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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550195/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-stimulates-distal-tubular-natriuresis-and-increases-in-circulating-sdf-1%C3%AE-1-67-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Julie A Lovshin, Harindra Rajasekeran, Yulyia Lytvyn, Leif E Lovblom, Shajiha Khan, Robel Alemu, Amy Locke, Vesta Lai, Huaibing He, Lucinda Hittle, Weixun Wang, Daniel J Drucker, David Z I Cherney
OBJECTIVE: Antihyperglycemic agents, such as empagliflozin, stimulate proximal tubular natriuresis and improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used in combination with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, we examined whether and how sitagliptin modulates fractional sodium excretion and renal and systemic hemodynamic function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 32 patients with type 2 diabetes in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
May 26, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547815/balancing-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-reduce-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
F A Koopman, M A van Maanen, M J Vervoordeldonk, P P Tak
Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been observed in many established chronic autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a prototypic immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID). We recently discovered that autonomic dysfunction precedes and predicts arthritis development in subjects at risk of developing seropositive RA. In addition, RA patients with relatively high vagus nerve tone (higher parasympathetic parameters, measured by heart rate variability) respond better to antirheumatic therapies...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546760/analysis-of-immune-status-after-iodine-125-permanent-brachytherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#3
E Du, Lin Wang, Chang-Ying Li, Chang-Wen Zhang, Yan-Chun Qu, Ran-Lu Liu, Yong Xu, Kuo Yang, Zhi-Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is an effective treatment choice for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, the impact of PPB on tumor immune status is still poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the immune status in PCa patients before and at different time points after PPB (1, 3, 6, and 12 months). METHODS: Blood was collected from 32 patients with low and intermediate risk PCa and 12 healthy volunteers. The frequency of immunocompetent cells was identified by flow cytometry...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546023/a-cxcl-ortholog-from-hippocampus-abdominalis-molecular-features-and-functional-delineation-as-a-pro-inflammatory-chemokine
#4
Minyoung Oh, S D N K Bathige, Yucheol Kim, Seongdo Lee, Hyerim Yang, Myoung-Jin Kim, Jehee Lee
Chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that regulate leukocyte migration. They are classified into four groups namely, CXC, CC, C and CX3C, based on the formation of a disulfide bridge. Among these, CXC chemokines have been identified as the largest group of chemokines in humans. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized a homolog of CXC chemokine from the big-belly seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, and designated it as ShCXCL. The cDNA of ShCXCL composed of a 342-bp open reading frame encoding 113 amino acids (aa)...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546018/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-three-tlr-genes-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responses-to-stimulation-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-tlr-ligands
#5
Kai-Lun Wang, Wei Ji, Gui-Rong Zhang, Kai-Jian Wei, Ze-Chao Shi, Xiao-Ting Zhang, Huan Zheng, Qi-Xue Fan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most extensively researched pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play an important role in the innate immune system. In this study, partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_TLR18 and Pf_TLR19 genes and complete cDNA sequence of the Pf_TLR21 gene were cloned from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The open reading frames (ORFs) of the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes were 1956 bp, 2262 bp and 2949 bp in length, encoding 651, 753 and 982 amino acids, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545512/tie2-as-a-novel-key-factor-of-microangiopathy-in-systemic-sclerosis
#6
Falk Moritz, Janine Schniering, Jörg H W Distler, Renate E Gay, Steffen Gay, Oliver Distler, Britta Maurer
BACKGROUND: The angiopoietin(Ang)/Tie2 system is a key regulator of vascular biology. The expression of membrane bound (mb) Tie2 and Ang-1 ensures vessel stability, whereas Ang-2, inducible by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia, and inflammation, acts as an antagonist. Tie2 signalling is also attenuated by soluble Tie2 (sTie2), the extracellular domain of the receptor, which is shed upon stimulation with VEGF. Herein, we investigate the role of Ang/Tie2 in the peripheral vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc) including animal models...
May 25, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544640/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-demonstrates-the-potential-of-neoplastic-human-germ-cells-to-influence-the-tumour-microenvironment
#7
B Klein, H-C Schuppe, M Bergmann, M P Hedger, B E Loveland, K L Loveland
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT...
May 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542711/preventing-relapse-after-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-acute-leukaemia-the-role-of-post-transplantation-minimal-residual-disease-mrd-monitoring-and-mrd-directed-intervention
#8
REVIEW
Xiao-Dong Mo, Meng Lv, Xiao-Jun Huang
Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute leukaemia (AL). Post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring enables risk stratification and identifies AL patients at higher risk of relapse. MRD assessment primarily involves the determination of leukaemia-associated immunophenotypic patterns using multiparameter flow cytometry, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based evaluation of expression levels of leukaemia-related genes (specific reciprocal gene rearrangements and other mutation types)...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542001/acetaminophen-metabolite-n-acylphenolamine-induces-analgesia-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-receptors-expressed-on-the-primary-afferent-terminals-of-c-fibers-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn
#9
Nobuko Ohashi, Daisuke Uta, Mika Sasaki, Masayuki Ohashi, Yoshinori Kamiya, Tatsuro Kohno
BACKGROUND: The widely used analgesic acetaminophen is metabolized to N-acylphenolamine, which induces analgesia by acting directly on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 or cannabinoid 1 receptors in the brain. Although these receptors are also abundant in the spinal cord, no previous studies have reported analgesic effects of acetaminophen or N-acylphenolamine mediated by the spinal cord dorsal horn. We hypothesized that clinical doses of acetaminophen induce analgesia via these spinal mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541004/the-effect-of-peripheral-crf-peptide-and-water-avoidance-stress-on-colonic-and-gastric-transit-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Zahid Hussain, Hae Won Kim, Cheal Wung Huh, Young Ju Lee, Hyojin Park
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539922/sporothrix-schenckii-sensu-stricto-and-sporothrix-brasiliensis-are-differentially-recognized-by-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#11
José A Martínez-Álvarez, Luis A Pérez-García, Erika Mellado-Mojica, Mercedes G López, Iván Martínez-Duncker, Leila M Lópes-Bezerra, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539836/dual-delivery-of-ngf-and-bfgf-coacervater-ameliorates-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-via-inhibiting-schwann-cells-apoptosis
#12
Rui Li, Jianfeng Ma, Yanqing Wu, Matthew Nangle, Shuang Zou, Yiyang Li, Jiayu Yin, Yingzheng Zhao, Helin Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Qing Song Ye, Jian Wang, Jian Xiao
Diabetic neuropathy is a kind of insidious complications that impairs neural and vascular function and ultimately leads to somatic and visceral denervation. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important neurotrophic factors for stimulating angiogenesis and improving peripheral nerve function. Administrating a single factor has good therapeutic effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, the short half-life and rapid diffusion of growth factors under physiological conditions limits its clinical applications...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539419/microglia-are-irrelevant-for-neuronal-degeneration-and-axon-regeneration-after-acute-injury
#13
Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
The role of microglia in de- and regenerative processes after damage of the nervous system still remains ambiguous, partially due to the paucity of appropriate investigative methods. Here, we show that treatment with the pharmacological colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor PLX5622 specifically eliminated microglia in murine retinae and optic nerves. Interestingly, time course and extent of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration after optic nerve crush remained unaffected upon microglia depletion, although remnants of pre-labeled apoptotic RGCs were not cleared from the retina in these animals...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539159/anti-microbial-peptide-sr-0379-stimulates-human-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mediated-repair-of-peripheral-artery-diseases
#14
Tae Wook Lee, Soon Chul Heo, Yang Woo Kwon, Gyu Tae Park, Jung Won Yoon, Seung-Chul Kim, Il Ho Jang, Jae Ho Kim
Ischemia is a major plague of modern life. In the search of peptide drug candidates for curing ischemic disease, we evaluated the effects of an anti-microbial peptide SR-0379 on stem cell-mediated therapy of ischemic diseases. Migration and tube-forming ability of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were enhanced by SR-0379 treatment in vitro. Intramuscular administration of SR-0379 into murine ischemic hindlimb significantly enhanced blood perfusion and decreased tissue necrosis, and increased the number of blood vessels in ischemic muscle...
May 25, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538681/human-thalamic-somatosensory-nucleus-ventral-caudal-vc-as-a-locus-for-stimulation-by-inputs-from-tactile-noxious-and-thermal-sensors-on-an-active-prosthesis
#15
REVIEW
Jui Hong Chien, Anna Korzeniewska, Luana Colloca, Claudia Campbell, Patrick Dougherty, Frederick Lenz
The forebrain somatic sensory locus for input from sensors on the surface of an active prosthesis is an important component of the Brain Machine Interface. We now review the neuronal responses to controlled cutaneous stimuli and the sensations produced by Threshold Stimulation at Microampere current levels (TMIS) in such a locus, the human thalamic Ventral Caudal nucleus (Vc). The responses of these neurons to tactile stimuli mirror those for the corresponding class of tactile mechanoreceptor fiber in the peripheral nerve, and TMIS can evoke sensations like those produced by the stimuli that optimally activate each class...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537343/practice-patterns-for-spasticity-management-with-phenol-neurolysis
#16
Jay Karri, Manuel F Mas, Gerard E Francisco, Sheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To present practice patterns for phenol neurolysis procedures conducted for spasticity management. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 185 persons with spasticity who underwent phenol neurolysis procedures (n = 293) at an academic rehabilitation hospital and clinic. Patient demographics, concomitant spasticity treatments, and procedure relevant information were collected. RESULTS: The cohort included 71.9% males and 61.6% inpatient procedures...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535135/recovery-from-cyclophosphamide-overdose-in-a-dog
#17
Jessica Renee Finlay, Kenneth Wyatt, Courtney North
An adult female spayed dog was evaluated after inadvertently receiving a total dose of 1,750 mg oral cyclophosphamide, equivalent to 2,303 mg/m(2), over 21 days (days -21 to 0). Nine days after the last dose of cyclophosphamide (day +9), the dog was evaluated at Perth Veterinary Specialists. Physical examination revealed mucosal pallor, a grade 2/6 systolic heart murmur, and severe hemorrhagic cystitis. Severe nonregenerative pancytopenia was detected on hematology. Broad spectrum antibiotics, two fresh whole blood transfusions, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and tranexamic acid were administered...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533610/effects-of-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-on-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-symptoms-cipn-a-preliminary-case-control-study
#18
Tania Tonezzer, Leonardo Affonso Massabki Caffaro, Katiuscia Rosette Scasni Menon, Fabíola Cristina Brandini da Silva, Christina May Moran de Brito, Almir José Sarri, Raquel Aparecida Casarotto
[Purpose] The aim of this double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study is to investigate the effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for reducing the side effects of Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with oxaloplatin or paclitaxel. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four patients were randomly allocated into two groups: active or placebo stimulation. All patients were assessed for pain, numbness/tingiling, frequency of symptoms, and quality of life...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532582/pain-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease-implications-from-clinical-features-to-pathophysiology-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
Ming-Tsung Tseng, Chin-Hsien Lin
Pain is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that markedly impacts patients' quality of life. Although pain occurs mostly secondary to motor disability of PD, pain may antedate motor symptoms by years. Numerous studies have shown that PD patients manifest altered sensory and pain thresholds compared with control subjects. Although both levodopa and deep brain stimulation improve motor symptoms, there remains no direct correlation between motor improvement and altered pain sensitivity, suggesting that motor symptoms and pain do not necessarily share pathogenetic mechanisms...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532415/hemodynamic-changes-caused-by-acupuncture-in-healthy-volunteers-a-prospective-single-arm-exploratory-clinical-study
#20
Tae-Hun Kim, Boncho Ku, Jang-Han Bae, Jae-Young Shin, Min-Ho Jun, Jung Won Kang, Junghwan Kim, Jun-Hwan Lee, Jaeuk U Kim
BACKGROUND: Radial pressure pulse wave (RPPW) examination has been a key diagnostic component of traditional Chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in RPPW along with various hemodynamic variables after acupuncture stimulation and to examine the validity of pulse diagnosis as a modern diagnostic tool. METHODS: We conducted acupuncture stimulation at both ST36 acupuncture points in 25 healthy volunteers. We simultaneously assessed the RPPW by pulse tonometry; heart rate variability (HRV) by electrocardiogram; photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals, respiration rate, peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial depth by ultrasonography; and cardiac output by impedance cardiography, before, during and after a session of acupuncture stimulation...
May 22, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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