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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738080/effects-of-exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-distal-bowel-resection-on-intestinal-and-systemic-adaptive-responses-in-rats
#1
Sarah W Lai, Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie E Wallace, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Mary E Brindle, Prasanth K Chelikani, David L Sigalet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737711/the-effects-of-artemisinin-on-the-cytolytic-activity-of-natural-killer-nk-cells
#2
Youn Kyung Houh, Kyung Eun Kim, Sunyoung Park, Dae Young Hur, Seonghan Kim, Daejin Kim, Sa Ik Bang, Yoolhee Yang, Hyun Jeong Park, Daeho Cho
Artemisinin, a chemical compound used for the treatment of malaria, has been known to show anti-cancer activity. However, the effect of this chemical on natural killer (NK) cells, which are involved in tumor killing, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that artemisinin exerts a potent anti-cancer effect by activating NK cells. NK-92MI cells pre-treated with artemisinin were subjected to a cytotoxicity assay using K562 cells. The results showed that artemisinin significantly enhances the cytolytic activity of NK cells in a dose-dependent manner...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737253/circulating-leukocytes-perpetuate-stroke-induced-aortic-dysfunction
#3
Shinichi Asano, Grant C O'Connell, Kent C Lemaster, Evan R DeVallance, Kayla W Branyan, James W Simpkins, Jefferson C Frisbee, Taura L Barr, Paul D Chantler
Post-stroke inflammation has been linked to poor stroke outcomes. The vascular endothelium senses and responds to circulating factors, in particular inflammatory cytokines. Although stroke associated local cerebrovascular dysfunction is well reported, the effects of a stroke on conduit artery function are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that stroke patients' serum triggers leukocyte-dependent aortic endothelial dysfunction that is associated with elevated cytokines levels. Total leukocytes were isolated from healthy individuals and cells were incubated in control and stroke patients' serum for 6 h...
July 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736961/changes-in-cytokine-profiles-following-treatment-with-food-allergen-specific-sublingual-immunotherapy-in-dogs-with-adverse-food-reactions
#4
Elisa Maina, Bert Devriendt, Eric Cox
BACKGROUND: Food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) is considered to be a novel, safe and effective approach in dogs with adverse food reactions (AFR). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in key cytokines associated with FA-SLIT. ANIMALS: Eleven dogs with confirmed AFR. METHODS: Participants received either dose escalation of FA-SLIT or placebo over a six month period. Oral food challenge was performed at the beginning and end of the study, along with clinical examinations and collection of skin surface bacterial cytology and blood...
July 23, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736945/tim-1-b-cells-suppress-t-cell-interferon-gamma-production-and-promote-foxp3-expression-but-have-impaired-regulatory-function-in-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Xiao-Long Gu, Huan He, Lin Lin, Guo-Xin Luo, Yan-Fei Wen, Ding-Cheng Xiang, Jian Qiu
Atherosclerosis and its associated coronary artery disease (CAD) represent another chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) possess essential functions in maintaining peripheral tolerance and inhibiting pathogenic inflammation through IL-10. Here, we investigated one subset of Bregs, Tim-1(+) B cell, and its role in atherosclerosis and CAD patients. In healthy individuals, IL-10-producing B cells were predominantly found in the Tim-1(+) B cells. Upon stimulation of the B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) by anti-BCR antibodies and CpG, respectively, the Tim-1(+) B cells could further upregulate IL-10 expression...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735963/selenium-accelerates-chicken-dendritic-cells-differentiation-and-affects-selenoproteins-expression
#6
Zhepeng Sun, Ci Liu, Tingru Pan, Haidong Yao, Shu Li
Selenium (Se) promotes immune cell differentiation and improves immune response. Antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in immune system, however, the impact of Se on DCs is still unclear. In this study, we successfully induced and cultured chicken DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by incubating mononuclear cells with 50 ng/mL recombinant chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and 10 ng/mL recombinant chicken interleukin-4 for total 9 days...
July 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735348/analysis-of-the-cd8-t-cell-anti-hiv-activity-in-heterologous-cell-co-cultures-reveals-the-benefit-of-multiple-hla-class-i-matches
#7
M Scott Killian, Fernando Teque, Ramu Sudhagoni
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4(+) T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8(+) T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, CD8(+) T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures...
July 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734965/enhanced-immunostimulatory-activity-of-in-silico-discovered-agonists-of-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2
#8
M S Murgueitio, S Ebner, P Hörtnagl, C Rakers, R Bruckner, P Henneke, G Wolber, S Santos-Sierra
BACKGROUND: Emergent therapies in anticancer vaccination use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonists as dendritic cell (DC) vaccine adjuvants. DCs from the patient are isolated, stimulated with TLR agonists and tumor antigens ex vivo and then infused back into the patient. Although some TLR ligands have been tested in clinical trials, novel TLR agonists with improved immunomodulatory properties are essential to optimize treatment success. We report on the discovery of small-molecule TLR2 agonists, with favorable properties as synthetic adjuvants...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733576/mait-cells-accumulate-in-placental-intervillous-space-and-display-a-highly-cytotoxic-phenotype-upon-bacterial-stimulation
#9
Martin Solders, Laia Gorchs, Tom Erkers, Anna-Carin Lundell, Silvia Nava, Sebastian Gidlöf, Eleonor Tiblad, Isabelle Magalhaes, Helen Kaipe
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must tolerate the developing foetus, and yet retain a potent antimicrobial response to prevent infections. Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells recognize microbial-derived vitamin B metabolites presented on the MR1 molecule, but their presence and function at the foetal-maternal interface is not known. We here isolated mononuclear cells from paired samples of peripheral blood (PB), intervillous blood (IVB), and decidua parietalis (DP) following uncomplicated term pregnancies...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733293/androgen-responsive-non-coding-small-rnas-extend-the-potential-use-of-hcg-stimulation-as-a-bioassay-of-androgen-sufficiency
#10
Martina Rodie, Manikhandan Av Mudaliar, Pawel Herzyk, M McMillan, Massoud Boroujerdi, Sandra Chudleigh, Edward S Tobias, S Faisal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether a short-term change in circulating androgens is associated with changes in the transcriptome of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). AIMS & METHODS: To explore the effect of hCG-stimulation on the PBMC-transcriptome, 12 boys with a median age (range) of 0.7yrs (0.3, 11.2) who received intramuscular hCG 1500u on 3 consecutive days as part of their investigations underwent transcriptomic array analysis on RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after hCG stimulation...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732558/resolvins-as-proresolving-inflammatory-mediators-in-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Carla Busquets-Cortés, Silvia Tejada, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a global burden with a prevalence that continues increasing progressively. CVD comprises a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease. This group of disorders is associated with an inflammatory process which can participate in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Inflammation resolution is an active process involving the participation of pro-resolving mediators such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins...
July 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732481/central-and-peripheral-fatigue-development-in-the-shoulder-muscle-with-obesity-during-an-isometric-endurance-task
#12
Mojdeh Pajoutan, Mahboobeh Ghesmaty Sangachin, Lora A Cavuoto
BACKGROUND: Fatigue increases the likelihood of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injury. Due to the physiological and neuromuscular changes that accompany obesity, it may alter the fatigue development mechanism and exacerbate injury risk. The upper extremities have the highest incidence rates for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, the goals of this study were to investigate the effect of obesity on central vs. peripheral fatigue as well as on the physical signs of fatigue on the middle deltoid muscle...
July 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731002/neuropathogenesis-by-chandipura-virus-an-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-in-india
#13
REVIEW
Sourish Ghosh, Anirban Basu
Chandipura virus (CHPV) has been contributing to the rising number of premature deaths due to acute encephalitis syndrome for over a decade in India. CHPV belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae. Neuropathogenesis of CHPV has been well established but the exact route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and the triggering factor for neuronal death are still unknown. Rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, which are related closely to CHPV, enter the CNS retrogradely from peripheral or olfactory neurons...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730831/the-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-subtypes-its-regulatory-role-in-the-biological-and-pathological-functions
#14
J Šípková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
The multitalented neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago but initially no biologic activity was found. Further research studies discovered the presence of galanin in the brain and some peripheral tissues, and galanin was identified as a modulator of neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Over the last decade there were performed very intensive studies of the neuronal actions and also of nonneuronal actions of galanin. Other galanin family peptides have been described, namely galanin, galanin-like peptide, galanin-message associated peptide and alarin...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730424/possible-immunomodulating-effect-of-retinol-on-cytokines-secretion-in-patients-with-recurrent-furunculosis
#15
Danuta Nowicka, Ewelina Grywalska, Anna Hymos, Michał Mielnik, Jacek Roliński
Recurrent furunculosis is an infection of hair follicles which results in formation of abscesses. Previous studies showed that the pathogenesis of the disease may include an immune-mediated component as the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to staphylococcal antigen is depressed. The aim of our study was to evaluate cytokines concentration in the plasma of patients with recurrent furunculosis and to determine whether retinol affects the secretion of those cytokines in patients with recurrent furunculosis and healthy subjects...
July 20, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730385/the-role-of-f-actin-in-the-transport-and-secretion-of-chromaffin-granules-an-historic-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Luis M Gutiérrez, José Villanueva
Actin is one of the most ubiquitous protein playing fundamental roles in a variety of cellular processes. Since early in the 1980s, it was evident that filamentous actin (F-actin) formed a peripheral cortical barrier that prevented vesicles to access secretory sites in chromaffin cells in culture. Later, around 2000, it was described that the F-actin structure accomplishes a dual role serving both vesicle transport and retentive purposes and undergoing dynamic transient changes during cell stimulation. The complex role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuroendocrine secretion was further evidenced when it has been proved to participate in the scaffold structure holding together the secretory machinery at active sites and participate in the generation of mechanical forces that drive the opening of the fusion pore, during the first decade of the present century...
July 20, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726799/the-insular-cortex-dynamically-maps-changes-in-cardiorespiratory-interoception
#17
Mahlega S Hassanpour, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Qingfei Luo, Rachel Lapidus, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus, Sahib S Khalsa
Palpitations and dyspnea are fundamental to the human experience of panic anxiety, but it remains unclear how the brain dynamically represents changes in these interoceptive sensations. We used isoproterenol, a rapidly acting peripheral beta-adrenergic agonist similar to adrenaline, to induce sensations of palpitation and dyspnea in healthy individuals (n=23) during arterial spin labeling (ASL) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that the right mid-insular cortex, a central recipient of viscerosensory input, would preferentially respond during the peak period of cardiorespiratory stimulation...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726640/c1q-tnf-related-protein-6-ctrp6-links-obesity-to-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#18
Xia Lei, Marcus M Seldin, Hannah C Little, Nicholas Choy, Thomas Klonisch, G William Wong
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug, rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726020/patterns-of-circulatory-and-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cytokines-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Fawaz Y Azizieh, Khaled Al Jarallah, Diaa Shehab, Renu Gupta, Kamaludin Dingle, Raj Raghupathy
An imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is suggested to contribute to tissue damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was aimed at investigating profiles of cytokines in circulation and cytokines produced by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA patients and healthy controls, and to explore correlations of cytokines with disease activity. Our aim was to identify patterns of cytokine expression as possible indicators of disease activity. Levels of plasma cytokines and PBMC-secreted cytokines were estimated in 26 female RA patients and 28 controls...
July 19, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724748/depressed-synaptic-transmission-and-reduced-vesicle-release-sites-in-huntington-s-disease-neuromuscular-junctions
#20
Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the central nervous system. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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