoplasmic encephalitis after the introduction of protease inhibitors within the treatment regimen of HIV (HIV-PIs). This work was undertaken to study for the first time, the efficacy of HIV-PIs, lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R), as a therapeutic agent in acute experimental toxoplasmosis. Lopinavir/ritonavir (L/R) were used in the same ratio present in aluvia, a known HIV-PIs drug used in the developing countries in the treatment regimens of AID's patient...
August 21, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836673/evaluation-of-gene-expression-levels-for-cytokines-in-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#20
Marta Marques Maia, Cristina Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Daise Damaris Carnietto de Hippólito, Valéria Oliveira Silva, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Fábio Batista Frederico, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Luiz Carlos de Mattos
This study evaluated levels for mRNA expression of 7 cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT Group, n= 23) and chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR Group, n= 9) were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. Negative controls (NC) were constituted of 7 PBMC samples from individuals seronegative for toxoplasmosis. mRNA expression for cytokines was determined by qPCR. Results showed a significant increase of mRNA levels from antigen stimulated PBMCs derived from OT Group for expressing IL-6 (at p<0...
August 24, 2017: Parasite Immunology
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