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metabolic aspects of pcos

Farnaz Shishehgar, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Parvin Mirmiran, Sepideh Hajian, Ahmad Reza Baghestani
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls. METHODS: This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls...
2016: PloS One
Sandro Sacchi, Federica Marinaro, Debora Tondelli, Jessica Lui, Susanna Xella, Tiziana Marsella, Daniela Tagliasacchi, Cindy Argento, Alessandra Tirelli, Simone Giulini, Antonio La Marca
BACKGROUND: d-chiroinositol (DCI) is a inositolphosphoglycan (IPG) involved in several cellular functions that control the glucose metabolism. DCI functions as second messenger in the insulin signaling pathway and it is considered an insulin sensitizer since deficiency in tissue availability of DCI were shown to cause insulin resistance (IR). Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathological condition that is often accompanied with insulin resistance. DCI can positively affects several aspect of PCOS etiology decreasing the total and free testosterone, lowering blood pressure, improving the glucose metabolism and increasing the ovulation frequency...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Teresa Sir-Petermann, Bárbara Echiburú, Nicolás Crisosto, Manuel Maliqueo, Francisco Pérez Bravo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine metabolic disorder and is presently considered a family pathology. It is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Racial, ethnic and environmental factors may be important in determining the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is an exclusion diagnosis and, therefore, should be distinguished from the physiological changes typical for the age and from other hyperandrogenic disorders. Early diagnosis is important since this syndrome is associated with reproductive, oncologic and metabolic risks...
July 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Poli Mara Spritzer, Carolina Rocha Barone, Fabiana Bazanella de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Hirsutism is defined as the presence of terminal hair with male distribution in women, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common etiology of hirsutism. METHODS: The aim of this study is to review aspects of hair growth that are relevant for the understanding of hirsutism in PCOS, along with current treatment alternatives. RESULTS: The prevalence of hirsutism in PCOS ranges from 70 to 80%, vs. 4% to 11% in women in the general population...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sarmad Said, Debabrata Mukherjee, Thomas F Whayne
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Classifications and treatment of the MetS have recently been redefined. While the majority of the cardiac components such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and dyslipidemia are objectively measurable elements, a few disparities among the definitions have to be considered that can variably modify diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Noncardiac factors such as liver disease (including, but not limited to, alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatosis/hepatitis), renal disease, severe obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea, may have independent or synergistic relationship with complementary cardiac MetS elements, and these additional risk factors may have an incremental adverse impact on CV outcome...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
V De Leo, M C Musacchio, V Cappelli, M G Massaro, G Morgante, F Petraglia
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting 5-10 % of women of reproductive age. It generally manifests with oligo/anovulatory cycles, hirsutism and polycystic ovaries, together with a considerable prevalence of insulin resistance. Although the aetiology of the syndrome is not completely understood yet, PCOS is considered a multifactorial disorder with various genetic, endocrine and environmental abnormalities. Moreover, PCOS patients have a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and their related morbidity, if compared to the general population...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Daniel M T Fessler, Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, Ricardo Azziz
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prehistoric complex genetic trait, perhaps dating back at least 50,000 years. The disorder also represents an evolutionary paradox, demonstrating clear reproductive disadvantages (i.e., lack of evolutionary fitness), albeit persisting tens of thousands of years. Here we examine possible explanations for this paradox. We evaluate a variety of possible benefits accruing to women in ancestral populations who possessed this trait, including considerations of whether dramatic changes in environment and lifestyle from the ancestral past to the contemporary present have altered the selection dynamics operating on the trait...
July 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Samer El Hayek, Lynn Bitar, Layal H Hamdar, Fadi G Mirza, Georges Daoud
Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common metabolic and reproductive disorders among women of reproductive age. Women suffering from PCOS present with a constellation of symptoms associated with menstrual dysfunction and androgen excess, which significantly impacts their quality of life. They may be at increased risk of multiple morbidities, including obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infertility, cancer, and psychological disorders. This review summarizes what the literature has so far provided from guidelines to diagnosis of PCOS...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Heidemarie Abrahamian, Raimund Weitgasser, Peter Fasching, Fritz Hoppichler, Monika Lechleitner
Metabolic diseases dramatically affect life of men and women from infancy up to old age and are a major challenge for clinicians. Health professionals are confronted with different needs of women and men. This article aims at an increase of gender awareness and the implementation of current knowledge of gender medicine in daily clinical practice with regard to pre-diabetes and diabetes. Sex and gender affect screening and diagnosis of metabolic diseases as well as treatment strategies and outcome. Impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of energy balance and body fat distribution are related to steroid hormones and therefore impose their influence on cardiovascular health in both men and women...
April 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Michael Feichtinger, Tina Stopp, Christian Göbl
Polycystic ovarian syndrome represents the most common endocrine disease of women of reproductive age. Symptoms include metabolic, gynecologic and cosmetic features. Genetic factors seem to contribute to the disease, affecting not only women but also male relatives of patients with similar symptoms. Besides, lifestyle factors play a central role impacting clinical PCOS appearance. Following we present an overview of the syndrome, its epidemiology, metabolic and gynecological aspects, gender and genetic factors and its therapy...
March 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
G Anjali, Surleen Kaur, Ruchi Lakra, Jyoti Taneja, Gaganjot S Kalsey, Anjali Nagendra, T G Shrivastav, M Gouri Devi, Neena Malhotra, Alka Kriplani, Rita Singh
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a central role in growth and differentiation of ovarian follicles. A plethora of information exists on molecular aspects of FSH responses but little is known about the mechanisms involved in its cross-talk with insulin/IGF-1 pathways implicated in the coordination of energy homeostasis in preovulatory granulosa cells (GCs). In this study, we hypothesized that FSH may regulate IRS-2 expression and thereby maintain the energy balance in GCs. We demonstrate here that FSH specifically increases IRS-2 expression in human and rat GCs...
December 2015: Cellular Signalling
S J Churchill, E T Wang, M D Pisarska
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease...
December 2015: Minerva Ginecologica
Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Christian Trummer, Verena Schwetz, Natascha Schweighofer, Thomas Pieber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disease in women all over the world. A variety of symptoms such as hirsutism and hyperandrogenism, irregular menstrual cycles and anovulatory infertility together with metabolic dysfunction, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in lean and obese individuals and the development of consecutive diseases are key problems in this heterogeneous syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Disease-modifying and potentially disease-causing candidate genes are described...
July 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
P V Rao
A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM)...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Susan Sam
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant...
February 2015: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
P M Spritzer, A B Motta, T Sir-Petermann, E Diamanti-Kandarakis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. PCOS has been recognized as a syndrome combining reproductive and metabolic abnormalities with lifelong health implications. Cardiometabolic alterations require regular screening and effective and targeted lifestyle advice to lose weight as well as to prevent weight gain. Pharmacological therapy includes insulin-sensitizer drugs and agents that act directly on metabolic comorbidities, such as statins and antiobesity drugs...
September 2015: Minerva Endocrinologica
Bo Xu, Yuan-Wei Zhang, Xian-Hong Tong, Yu-Sheng Liu
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex and heterogeneous endocrine condition, is characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Cumulus granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte are involved in different aspects of PCOS pathology. Several studies suggested that miRNAs play an important regulatory role at the post-transcriptional level in cumulus granulosa cells. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the altered miRNA expression profiles and miRNA targeted signaling pathways in PCOS...
March 15, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Avin S Jamil, Shahla K Alalaf, Namir G Al-Tawil, Talha Al-Shawaf
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metabolic aspects of the four PCOS phenotypes remain to be fully defined. The aim of this study was to compare metabolic parameters and insulin resistance among the four PCOS phenotypes defined according to the Rotterdam criteria and to determine predictors of these complications. METHODS: A total of 526 reproductive-aged women were included in this observational case-control study...
2015: Reproductive Health
Eleni Palioura, Eleni Kandaraki, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology that may arise from a combination of a number of underlying genetic interactions and predispositions with environmental factors. Endocrine disruptors and, in particular, Bisphenol A may represent one of the many underlying causes of the syndrome as they are experimentally linked to metabolic and reproductive derangements resembling PCOS-related disorders. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may act as an environmental modifier to worsen symptoms of PCOS in affected females or to contribute to the final phenotype of the syndrome in genetically predisposed individuals...
March 2014: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Dorothea Kurzthaler, Dijana Hadziomerovic-Pekic, Ludwig Wildt, Beata E Seeber
BACKGROUND: The use of insulin-sensitizing drugs has been shown to improve both the reproductive and the metabolic aspects of PCOS. However, the mechanisms by which metformin exerts its effects in PCOS are still not completely understood. There is growing evidence of a direct effect of metformin on ovarian steroidogenesis, independent of its effects on insulin sensitivity. METHODS: We evaluated the short-term effects of metformin compared to placebo on basal and LH- stimulated androgen secretion as well as on hormonal and metabolic parameters in 19 women with PCOS during a four-day randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial...
2014: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
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