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adipocyte tissue macrophage

Nicolás De Silva, Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín I Milagro
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Laurence Britton, Lesley-Anne Jaskowski, Kim Bridle, Eriza Secondes, Daniel Wallace, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Janske Reiling, Gregory Miller, Salvatore Mangiafico, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford
Background & Aims: Iron has an increasingly recognized role in the regulation of adipose tissue function, including the expression of adipokines involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, has been proposed as being a key determinant of adipocyte iron homeostasis. Methods: We studied an adipocyte-specific ferroportin ( Fpn1 ) knockout mouse model, using an Adipoq -Cre recombinase driven Fpn1 deletion and fed mice according to the fast food diet model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola
Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation in white adipose tissue, which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation through secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by the enlarged adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages. This affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, inducing type 2 diabetes. NAD+ -dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is known to inhibit adipogenesis through the regulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol inhibit adipogenesis and exert anti-inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
K Verboven, K Wouters, K Gaens, D Hansen, M Bijnen, S Wetzels, C D Stehouwer, G H Goossens, C G Schalkwijk, E E Blaak, J W Jocken
Obesity is associated with a disturbed adipose tissue (AT) function characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, an impaired lipolysis and pro-inflammatory phenotype, which contributes to insulin resistance (IR). We investigated whether AT phenotype in different AT depots of obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with whole-body IR. Subcutaneous (SC) and visceral (V) AT biopsies from 18 lean, 17 obese and 8 obese T2DM men were collected. AT phenotype was characterized by ex vivo measurement of basal and stimulated lipolysis (mature adipocytes), adipocyte size distribution (AT tissue sections) and AT immune cells (flow cytometry)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu-Ju Peng, Tang-Long Shen, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry John Mersmann, Bing-Hsien Liu, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine derived from adipocytes. It binds to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and R2) to exert its function in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the role of ADN-AdipoR1 signaling in intestinal inflammation is controversial, and its role in the regulation of neutrophils is still unclear. Our goal was to clarify the role of AdipoR1 signaling in colitis and the effects on neutrophils. METHODS: We generated porcine AdipoR1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1 mice) and induced murine colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to study the potential role of AdipoR1 in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Li-Hao Huang, Elaina M Melton, Haibo Li, Paul Sohn, DaeYoung Jung, Ching-Yi Tsai, Tian Ma, Hiroyuki Sano, HyeKyung Ha, Randall H Friedline, Jason K Kim, Edward Usherwood, Catherine Cy Chang, Ta-Yuan Chang
Macrophages are phagocytes that play important roles in health and diseases. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 [ACAT1] converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters, and is expressed in many cell types. Unlike global Acat1 knockout [KO], myeloid-specific Acat1 KO [Acat1-M/-M ] does not cause overt abnormalities in mice. Here we performed analyses in age and sex matched Acat1-M/-M and wild-type mice on chow or Western diet, and discovered that Acat1-M/-M mice exhibit resistance to Western diet-induced obesity...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mitsugu Shimobayashi, Verena Albert, Bettina Woelnerhanssen, Irina C Frei, Diana Weissenberger, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Nicolas Clement, Suzette Moes, Marco Colombi, Jerome A Meier, Marta M Swierczynska, Paul Jenö, Christoph Beglinger, Ralph Peterli, Michael N Hall
Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Alexandros Sotiriou, Sjef Boeren, Stefan Vaessen, Jacques Vervoort, Raymond Pieters
Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6, TNFα and Hp. To get a better insight in the underlying mechanisms, we performed a quantitative LCMS analysis on a modified in vitro assay, combining 3T3L1 adipocytes and activated RAW264.7 macrophages, thus mimicking inflamed adipose tissue...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Leen Catrysse, Geert van Loo
Adipose tissue is a special tissue environment due to its high lipid content. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) help maintain adipose tissue homeostasis in steady state by clearing dead adipocytes. However, adipose tissue changes drastically during obesity, resulting in a state of chronic low grade inflammation and a shift in the adipose immune landscape. In this review we will discuss how these changes influence the polarization of ATMs.
March 5, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Ivana Novak, Anna Solini
Type 2 diabetes is reaching an alarming prevalence worldwide. Its complex pathogenesis certainly includes a pivotal role of low-grade inflammation, which could be triggered by excessive purinergic signaling. In this complex scenario, extracellular ATP impairs the function of two key players: β-cell and adipose tissue. In the former, P2Y and possibly some P2X receptors-ion channels regulate insulin secretion, but it is still debated whether excessive ATP can via P2X receptors impair β-cell function directly or whether cell damage is due to an excessive systemic release of cytokines...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Maaike Kockx, Mathew Traini, Leonard Kritharides
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a 34-kDa glycoprotein that is secreted from many cells throughout the body. ApoE is best known for its role in lipoprotein metabolism. Recent studies underline the association of circulating lipoprotein-associated apoE levels and the development for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Besides its well-established role in pathology of CVD, it is also implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and recent new data on adipose-produced apoE point to a novel metabolic role for apoE in obesity. The regulation of apoE production and secretion is remarkably cell and tissue specific...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Stephen W Roth, Moshe D Bitterman, Morris J Birnbaum, Michelle L Bland
In obese adipose tissue, Toll-like receptor signaling in macrophages leads to insulin resistance in adipocytes. Similarly, Toll signaling in the Drosophila larval fat body blocks insulin-dependent growth and nutrient storage. We find that Toll acts cell autonomously to block growth but not PI(3,4,5)P3 production in fat body cells expressing constitutively active PI3K. Fat body Toll signaling blocks whole-animal growth in rictor mutants lacking TORC2 activity, but not in larvae lacking Pdk1. Phosphorylation of Akt on the Pdk1 site, Thr342, is significantly reduced by Toll signaling, and expression of mutant AktT342D rescues cell and animal growth, nutrient storage, and viability in animals with active Toll signaling...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Lindsey A Muir, Samadhi Kiridena, Cameron Griffin, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn Geletka, Gabriel Martinez-Santibañez, Brian F Zamarron, Hannah Lucas, Kanakadurga Singer, Robert W O' Rourke, Carey N Lumeng
Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Anna Franz, Will Wood, Paul Martin
Adipocytes have many functions in various tissues beyond energy storage, including regulating metabolism, growth, and immunity. However, little is known about their role in wound healing. Here we use live imaging of fat body cells, the equivalent of vertebrate adipocytes in Drosophila, to investigate their potential behaviors and functions following skin wounding. We find that pupal fat body cells are not immotile, as previously presumed, but actively migrate to wounds using an unusual adhesion-independent, actomyosin-driven, peristaltic mode of motility...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Chen Zhang, Dong Qian, Hongzhi Zhao, Nan Lv, Pei Yu, Zhe Sun
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathological progression of various disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is a cause of insulin resistance and T2D. MiR-17 palys an anti-inflammatory role in many biological processes. We hypothesized that miR-17 suppressed inflammatory macrophage that is related to insulin resistance in patients with T2D. METHODS: Macrophage migration and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were detected through transwell migration assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xiao Zhu, Yixuan Tu, Hainan Chen, Ampadu O Jackson, Vaibhav Patel, Kai Yin
BACKGROUND: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Elisabeth M Haberl, Rebekka Pohl, Verena Schmid, Susanne Feder, Sabrina Krautbauer, Gerhard Liebisch, Christa Buechler
Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The adapter protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is expressed in adipocytes. Knock-down of SNTA increases preadipocyte proliferation and formation of small lipid droplets, which are both characteristics of healthy adipose tissue. To elucidate a potential protective role of SNTA in NASH, SNTA null mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet or an atherogenic diet which are widely used as preclinical NASH models...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
S Becerril, A Rodríguez, V Catalán, L Méndez-Giménez, B Ramírez, N Sáinz, M Llorente, X Unamuno, J Gómez-Ambrosi, G Frühbeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is related to a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which involves the synthesis and degradation of different proteins, such as tenascin C (TNC) in the adipose tissue (AT). Given the functional relationship between leptin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), our aim was to analyze the impact of the absence of the iNOS gene in AT inflammation and ECM remodeling in ob/ob mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The expression of genes involved in inflammation and ECM remodeling was evaluated in 10-week-old male double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes as well as in ob/ob mice classified into three groups [control, leptin-treated (1 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and pair-fed]...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Dan Li, Qianyu Liu, Wen Sun, Xiuping Chen, Ying Wang, Yuxiang Sun, Ligen Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is critical in the onset and development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and pro-inflammatory polarization play key roles in adipose tissue inflammation. The fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various inflammatory diseases. However, its role in regulating adipose tissue inflammation is unexplored. This study was designed to identify xanthones from G...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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