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Toxoplasmosis gondii

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452292/prevalence-risk-factors-and-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-sick-pigs-and-stray-cats-in-jiangsu-province-eastern-china
#1
Zhao-Feng Hou, Shi-Jie Su, Dan-Dan Liu, Le-le Wang, Chuan-Li Jia, Zhen-Xing Zhao, Yi-Fei Ma, Qiao-Qiao Li, Jin-Jun Xu, Jian-Ping Tao
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan with a worldwide distribution. The parasites in edible tissues of pigs and oocysts from cats are the major sources of T. gondii infection in humans. However, there are no data from sick pigs in veterinary clinics or from stray cats in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. In total, biological samples from 141 sick pigs and 64 stray cats were collected from this region. The rate of T. gondii infection in sick pigs was 46.81% using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the overall prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray cats was 34...
February 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452213/nanoemulsion-of-atovaquone-as-a-promising-approach-for-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-toxoplasmosis
#2
Sanaz Jafarpour Azami, Amir Amani, Hossein Keshavarz, Roqya Najafi-Taher, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Saeedeh Shojaee
Treatment of toxoplasmosis is necessary in congenital form and immunocompromised patients. Atovaquone is a powerful suppressor of protozoan parasites with a broad-spectrum activity, but an extremely low water solubility and bioavailability. In this study, nanoemulsion of this drug was prepared with grape seed oil using spontaneous emulsification method to increase bioavailability and efficacy of atovaquone for treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro activity of atovaquone nanoemulsion against T. gondii, RH and Tehran strains, was assessed in HeLa cell culture...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426041/genetic-polymorphisms-in-cytokine-genes-in-colombian-patients-with-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#3
C A Naranjo-Galvis, A de-la-Torre, L E Mantilla-Muriel, L Beltrán-Angarita, X Elcoroaristizabal-Martín, R McLeod, N Alliey-Rodriguez, I J Begeman, C López de Mesa, J E Gómez-Marín, J C Sepúlveda-Arias
Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii which has the capacity to infect all warm-blooded animals worldwide. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of visual defects in the Colombian population, however, the association between genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes and susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis has not been studied in this population. This work evaluates the associations between polymorphisms in genes coding for cytokines TNF-α (rs1799964, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630, rs361525); IL-1β (rs16944, rs1143634, rs1143627), IL-1α (rs1800587); IFN-γ (rs2430561); IL-10 (rs1800896, rs1800871), and the presence of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in a sample of Colombian population (61 patients with OT and 116 healthy controls)...
February 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408976/host-immune-responses-to-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Miwa Sasai, Ariel Pradipta, Masahiro Yamamoto
Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells...
February 2, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403276/characterization-of-exosomes-derived-from-toxoplasma-gondii-and-their-functions-in-modulating-immune-responses
#5
Yawen Li, Yuan Liu, Fangming Xiu, Jianing Wang, Hua Cong, Shenyi He, Yongyu Shi, Xiaoyan Wang, Xun Li, Huaiyu Zhou
Introduction: Exosomes are nanograde membrane-bound vesicles secreted from most cell types through the fusion of multivesicular bodies with plasma membranes. Some of these exosomes are well defined, and are known to have immunomodulatory properties as well as play critical roles in intercellular communications. In this study, we characterized the exosomes derived from Toxoplasma gondii and their functions in aspect of immune responses. Methods: T. gondii exosomes were isolated and identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blotting...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398460/a-novel-chemiluminescent-immunoassay-based-on-original-acridinium-ester-labels-as-better-solution-for-diagnosis-of-human-toxoplasmosis-than-conventional-elisa-test
#6
Lucyna Holec-Gąsior, Bartłomiej Ferra, Justyna Czechowska, Illia E Serdiuk, Karol Krzymiński
Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most common human zoonosis. Laboratory diagnosis of this disease is mainly based on the results of serological methods detecting specific antibodies in the patient's sera. In this study we aimed to evaluate the performance of a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) based on the use of a novel immunochemical reagent in the form of the conjugate of original acridinium label (AL) attached to secondary antibody (IgG-AL) and SAG2-GRA1-ROP1L chimeric antigen for T. gondii specific antibodies detection...
January 6, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373837/evaluation-of-five-automated-and-one-manual-methods-for-toxoplasma-and-human-dna-extraction-from-artificially-spiked-amniotic-fluid
#7
Hélène Yera, Louise Ménégaut, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Feriel Touafek, Patrick Bastien, Frédéric Dalle
OBJECTIVES: Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii plays a crucial role in the prenatal and neonatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Sensitivity of this diagnosis is partly related to the efficiency of parasite DNA extraction and amplification. DNA extraction methods with automated platforms have been developed. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate them in combination with adequate PCR amplification assays. METHODS: In this multisite study, we investigated the suitability of two recent automated procedures for the isolation of Toxoplasma DNA from amniotic fluid (AF) (Magtration system 12GC, PSS® and Freedom EVO VacS, Tecan®), as compared to three other automated procedures (MagNAPure Compact, Roche®, BioRobot EZ1, Qiagen® and modified NucliSens easyMAG, bioMérieux®) and to the manual DNA extraction QIAamp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen®)...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371731/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-through-copro-pcr-in-cats-at-pet-center-uvas-lahore-pakistan
#8
Habibun Nabi, Muhammad Imran Rashid, Saher Islam, Amna Arshad Bajwa, Rahim Gul, Wasim Shehzad, Haroon Akbar, Nisar Ahmad, Aneela Zameer Durrani, Muhammad Waqas, Kamran Ashraf
Toxoplasmosis is a major zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Cats are the only definitive host and they excrete environmentally resistant T. gondii oocysts in their faeces. Coproscopy was used to detect oocysts of enteric coccidians and then Copro-PCR was employed to test specifically for T. gondii in 470 cat samples. The prevalence of T. gondii oocysts was 2.3% (11/470) based on PCR. We observed 15 (3.2%) of 470 samples positive for coccidian oocysts by microscopy. The presence of Copro-DNA of T...
January 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359192/targeted-phenotypic-screening-in-plasmodium-falciparum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-reveals-novel-modes-of-action-of-medicines-for-malaria-venture-malaria-box-molecules
#9
Gowtham Subramanian, Meenakshi A Belekar, Anurag Shukla, Jie Xin Tong, Ameya Sinha, Trang T T Chu, Akshay S Kulkarni, Peter R Preiser, D Srinivasa Reddy, Kevin S W Tan, Dhanasekaran Shanmugam, Rajesh Chandramohanadas
The Malaria Box collection includes 400 chemically diverse small molecules with documented potency against malaria parasite growth, but the underlying modes of action are largely unknown. Using complementary phenotypic screens against Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, we report phenotype-specific hits based on inhibition of overall parasite growth, apicoplast segregation, and egress or host invasion, providing hitherto unavailable insights into the possible mechanisms affected. First, the Malaria Box library was screened against tachyzoite stage T...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358131/bovine-meat-versus-pork-in-toxoplasma-gondii-transmission-in-italy-a-quantitative-risk-assessment-model
#10
Simone Belluco, Ilaria Patuzzi, Antonia Ricci
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite with a high seroprevalence in the human population and the ability to infect almost all warm blooded animals. Humans can acquire toxoplasmosis from different transmission routes and food plays a critical role. Within the food category, meat is of utmost importance, as it may contain bradyzoites inside tissue cysts, which can potentially cause infection after ingestion if parasites are not inactivated through freezing or cooking before consumption. In Italy, the most commonly consumed meat-producing animal species are bovines and pigs...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353306/toxoplasma-gondii-antigen-sag2a-differentially-modulates-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-resistant-and-susceptible-murine-peritoneal-cells
#11
Jamilly Azevedo Leal-Sena, Jane Lima Dos Santos, Thaise Anne Rocha Dos Santos, Edson Mário de Andrade, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo, José Roberto Mineo, Jair Pereira da Cunha-Júnior, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
The cell surface of Toxoplasma gondii is covered by antigens (SAGs) from the SRS family anchored by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and includes antigens from the SAG2 family. Among these, the SAG2A surface antigen shows great potential in activating humoral responses and has been used in characterizing the acute phase of infection and in the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate rSAG2A-induced proteins in BALB/c and C57BL/c mice macrophages and to evaluate the phenotypic polarization induced in the process...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343531/comparison-of-immunoblotting-iga-and-igg-and-the-goldmann-witmer-coefficient-for-diagnosis-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis-in-immunocompetent-patients
#12
Thibaud Mathis, Sylvain Beccat, Pascal Sève, François Peyron, Martine Wallon, Laurent Kodjikian
BACKGROUND: Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is a common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. The diagnosis of OT is based on clinical findings, but in most cases, laboratory tests are required to confirm the aetiology, especially when other diseases are suspected. The aim of this study was to evaluate which methods, between the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient (GWC) and immunoblotting (IB) with both IgG and IgA, in aqueous humour (AH) samples, can be the most sensitive to diagnose OT, in current practice, especially in the first three weeks...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335806/assessment-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis-patients-reported-at-a-tertiary-center-in-the-northeast-of-iran
#13
SeyedehMaryam Hosseini, Elham Moghaddas, Karim Sharifi, Malihe Dadgar Moghaddam, Seyed Aliakbar Shamsian
PURPOSE: Ocular toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is currently the most significant cause of posterior uveitis in the world. No previous studies have described the prevalence and clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran. The purpose of the current study was to address this gap. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 488 uveitis patients who presented to the Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, a tertiary ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran, between January 2013 and December 2015 were evaluated...
January 15, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330674/advances-in-serological-imaging-techniques-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#14
REVIEW
Ali Rostami, Panagiotis Karanis, Shirzad Fallahi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is worldwide distributed zoonotic infection disease with medical importance in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and congenitally infected newborns. Having basic information on the traditional and new developed methods is essential for general physicians and infectious disease specialists for choosing a suitable diagnostic approach for rapid and accurate diagnosis of the disease and, consequently, timely and effective treatment. METHODS: We conducted English literature searches in PubMed from 1989 to 2016 using relevant keywords and summarized the recent advances in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324806/immunocompetent-host-develops-mild-intestinal-inflammation-in-acute-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#15
Paulo da Silva Watanabe, Aline Rosa Trevizan, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, João Luiz Garcia, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant Ana, Gessilda de Alcantara Nogueira de Melo
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, common zoonosis among vertebrates and high incidence worldwide. During the infection, the parasite needs to transpose the intestinal barrier to spread throughout the body, which may be a trigger for an inflammatory reaction. This work evaluated the inflammatory alterations of early T. gondii infection in peripheral blood cells, in the mesenteric microcirculation, and small intestinal tissue by measurement of MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity and NO (nitric oxide) level in rats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320815/comparison-of-placenta-pcr-and-maternal-serology-of-aborted-women-for-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-ardabil-iran
#16
Somaie Matin, Gholamreza Shahbazi, Shervin Tabrizian Namin, Rouhallah Moradpour, Farideh Feizi, Hadi Piri-Dogahe
Primary maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission of the parasite to the fetus. This study was conducted to test the utility of PCR assay to detect recent infections with Toxoplasma in aborted women at various gestational ages who referred to Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Alavi Hospital in Ardabil during 2014 and 2016. Two hundred women with a history of single or repeated abortion were investigated in this study. Blood samples were tested for specific anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319244/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-among-pregnant-women-in-northeast-india
#17
Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Dipankar Biswas, Aniruddha Jakharia, Jagadish Mahanta
Objective: Toxoplasma gondii infection is primarily asymptomatic and one third of world's population is estimated to be infected by this protozoan parasite. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among pregnant women from north east India, where data on this important parasitic infection is scanty. Methods: A total of 1141 serum archival samples collected from antenatal clinic attendees in 2007-09, were screened for T. gondii IgG by ELISA and analyzed with their socio demographic information...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317880/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-among-healthy-blood-donors-in-northeast-of-iran
#18
Saeed Sadooghian, Hossein Mahmoudvand, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Naser Nazari Sarcheshmeh, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Hossein Kamiabi, Naser Zia-Ali
Background: This cross-sectional investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and the associated risk factors among healthy blood donors in Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast of Iran from Nov 2014 to May 2015. Methods: Overall, 491 serum samples from apparently healthy blood donors referred the six biggest blood centers in Razavi Khorasan, Iran, were screened for IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314762/opportunistic-infections-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#19
Ada Redondo-Benito, Adrian Curran, Ana Villar-Gomez, Ernesto Trallero-Araguas, Andreu Fernández-Codina, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
AIM: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of opportunistic infection (OI) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory myopathies, and compare mortality rates between those with and without OIs. METHODS: In total, 204 patients from our myositis cohort were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced an OI during the period 1986-2014. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes were systematically recorded...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296260/evaluation-of-immune-responses-induced-by-gra7-and-rop2-genes-by-dna-vaccine-cocktails-against-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-balb-c-mice
#20
Hossein Vazini, Fatemeh Ghafarifar, Zohreh Sharifi, Abdolhosein Dalimi
Background: The severe damages of toxoplasmosis clearly indicate the need for the development of a more effective vaccine. Immunization with plasmid DNA is a promising vaccination technique. Therefore, GRA7 plasmid was prepared to be used as a vaccine. The purpose of this study was evaluation of immunization with cocktail DNA vaccine including plasmids encoding Toxoplasma gondii ROP2 and GRA7 in BALB/c mice. Methods: In this study, 733 bp of GRA7 gene was cloned in pCDNA3...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
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