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Toxoplasmosis gondii

Qiongjie Zhou, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Shikun Zhang, Xiaotian Li, Ganesh Acharya
AIM: The aims of this study were to investigate the regional differences in seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in preconception period among Chinese women of reproductive age and to evaluate associated risk factors. METHODS: This national, population-based, cross-sectional serosurvey covered all 31 provinces and province-level municipalities in Mainland China. Married women intending to get pregnant within 6 months between 2010 and 2012 were recruited. Information on demographic characteristics (age, place of residence, occupation, dietary habits and exposure to cat) was obtained using interviews, and venous blood samples were collected to screen for Toxoplasma gondii infection...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Jin-Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Kai Chen, Wei Cong, Wen-Bin Yang, Meng-Jie Bai, Si-Yang Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
Background: The threat of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine. Here, we examined the immune protection conferred by live-attenuated strain of T. gondii. Methods: We tested the efficacy of intraperitoneal vaccination using 500 Ca2+-dependent protein kinase 2 (cdpk2)-deficient tachyzoites of T. gondii Pru strain against acute, chronic and congenital toxoplasmosis in mice...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Muhammet Karakavuk, Duygu Aldemir, Aurélien Mercier, Esra Atalay Şahar, Hüseyin Can, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Ömer Döndüren, Şengül Can, Hüseyin Gökhan Özdemir, Aysu Değirmenci Döşkaya, Bayram Pektaş, Marie-Laure Dardé, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz, Mert Döşkaya
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoon parasite that causes congenital toxoplasmosis, as well as other serious clinical presentations, in immune compromised humans. Analyses of the prevalence and genotyping of strains from the definitive host and intermediate hosts will help to understanding the circulation of the different strains and elucidating the role of the genotype(s) in human toxoplasmosis. Turkey has a specific geographic location bridging Africa, Europe, and Asia. We hypothesized that T. gondii strains may have been transferred to Turkey from these continents via migratory birds or vice versa...
2018: PloS One
Boudaouara Yosr, Aoun Karim, Maatoug Rania, Souissi Olfa, Bouratbine Aïda, Ben Abdallah Rym
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Yazmin Del Rosario Rico-Almochantaf, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Gerardo Quiñones-Canales, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jorge Torres-González, Eda Guadalupe Ramírez-Valles, Andrea Minjarez-Veloz
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii and epilepsy in patients attended to in a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango. Methods: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 99 patients suffering from epilepsy and 99 without epilepsy. Sera of participants were analyzed for anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seropositive samples to T...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Liliana Carral, Federico Kaufer, Lais Pardini, Ricardo Durlach, Gastón Moré, María C Venturini, Cristina Freuler
Congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in the newborn is a very important issue due to the need for early treatment to prevent future sequels. Aim To compare available methods at the institution for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Material and Methods In this study we have evaluated the different diagnostic tests used in 67 congenital exposed newborns, including serological tests, PCR, parasite isolation and molecular characterization. Results The ISAGA IgM and IgA tests showed sensitivity (Se) of 87 and 91%, respectively, and specificity (Sp) of 100%...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Jeffery D Zwicker, Nicolas A Diaz, Alfredo J Guerra, Paul D Kirchhoff, Bo Wen, Duxin Sun, Vern B Carruthers, Scott D Larsen
The neurotropic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the second leading cause of death due to foodborne illness in the US, and has been designated as one of five neglected parasitic infections by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, no treatment options exist for the chronic dormant-phase Toxoplasma infection in the central nervous system (CNS). T. gondii cathepsin L (TgCPL) has recently been implicated as a novel viable target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. In this study, we report the first body of SAR work aimed at developing potent inhibitors of TgCPL with selectivity vs the human cathepsin L...
March 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Engy Victor Nassief Beshay, Samar A El-Refai, Mohamed A Helwa, Amany Fawzy Atia, Marwa Mohammed Dawoud
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative parasite of an important worldwide disease. This obligate intracellular parasite can infect and replicate inside any nucleated cells including those of pancreas. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas and is responsible for controlling blood glucose concentration. Deficiency of insulin production accounts for the occurrence of type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Thus, theoretically, toxoplasmosis could play a possible role in the development of T1D. However, the studies on this theory are still insufficient; therefore, this work was designed...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Ignacio Gisbert Algaba, Bavo Verhaegen, Malgorzata Jennes, Mizanur Rahman, Wim Coucke, Eric Cox, Pierre Dorny, Katelijne Dierick, Stéphane De Craeye
Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which can infect any warm-blooded animal including humans. Humans and carnivores/omnivores can also become infected by consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat containing muscle cysts. This route of transmission is considered to account for at least 30% of human toxoplasmosis cases. To better assess the role of pork as a source of infection for humans, the parasite burden resulting from experimental infection with different parasite stages and different strains of T...
April 3, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Nina Difla Muflikhah, Supargiyono, Wayan Tunas Artama
Background: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii . Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite belong to phylum Apicomplexa, is an obligate parasite in mammals. The active proliferating trophozoites or tachyzoites are usually seen in the acute stage of infection, while the resting bradyzoites formed tissue cysts are primary found in muscle and brain. Human infection occurs mainly by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocyst or eating an undercook meat containing tissue cyst...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lucia Tri Suwanti, Mufasirin
Bacground: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular obligate protozoan parasite that infects most warm-blooded animals including humans. It can cause congenital infection with clinical symptoms ranging from mild to severe including microcephaly. At the cellular level, infection T. gondii causes apoptosis in some tissues and it is induced by proinflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) to apoptosis skull of newborn from T...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yara M Al-Kappany, Ibrahim E Abbas, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Pierre Dorny, Malgorzata Jennes, Eric Cox
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease that affects a wide range of animals, including small ruminants. Sheep and goats are considered as biological indicators for the contamination of the environment with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. In addition, in countries such as Egypt, where sheep and goat meat is frequently consumed, T. gondii infection in small ruminants may also pose a public health risk. To establish baseline estimates of the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Egyptian small ruminants, we used an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the seroprevalence in 398 sheep from four Egyptian governorates (Cairo, Giza, Dakahlia and Sharkia) and in 100 goats from Dakahlia...
April 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Junichi Hashiguchi, Masahiro Onozawa, Tomoaki Naka, Kanako C Hatanaka, Souichi Shiratori, Junichi Sugita, Katsuya Fujimoto, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Takanori Teshima
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) reactivation is one of the fatal complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, re-infection has not been reported. Here we report a case of mycosis fungoides in which cervical lymphadenopathy developed after HSCT. Initially, recurrent lymphoma was suspected. However, biopsy of the lymph node showed typical histology of toxoplasmosis and serology showed re-infection of T. gondii. Toxoplasmosis needs to be differentiated for cases with lymphoadenopthy after HSCT...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Ricardo Garcia Pastorello, Anderson da Costa Lino Costa, Marcio Valente Yamada Sawamura, Antonio Carlos Nicodemo, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto
Extracerebral toxoplasmosis, with pulmonary involvement and shock, is a rare form of toxoplasmosis in patients with advanced AIDS. It can mimic pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, and disseminated tuberculosis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes of respiratory failure and fulminant disease in this group of individuals, especially in areas where the Toxoplasma gondii infection is highly prevalent and in those without proper use of antimicrobial prophylaxis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with uremia, requiring urgent dialysis...
January 2018: Autopsy & case reports
Graziano De Luca, Chiara Di Lisio, Giuseppe Lattanzio, Tommaso D'Antuono, Marcella Liberatore, Francesca Bianca Aiello
BACKGROUND: In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease...
March 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marwa Hasby Saad, Noha El-Anwar, Shereef Lotfy, Mohammed Fouda, Eiman Hasby
AIM: to explore PPAR-γ & SOX-2 transcription factors expression in placenta according to maternal anti-Toxoplasma gondii serological profile during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. METHODS: The study included 240 placentas, grouped according to IgM & IgG sero-status, and then sub-grouped according to pregnancy outcome that varied between miscarriages, premature labor, still birth and giving birth to CNS anomaly or apparently healthy neonates. Samples were H&E stained, and histopathologically scored blindly...
March 26, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Krzysztof Z Łączkowski, Joanna Anusiak, Marta Świtalska, Katarzyna Dzitko, Joanna Cytarska, Angelika Baranowska-Łączkowska, Tomasz Plech, Agata Paneth, Joanna Wietrzyk, Joanna Białczyk
Synthesis, characterization, and investigation of antiproliferative activities against human cancer cell lines (MV4-11, MCF-7, and A549) and Toxoplasma gondii parasite of twelve novel 2,4-diaminotriazine-thiazoles are presented. The toxicity of the compounds was studied at three different cell types, normal mouse fibroblast (Balb/3T3), mouse fibroblast (L929), and human VERO cells. The structures of novel compounds were determined using1 H and13 C NMR, FAB(+)-MS, and elemental analyses. Among the derivatives, 4a - k showed very high activity against MV4-11 cell line with IC50 values between 1...
2018: Medicinal Chemistry Research
Irma Cañedo-Solares, Fernando Gómez-Chávez, Héctor Luna-Pastén, Luz Belinda Ortiz-Alegría, Yevel Flores-García, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Claudia Astrid Macedo-Romero, Dolores Correa
Diagnostic tests for toxoplasmosis are based on serological techniques due to their high sensitivity. Some IgG subclasses are related to clinical outcome in the congenital form. In this work, we determined the levels of IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in paired saliva and serum samples from 91 women by indirect ELISA using a crude extract of the RH strain. The levels of IgA, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies and, to a lesser extent, IgG1, did not correlate between saliva and serum, i...
March 24, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Juan D Chaparro, Timmy Cheng, Uyen Phuong Tran, Rosa M Andrade, Sara B T Brenner, Grace Hwang, Shara Cohn, Ken Hirata, James H McKerrow, Sharon L Reed
Although toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide, therapeutic options remain limited. Cathepsins, proteases that play key roles in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis and many other protozoan infections, are important potential therapeutic targets. Because both TgCPB and TgCPL play a role in T. gondii invasion, we evaluated the efficacy of the potent, irreversible vinyl sulfone inhibitor, K11777 (N-methyl-piperazine-Phe-homoPhe-vinylsulfone-phenyl). The inhibitor's toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile have been well-studied because of its in vitro and in vivo activity against a number of parasites...
2018: PloS One
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