Read by QxMD icon Read


Liang Li, Wan-Jun Zhou, Ping Fang, Ze-Yan Zhong, Jian-Sheng Xie, Ti-Zhen Yan, Jian Zeng, Xu-Hui Tan, Xiang-Min Xu
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is mainly caused by deletions in SMA-related genes. The objective of this study was to develop gene-dosage assays for diagnosing SMA. METHODS: A multiplex, quantitative PCR assay and a CNVplex assay were developed for determining the copy number of SMN1, SMN2, and NAIP. Reproducibility and specificity of the two assays were compared to a multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay. To evaluate reproducibility, 30 samples were analyzed three times using the three assays...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Alison K Thomson, Eilidh Somers, Rachael A Powis, Hannah K Shorrock, Kelley Murphy, Kathryn J Swoboda, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), traditionally described as a predominantly childhood form of motor neurone disease, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. Although motor neurones are undoubtedly the primary affected cell type, the severe infantile form of SMA (Type I SMA) is now widely recognised to represent a multisystem disorder where a variety of organs and systems in the body are also affected. Here, we report that the spleen is disproportionately small in the 'Taiwanese' murine model of severe SMA (Smn(-/-) ;SMN2(tg/0) ), correlated to low levels of cell proliferation and increased cell death...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Suzan M Hammond, Gareth Hazell, Fazel Shabanpoor, Amer F Saleh, Melissa Bowerman, James N Sleigh, Katharina E Meijboom, Haiyan Zhou, Francesco Muntoni, Kevin Talbot, Michael J Gait, Matthew J A Wood
The development of antisense oligonucleotide therapy is an important advance in the identification of corrective therapy for neuromuscular diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of difficulties of delivering single-stranded oligonucleotides to the CNS, current approaches have been restricted to using invasive intrathecal single-stranded oligonucleotide delivery. Here, we report an advanced peptide-oligonucleotide, Pip6a-morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (PMO), which demonstrates potent efficacy in both the CNS and peripheral tissues in severe SMA mice following systemic administration...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ingrid Ehrmann, Philippe Fort, David J Elliott
STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) proteins regulate splicing of target genes that have roles in neural connectivity, survival and myelination in the vertebrate nervous system. These regulated splicing targets include mRNAs such as the Neurexins (Nrxn), SMN2 (survival of motor neuron) and MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein). Recent work has made it possible to identify and validate STAR protein splicing targets in vivo by using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we will discuss the importance of STAR protein splicing targets in the CNS (central nervous system)...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Sofía Medrano, Soledad Monges, Luis Pablo Gravina, Laura Alías, Julieta Mozzoni, Hilda Verónica Aráoz, Sara Bernal, Angélica Moresco, Lilien Chertkoff, Eduardo Tizzano
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, considered one of the leading causes of infant mortality. It is caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene. A highly homologous copy of this gene named SMN2 and other neighbouring genes, SERF1A and NAIP, are considered phenotypic modifiers of the disease. In recent years, notable advances have been made in SMA research regarding evaluation, prognosis, and therapeutic options. Thus, genotype-phenotype studies in SMA are important to stratify patients for motor function tests and for envisaged clinical trials...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Seyyedmohsen Hosseinibarkooie, Miriam Peters, Laura Torres-Benito, Raphael H Rastetter, Kristina Hupperich, Andrea Hoffmann, Natalia Mendoza-Ferreira, Anna Kaczmarek, Eva Janzen, Janine Milbradt, Tobias Lamkemeyer, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Christoph Guschlbauer, Ansgar Büschges, Matthias Hammerschmidt, Markus Riessland, Min Jeong Kye, Christoph S Clemen, Brunhilde Wirth
Homozygous loss of SMN1 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common and devastating childhood genetic motor-neuron disease. The copy gene SMN2 produces only ∼10% functional SMN protein, insufficient to counteract development of SMA. In contrast, the human genetic modifier plastin 3 (PLS3), an actin-binding and -bundling protein, fully protects against SMA in SMN1-deleted individuals carrying 3-4 SMN2 copies. Here, we demonstrate that the combinatorial effect of suboptimal SMN antisense oligonucleotide treatment and PLS3 overexpression-a situation resembling the human condition in asymptomatic SMN1-deleted individuals-rescues survival (from 14 to >250 days) and motoric abilities in a severe SMA mouse model...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Alyssa N Calder, Elliot J Androphy, Kevin J Hodgetts
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease resulting from pathologically low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The majority of mRNA from the SMN2 allele undergoes alternative splicing and excludes critical codons, causing an SMN protein deficiency. While there is currently no FDA-approved treatment for SMA, early therapeutic efforts have focused on testing repurposed drugs such as phenylbutyrate (2), valproic acid (3), riluzole (6), hydroxyurea (7), and albuterol (9), none of which has demonstrated clinical effectiveness...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
David R Corey
Importance: The ability to control gene expression with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) could provide a new treatment strategy for disease. Objective: To review the use of ASOs for the treatment of neurological disorders. Evidence Review: Articles were identified through a search of PubMed references from 2000 to 2016 for articles describing the use of ASOs to treat disease, with specific attention to neurological disease. We concentrated our review on articles pertaining to activation of frataxin expression (Friedreich's ataxia) and production of active survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2, spinal muscular atrophy)...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Philipp Odermatt, Judith Trüb, Lavinia Furrer, Roger Fricker, Andreas Marti, Daniel Schümperli
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is due to the loss of SMN1 gene function. The duplicate gene SMN2 produces some, but not enough, SMN protein because most transcripts lack exon 7. Thus, promoting the inclusion of this exon is a therapeutic option. We show that a somatic gene therapy using the gene for a modified U7 RNA which stimulates this splicing has a profound and persistent therapeutic effect on the phenotype of a severe SMA mouse model. To this end, the U7 gene and vector and the production of pure, highly concentrated self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vector particles were optimized...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Erkan Y Osman, Charles W Washington, Kevin A Kaifer, Chiara Mazzasette, Teresa N Patitucci, Kyra M Florea, Madeline E Simon, Chien-Ping Ko, Allison D Ebert, Christian L Lorson
Loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1) causes Spinal Muscular Atrophy, a devastating neurodegenerative disease. SMN2 is a nearly identical copy gene; however SMN2 cannot prevent disease development in the absence of SMN1 since the majority of SMN2-derived transcripts are alternatively spliced, encoding a truncated, unstable protein lacking exon 7. Nevertheless, SMN2 retains the ability to produce low levels of functional protein. Previously we have described a splice-switching Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) sequence that targets a potent intronic repressor, Element1 (E1), located upstream of SMN2 exon 7...
September 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Reiko Arakawa, Masayuki Arakawa, Kaori Kaneko, Noriko Otsuki, Ryoko Aoki, Kayoko Saito
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. METHODS: After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression...
August 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Marc-Olivier Deguise, Justin G Boyer, Emily R McFall, Armin Yazdani, Yves De Repentigny, Rashmi Kothary
Motor neuron loss and neurogenic atrophy are hallmarks of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic cause of infant deaths. Previous studies have focused on deciphering disease pathogenesis in motor neurons. However, a systematic evaluation of atrophy pathways in muscles is lacking. Here, we show that these pathways are differentially activated depending on severity of disease in two different SMA model mice. Although proteasomal degradation is induced in skeletal muscle of both models, autophagosomal degradation is present only in Smn(2B/-) mice but not in the more severe Smn(-/-); SMN2 mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew G Woll, Hongyan Qi, Anthony Turpoff, Nanjing Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guangming Chen, Chunshi Li, Song Huang, Tianle Yang, Young-Choon Moon, Chang-Sun Lee, Soongyu Choi, Neil G Almstead, Nikolai A Naryshkin, Amal Dakka, Jana Narasimhan, Vijayalakshmi Gabbeta, Ellen Welch, Xin Zhao, Nicole Risher, Josephine Sheedy, Marla Weetall, Gary M Karp
The underlying cause of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a deficiency of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Starting from hits identified in a high-throughput screening campaign and through structure-activity relationship investigations, we have developed small molecules that potently shift the alternative splicing of the SMN2 exon 7, resulting in increased production of the full-length SMN mRNA and protein. Three novel chemical series, represented by compounds 9, 14, and 20, have been optimized to increase the level of SMN protein by >50% in SMA patient-derived fibroblasts at concentrations of <160 nM...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hasane Ratni, Gary M Karp, Marla Weetall, Nikolai A Naryshkin, Sergey V Paushkin, Karen S Chen, Kathleen D McCarthy, Hongyan Qi, Anthony Turpoff, Matthew G Woll, Xiaoyan Zhang, Nanjing Zhang, Tianle Yang, Amal Dakka, Priya Vazirani, Xin Zhao, Emmanuel Pinard, Luke Green, Pascale David-Pierson, Dietrich Tuerck, Agnes Poirier, Wolfgang Muster, Stephan Kirchner, Lutz Mueller, Irene Gerlach, Friedrich Metzger
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant and toddler mortality, and there is currently no approved therapy available. SMA is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. These mutations or deletions result in low levels of functional SMN protein. SMN2, a paralogous gene to SMN1, undergoes alternative splicing and exclusion of exon 7, producing an unstable, truncated SMNΔ7 protein. Herein, we report the identification of a pyridopyrimidinone series of small molecules that modify the alternative splicing of SMN2, increasing the production of full-length SMN2 mRNA...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yoriko Noguchi, Akira Onishi, Yuji Nakamachi, Nobuhide Hayashi, Nur Imma Fatimah Harahap, Mawaddah Ar Rochmah, Ai Shima, Shinichiro Yanagisawa, Naoya Morisada, Taku Nakagawa, Kazumoto Iijima, Shimpei Kasagi, Jun Saegusa, Seiji Kawano, Masakazu Shinohara, Shinya Tairaku, Toshio Saito, Yuji Kubo, Kayoko Saito, Hisahide Nishio
BACKGROUND: Most patients with spinal muscular atrophy lack the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) in the telomeric region of the spinal muscular atrophy locus on chromosome 5q13. On the other hand, the copy number of SMN2, a centromeric homolog of SMN1, is increased in many of these patients. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying these structural variations. METHODS: We determined the copy numbers of telomeric and centromeric genes in the spinal muscular atrophy locus of 86 patients and 22 control subjects using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis...
May 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Jafar Mohseni, Belal O Al-Najjar, Habibah A Wahab, Z A M H Zabidi-Hussin, Teguh Haryo Sasongko
Several histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are known to increase Survival Motor Neuron 2 (SMN2) expression for the therapy of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We aimed to compare the effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and Dacinostat, a novel HDACi, on SMN2 expression and to elucidate their acetylation effects on the methylation of the SMN2. Cell-based assays using type I and type II SMA fibroblasts examined changes in transcript expressions, methylation levels and protein expressions. In silico methods analyzed the intermolecular interactions between each compound and HDAC2/HDAC7...
September 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neurons degeneration and muscular atrophy. There is no effective SMA treatment. Loganin is a botanical candidate with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, glucose-lowering and anti-diabetic nephropathy activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effects of loganin on SMA using two cellular models, SMN-deficient NSC34 cells and SMA patient fibroblasts, and an animal disease model, SMAΔ7 mice...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Gillian Hunter, Rachael A Powis, Ross A Jones, Ewout J N Groen, Hannah K Shorrock, Fiona M Lane, Yinan Zheng, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy, Thomas H Gillingwater
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by low levels of SMN protein, primarily affecting lower motor neurons. Recent evidence from SMA and related conditions suggests that glial cells can influence disease severity. Here, we investigated the role of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system by creating SMA mice selectively overexpressing SMN in myelinating Schwann cells (Smn(-/-);SMN2(tg/0);SMN1(SC)). Restoration of SMN protein levels restricted solely to Schwann cells reversed myelination defects, significantly improved neuromuscular function and ameliorated neuromuscular junction pathology in SMA mice...
May 11, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Joonbae Seo, Natalia N Singh, Eric W Ottesen, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Maria Shishimorova, Ravindra N Singh
Humans carry two nearly identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Loss of SMN1 leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most frequent genetic cause of infant mortality. While SMN2 cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7, correction of SMN2 exon 7 splicing holds the promise of a cure for SMA. Previously, we used cell-based models coupled with a multi-exon-skipping detection assay (MESDA) to demonstrate the vulnerability of SMN2 exons to aberrant splicing under the conditions of oxidative stress (OS)...
2016: PloS One
Saif Ahmad, Kanchan Bhatia, Annapoorna Kannan, Laxman Gangwani
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease with a high incidence and is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is primarily characterized by degeneration of the spinal motor neurons that leads to skeletal muscle atrophy followed by symmetric limb paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. In humans, mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene shifts the load of expression of SMN protein to the SMN2 gene that produces low levels of full-length SMN protein because of alternative splicing, which are sufficient for embryonic development and survival but result in SMA...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"