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Meta analysis

Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Søren Hess, Evan C Frary, Oke Gerke, Poul Henning Madsen
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common, ubiquitous, and potentially lethal disease. As symptoms and clinical findings are notoriously nonspecific, diagnostic imaging is essential to avoid undertreatment as well as overtreatment. Controversies remain regarding first-line imaging in suspected PE. The two main contemporary contenders are ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) with or without additional low-dose CT (SPECT/CT) and CT angiography (CTA). We present our results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performances of these modalities: V/Q SPECT, V/Q SPECT/CT, and CTA are all viable options, but we consider V/Q SPECT/CT to be superior in most clinical settings with better overall diagnostic performance, that is, pooled sensitivities (97...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Hans Pottel, Liesbeth Hoste, Eric Yayo, Pierre Delanaye
BACKGROUND: Normal kidney function or, more specifically, normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in men and women and its decline with age is still much debated today. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation has gender (and race) multiplication factors, accounts for a decline that starts at very young age and assumes that the mean GFR is as high as 120-130 ml/min/1.73 m2 from a young age. The full age spectrum (FAS) estimated mean GFR is about 107 ml/min/1...
October 21, 2016: Nephron
Yang Yang, Jiaomiao Pei, Guozhen Gao, Zheng Yang, Shuzhong Guo, Bo Yue, Jianhua Qiu
We conducted a network meta-analysis in order to compare different strategies for managing melanoma patients. Electronic databases were searched for eligible randomized trials that compared different strategies in efficacy and tolerability. Five interventions were associated with a significant improvement in PFS over chemotherapy (all HR < 1): Ipilimumab, Tremelimumab, Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg and Ipilimumab + Nivolumab. Three interventions exhibited significantly improved OS results over chemotherapy (all HR < 1): Ipilimumab, Nivolumab and Ipilimumab + Chemotherapy...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Nicoletta Staropoli, Domenico Ciliberto, Silvia Chiellino, Francesca Caglioti, Teresa Del Giudice, Simona Gualtieri, Angela Salvino, Alessandra Strangio, Cirino Botta, Sandro Pignata, Pierfrancesco Tassone, Pierosandro Tagliaferri
OBJECTIVES: The current gold-standard for the first-line treatment in IIIb/IV stages of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab in some countries. In the era of personalized medicine, there is still uncertainty on the impact of several molecularly targeted agents, which have been investigated for the management of this disease. To shed light on the actual role of targeted therapy in EOC, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuguang Zhao, Lei Yang, Di Wu, Hua He, Mengmeng Wang, Tingwen Ge, Yudi Liu, Huimin Tian, Jiuwei Cui, Lin Jia, Ziqiang Wan, Fujun Han
PURPOSE: We conducted two meta-analyses of ATM genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk in individuals with or without radiation exposure to determine whether there was a joint effect between the ATM gene and radiation exposure in carcinogenesis. RESULTS: rs1801516, which was the only ATM polymorphism investigated by more than 3 studies of radiation exposure, was eligible for the present study. The meta-analysis of 23333 individuals without radiation exposure from 24 studies showed no association between the rs1801516 polymorphism and cancer risk, without heterogeneity across studies...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Katherine Fairhurst, Lisa Leopardi, Thomas Satyadas, Guy Maddern
Breast cancer liver metastases have traditionally been considered incurable and any treatment given therefore palliative. Liver resections for breast cancer metastases are being performed, despite there being no robust evidence for which patients benefit. This review aims to determine the safety and effectiveness of liver resection for breast cancer metastases. A systematic literature review was performed and resulted in 33 papers being assembled for analysis. All papers were case series and data extracted was heterogeneous so a meta-analysis was not possible...
October 17, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Yongbin Lu, Zhiyuan Cheng, Yaxue Zhao, Xiaoyu Chang, Cynthia Chan, Yana Bai, Ning Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment of statins for coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Efficacy outcomes included changes in blood lipids, risk of CHD mortality and all-cause mortality. Safety outcomes were evaluated by the risk of adverse events (AE). Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare the direct and indirect effects between different statins. RESULTS: The systematic review showed that levels of blood lipids decreased during statin treatment...
October 14, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ke-Yan Cheng, Zhi-Lian Wang, Qian-Yun Gu, Min Hao
OBJECTIVE: Overexpression of survivin has been reported in many human tumors. However, the clinicopathological features associated with survivin overexpression in cervical carcinoma remain controversial. Thus, the current meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinicopathological significance of survivin in cervical carcinoma. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies published through November 1, 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between survivin expression and clinicopathological outcome in cervical carcinoma...
2016: PloS One
Mu Qin, Xu Liu, Shao-Hui Wu, Xiao-Dong Zhang
Several clinically relevant outcomes post atrial substrate modification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been systematically analyzed among published studies on adjunctive cardiac ganglionated plexi (GP) or complex fractionated atrial electograms (CFAE) ablation vs. pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone. Out of 176 reports identified, the present meta-analysis included 14 randomized and non-randomized controlled trials (1613 patients) meeting inclusion criteria. Addition of GP ablation to PVI significantly increased freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmia in short- (OR: 1...
2016: PloS One
Rong Ye, Ting Shen, Yasi Jiang, Lingjia Xu, Xiaoli Si, Baorong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between Parkinson disease (PD) occurrence and the risk of brain tumors, while the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the exact relationship between PD and brain tumors. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect and CBM (China Biology Medicine Disc) before February 2016. Eligible studies were those that reported risk estimates of brain tumors among patients with PD or vice versa...
2016: PloS One
Natasa M Milic, Srdjan Masic, Jelena Milin-Lazovic, Goran Trajkovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Marko Savic, Nikola V Milic, Andja Cirkovic, Milan Gajic, Mirjana Kostic, Aleksandra Ilic, Dejana Stanisavljevic
BACKGROUND: The scientific community increasingly is recognizing the need to bolster standards of data analysis given the widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. The aim of this study was to investigate students' attitudes towards statistics within a multi-site medical educational context, monitor their changes and impact on student achievement. In addition, we performed a systematic review to better support our future pedagogical decisions in teaching applied statistics to medical students...
2016: PloS One
Susanna Lemmelä, Svetlana Solovieva, Rahman Shiri, Christian Benner, Markku Heliövaara, Johannes Kettunen, Verneri Anttila, Samuli Ripatti, Markus Perola, Ilkka Seppälä, Markus Juonala, Mika Kähönen, Veikko Salomaa, Jorma Viikari, Olli T Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Eira Viikari-Juntura, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen
Sciatica or the sciatic syndrome is a common and often disabling low back disorder in the working-age population. It has a relatively high heritability but poorly understood molecular mechanisms. The Finnish population is a genetic isolate where small founder population and bottleneck events have led to enrichment of certain rare and low frequency variants. We performed here the first genome-wide association (GWAS) and meta-analysis of sciatica. The meta-analysis was conducted across two GWAS covering 291 Finnish sciatica cases and 3671 controls genotyped and imputed at 7...
2016: PloS One
Lingling Gao, Yang Gu, Xianghua Yin
The objective of the study is to assess the TNF-α levels in PCOS patients and healthy controls. A comprehensive electronic search in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database was conducted up to July 2016. Random-effects model was used to estimate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twenty-nine studies with a total of 1960 participants (1046 PCOS patients and 914 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. The TNF-α levels in PCOS patients were significantly higher than those in controls (random-effects, SMD = 0...
2016: PloS One
Thomas J Hoffmann, Bronya J Keats, Noriko Yoshikawa, Catherine Schaefer, Neil Risch, Lawrence R Lustig
Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), one of the most common sensory disorders, can be mitigated, but not cured or eliminated. To identify genetic influences underlying ARHI, we conducted a genome-wide association study of ARHI in 6,527 cases and 45,882 controls among the non-Hispanic whites from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. We identified two novel genome-wide significant SNPs: rs4932196 (odds ratio = 1.185, p = 4.0x10-11), 52Kb 3' of ISG20, which replicated in a meta-analysis of the other GERA race/ethnicity groups (1,025 cases, 12,388 controls, p = 0...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
Rupert R A Bourne, Hugh R Taylor, Seth R Flaxman, Jill Keeffe, Janet Leasher, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Richard A White, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff, Jost B Jonas
OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of individuals visually impaired or blind due to glaucoma and to examine regional differences and temporal changes in this parameter for the period from 1990 to 2012. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2010, we performed a systematic literature review for the period from 1980 to 2012. We primarily identified 14,908 relevant manuscripts, out of which 243 high-quality, population-based studies remained after review by an expert panel that involved application of selection criteria that dwelt on population representativeness and clarity of visual acuity methods used...
2016: PloS One
H MacPherson, E A Vertosick, N E Foster, G Lewith, K Linde, K J Sherman, C M Witt, A J Vickers
There is uncertainty regarding how long the effects of acupuncture treatment persist after a course of treatment. We aimed to determine the trajectory of pain scores over time following acupuncture, using a large individual patient dataset from high quality randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain. The available individual patient dataset included 29 trials and 17,922 patients. The chronic pain conditions included musculoskeletal pain (low back, neck and shoulder), osteoarthritis of the knee and headache/migraine...
October 17, 2016: Pain
Elin T G Kersten, Gerard H Koppelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although currently available drugs to treat asthma are effective in most patients, a proportion of patients do not respond or experience side-effects; which is partly genetically determined. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variations influence drug response. In this review, we summarize prior results and recent studies in pharmacogenetics to determine if we can use genetic profiles for personalized treatment of asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The field of pharmacogenetics has moved from candidate gene studies in single populations toward genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis of multiple studies...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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