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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149782/frequency-of-circulatory-regulatory-immune-cells-in-iranian-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#1
Tahereh Khamehchian, Eqlim Nemati, Marziyeh Jazayeri, Shirin Azimi, Hassan Nikoueinejad, Hossein Akbari, Behnaz Irandoust
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) act as mediators of peripheral tolerance. We investigated the possible alterations of such cells in peripheral blood of patients with T1D compared to normal individuals. This comparison may lead to a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis processes involved in T1D. 92 participants, including 49 patients with T1D and 43 healthy controls were studied...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149156/survival-analysis-of-occipital-nerve-stimulator-leads-placed-under-fluoroscopic-guidance-with-and-without-ultrasonography
#2
James H Jones, Alison Brown, Daniel Moyse, Wenjing Qi, Lance Roy
BACKGROUND: Electrical stimulation of the greater occipital nerves is performed to treat pain secondary to chronic daily headaches and occipital neuralgia. The use of fluoroscopy alone to guide the surgical placement of electrodes near the greater occipital nerves disregards the impact of tissue planes on lead stability and stimulation efficacy. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that occipital neurostimulator (ONS) leads placed with ultrasonography combined with fluoroscopy would demonstrate increased survival rates and times when compared to ONS leads placed with fluoroscopy alone...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149074/central-cns-and-peripheral-gastric-tissue-selective-monitoring-of-somatostatin-srif-with-micro-sensor-and-voltammetry-in-rats-influence-of-growth-factors-gh-egf
#3
Francesco Crespi
Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central nervous system (CNS), where it affects rates of neurotransmission, and is also reported to be active in the intestinal tract, with evidence that stressed rats present a significant decrease in antral somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI)...
November 17, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#4
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148425/ex-vivo-inhibited-cytokine-profiling-explains-inferior-treatment-response-to-golimumab-after-adalimumab-failure-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Lieke Tweehuysen, Kiki Schraa, Mihai G Netea, Frank H J van den Hoogen, Leo A B Joosten, Alfons A den Broeder
OBJECTIVES: Clinical data suggest that the response of rheumatoid arthritis patients to treatment with golimumab is much lower among those who switched from adalimumab than among those who switched from etanercept. To elucidate the mechanism behind this difference in response to sequential biologic treatment, we examined the effect of TNF inhibitors on ex vivo cytokine production profiling. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, blood samples were obtained from patients before the start of a biologic...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147586/corticospinal-plasticity-in-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-to-the-dominant-hemisphere-does-not-differ-between-young-and-older-adults
#6
Daina S E Dickins, Marc R Kamke, Martin V Sale
Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147010/epithelial-folliculin-is-involved-in-airway-inflammation-in-workers-exposed-to-toluene-diisocyanate
#7
Duy L Pham, Tu Hk Trinh, Ga-Young Ban, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure can directly activate and damage airway epithelium. Folliculin (FLCN) is a protein expressed by human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) to maintain airway epithelial integrity and survival. This study investigated the involvement of FLCN in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced occupational asthma (OA). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure serum levels of FLCN in TDI-exposed subjects (93 TDI-OA patients and 119 asymptomatic exposed controls (AEC)), 200 non-occupational asthma (NOA) patients and 71 unexposed healthy normal controls (NCs)...
November 17, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146546/signaling-via-toll-like-receptor-4-and-cd40-in-b-cells-plays-a-regulatory-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-through-interleukin-10-production
#8
Yoichiro Okada, Hirofumi Ochi, Chihiro Fujii, Yuichiro Hashi, Mio Hamatani, Shinji Ashida, Kazuyuki Kawamura, Hirofumi Kusaka, Sadayuki Matsumoto, Masanori Nakagawa, Toshiki Mizuno, Ryosuke Takahashi, Takayuki Kondo
BACKGROUND: B cells play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), but can also exhibit regulatory functions through IL-10 production. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and CD40 signaling are likely to be involved in this process. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of MS B cells to produce IL-10 in response to TLR stimulation in the presence or absence of CD40 co-stimulation. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 34 MS patients and 24 matched healthy participants (HS) were stimulated through either TLR4 or TLR9 alone, or together with CD40...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146505/muscarinic-receptor-oligomerization
#9
REVIEW
Sara Marsango, Richard J Ward, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Graeme Milligan
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been classically described as monomeric entities that function by binding in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio to both ligand and downstream signalling proteins. However, in recent years, a growing numbers of studies have supported the hypothesis that these receptors can interact to form dimers and higher order oligomers although the molecular basis for these interactions, the overall quaternary arrangements and the functional importance of the GPCR oligomerization remain topics of intense speculation...
November 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146495/polysaccharides-from-citrus-grandis-l-osbeck-suppress-inflammation-and-relieve-chronic-pharyngitis
#10
Liyan Chen, Yongfeng Lai, Lei Dong, Shasha Kang, Xiumei Chen
Chronic pharyngitis, a common inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa, is often caused by bacteria, viruses, alcohol abuse, overuse of the voice and cigarettes. This study aimed to explore the effects of polysaccharides of Citrus grandis L. Osbeck (PCG) in relieving chronic pharyngitis and illustrate the underlying mechanisms. Polysaccharides were obtained from PCG by column chromatographic extraction. Six clinical symptom scores, such as the severity of itchy throat, hoarseness, pain, odynophagia, cough and otalgia were evaluated in chronic pharyngitis patients after the oral intake of PCG...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145874/peripheral-immune-tolerance-alleviates-the-intracranial-lipopolysaccharide-injection-induced-neuroinflammation-and-protects-the-dopaminergic-neurons-from-neuroinflammation-related-neurotoxicity
#11
Yang Liu, Xin Xie, Li-Ping Xia, Hong Lv, Fan Lou, Yan Ren, Zhi-Yi He, Xiao-Guang Luo
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the onset and development of neurodegeneration disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The immune activities of the central nervous system are profoundly affected by peripheral immune activities. Immune tolerance refers to the unresponsiveness of the immune system to continuous or repeated stimulation to avoid excessive inflammation and unnecessary by-stander injury in the face of continuous antigen threat. It has been proved that the immune tolerance could suppress the development of various peripheral inflammation-related diseases...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145439/impact-of-chronic-and-acute-academic-stress-on-lymphocyte-subsets-and-monocyte-function
#12
Viktoriya Maydych, Maren Claus, Nicole Dychus, Melanie Ebel, Jürgen Damaschke, Stefan Diestel, Oliver T Wolf, Thomas Kleinsorge, Carsten Watzl
This study investigated the effects of a temporally confined naturalistic stressor (academic stress) on immune functions. Furthermore, moderating influences of a number of psychological variables were assessed. Five blood samples were obtained from 20 students during an observation period of 8 weeks, starting 4.5 weeks before an exam period up to 1 week following the last exam. The analysis of 45 immune parameters revealed several time-dependent changes attributable to examination stress. We observed a reduction in the absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes in peripheral blood and a shift towards more immature and naïve cells within NK and T cell populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145068/anorexigenic-effects-induced-by-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration
#13
Claudio Ferrante, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Chiara Di Nisio, Sara Martinotti, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luciano De Petrocellis, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
BACKGROUND: Hemopressin, VD-hemopressin(α) and RVD-hemopressin(α) are hemoglobin α chain derived-peptides which have been found in mouse brain, and where they modulate cannabinoid (CB) receptor function. The nonapeptide hemopressin has been reported to inhibit feeding after both central and peripheral administration, possibly playing a role of antagonist/inverse agonist of CB1 receptors, and consequently blocking the orexigenic effects of endogenous cannabinoids. VD-hemopressin(α) and RVD- hemopressin(α), are N-terminal extended forms of hemopressin...
June 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144959/induction-of-innervation-by-encapsulated-adipocytes-with-engineered-vitamin-a-metabolism
#14
Q Shen, R Yasmeen, J Marbourg, L Xu, J L Yu, P Fadda, A Flechtner, L J Lee, P G Popovich, O Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144803/endocrine-manifestations-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#15
Shatha Murad, Yuval Eisenberg
OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143414/central-pain-processing-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-pain-free-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Alessandro Tessitore, Antonio Russo, Rosa De Micco, Michele Fratello, Giuseppina Caiazzo, Alfonso Giordano, Mario Cirillo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Fabrizio Esposito
BACKGROUND: Despite its clinical relevance, the pathophysiology of pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still largely unknown, and both central and peripheral mechanisms have been invoked. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether central pain processing is altered in "drug-naive" pain-free PD (dnPD) patients. METHODS: Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), functional response to forearm heat stimulation (FHS) at two different intensities (41°C and 53°C) was investigated in 20 pain-free dnPD patients, compared with 18 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143287/lipoic-acid-stimulates-camp-production-in-healthy-control-and-secondary-progressive-ms-subjects
#17
Sarah E Fiedler, Vijayshree Yadav, Amelia R Kerns, Catherine Tsang, Sheila Markwardt, Edward Kim, Rebecca Spain, Dennis Bourdette, Sonemany Salinthone
Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142617/acute-strenuous-exercise-induces-an-imbalance-on-histone-h4-acetylation-histone-deacetylase-2-and-increases-the-proinflammatory-profile-of-pbmc-of-obese-individuals
#18
Gilson P Dorneles, Maria Carolina R Boeira, Lucas L Schipper, Ivy R V Silva, Viviane R Elsner, Pedro Dal Lago, Alessandra Peres, Pedro R T Romão
This study evaluated the response of global histone H4 acetylation (H4ac), histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines and monocyte phenotypes of lean and obese males after exercise. Ten lean and ten obese sedentary men were submitted to one session of strenuous exercise, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Global H4ac levels, HDAC2 activity in PBMC, and IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α production were analyzed...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142418/marantodes-pumilum-blume-kuntze-inhibited-secretion-of-lipopolysaccharide-and-monosodium-urate-crystal-stimulated-cytokines-and-plasma-prostaglandin-e2
#19
Eldiza Puji Rahmi, Jamia Azdina Jamal, Endang Kumolosasi, Juriyati Jalil, Nor-Ashila Aladdin
Background: Marantodes pumilum is traditionally used for dysentery, gonorrhea, and sickness in the bones. Previous studies revealed its antibacterial and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Objective: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of three M. pumilum varieties on the secretion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced cytokines and plasma prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vitro. Materials and Methods: The leaves and roots of M...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142309/hypercholesterolemia-enhances-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-increases-the-regulatory-t-cell-population
#20
Reiner K W Mailer, Anton Gisterå, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Göran K Hansson
Hypercholesterolemia promotes the inflammation against lipoproteins in atherosclerosis. Development of atherosclerosis is affected by the balance between pro-inflammatory effector T cells and anti-inflammatory regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, phenotype and function of T cell subpopulations in hypercholesterolemia remain to be investigated. Here, we found that cholesterol-containing diet increased the expression of the Treg cell lineage-defining transcription factor FoxP3 among thymocytes and splenocytes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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