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Cheng-Ming Wei, Yi-Ji Su, Xiong Qin, Jia-Xin Ding, Qian Liu, Fang-Ming Song, Shao-Hui Zong, Jiake Xu, Bo Zhou, Jin-Min Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Extensive osteoclast formation plays a critical role in bone diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and the aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants. Thus, identification of agents that can suppress osteoclast formation and bone resorption is important for the treatment of these diseases. Monocrotaline (Mon), the major bioactive component of crotalaria sessiliflora has been investigated for its anti-cancer activities. However, the effect of Mon on osteoclast formation and osteolysis is not known...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xibo Jing, Jingxiao Yang, Lu Jiang, Jianghong Chen, Haiyan Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myocardial apoptosis plays an important role in doxorubicin (Dox) cardiotoxicity. MicroRNA-29 (miR-29) is suggested to function as an anti-fibrotic factor with potential therapeutic effects on cardiac fibrosis. However, it has not been shown whether there is an association between miR-29b and myocardial apoptosis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were transfected with miR-29b agomir by local delivery to the myocardium prior to Dox treatment. Rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with miR-29b mimics or inhibitor followed by Dox incubation in vitro...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Juan Jin, Kang Hu, Meiyu Ye, Diandian Wu, Qiang He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rapamycin (RAP) on autophagy in podocytes and the therapeutic effects of RAP on idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). METHODS: We established an in vitro model of IMN by preconditioning mouse podocytes with puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN). A Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to detect the proliferation of each group of podocytes. Podocyte apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry via annexin V/propidium iodide dual staining...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sha She, Lingyu Jiang, Zhenfang Zhang, Min Yang, Huaidong Hu, Peng Hu, Yong Liao, Yixuan Yang, Hong Ren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: C reactive protein (CRP) levels are elevated in many diseases, including malignant tumors and cardiovascular disorders. In this study, the protein interaction network for CRP was evaluated to determine the importance of CRP and its interacting proteins in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry were used to identify CRP interacting proteins in SMMC7721 cells...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Fei Zhang, Wu-Xun Peng, Lei Wang, Jian Zhang, Wen-Tao Dong, Jian-Hua Wu, Huai Zhang, Jian-Bo Wang, Yin Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is the focus and difficulty of orthopedic diseases. Recently, tissue engineering bone for this disease has shown a good therapeutic effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) as cytokines transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in constructing tissue-engineered bone for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. METHODS: The FGF-2 gene overexpressed lentivirus-transfected rBMSCs with xenogeneic antigen-extracted cancellous bone (XACB) to construct tissue engineered bone, and the model of early avascular necrosis of the femoral head was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) combined with hormone...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Juan Jin, Li Zhao, Wenli Zou, Wei Shen, Hongjuan Zhang, Qiang He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Autophagy plays an essential role in lupus nephritis (LN)-induced kidney injury, although the mechanism of action remains obscure. We investigated the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the ATF4 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in LN-induced podocyte autophagy. METHODS: We evaluated podocyte autophagy in a mouse model of LN. Protein levels of COX-2 and ATF4, and markers of autophagy, were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blotting...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiafei Fu, Yuanli He, Xuefeng Wang, Dongxian Peng, Xiaoying Chen, Xinran Li, Qing Wan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several miRNAs have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, the biological roles of miR-16 and its molecular mechanisms in PCOS development remain to be elucidated. METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-16 and programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4). GCs proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jie Quan Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Yang Wang, Wen Jian Tang, Jing Bo Shi, Xin Hua Liu
In this study, twenty curcumin analogue hybrids as potential anticancer agents through regulation protein of TrxR were designed and synthesized. Results of anticancer activity showed that 5,7-dimethoxy-3-(3-(2-((1E, 4E)-3-oxo-5-(pyridin-2-yl)penta-1,4-dien-1- yl)phenoxy)propoxy)-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 7d) could induce gastric cancer cells apoptosis by arresting cell cycle, break mitochondria function and inhibit TrxR activity. Meanwhile, western blot revealed that this compound could dramatically up expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and high expression of TrxR oxidation...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Keyong Huang, Qingyang Xiao, Xia Meng, Guannan Geng, Yujie Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, Dongfeng Gu, Yang Liu
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) remains a worldwide public health issue. However, epidemiological studies on the chronic health impacts of PM2.5 in the developing countries are hindered by the lack of monitoring data. Despite the recent development of using satellite remote sensing to predict ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in China, methods for generating reliable historical PM2.5 exposure, especially prior to the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network in 2013, are still very rare. In this study, a high-performance machine-learning model was developed directly at monthly level to estimate PM2...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Feifei Guo, Kang Zheng, Raquel Benedé-Ubieto, Francisco Javier Cubero, Yulia A Nevzorova
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world, and it persists at a high prevalence. Understanding the pathophysiology and successful treatment for ALD is closely associated to the suitability of the animal model, which fully reflects all aspects of the pathogenesis and typical histological findings. This paper reviews one of the most widely used experimental models of ALD in rodents - the Lieber-De Carli (LDC) liquid diet. It is an easy, accurate, reliable and inexpensive model to study the pathogenesis of early stages of ALD...
July 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Akiko Futakuchi, Toshihiro Inoue, Fan-Yan Wei, Miyuki Inoue-Mochita, Tomokazu Fujimoto, Kazuhito Tomizawa, Hidenobu Tanihara
Purpose: To investigate the roles of Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), the major effector molecules of the Hippo pathway, in TGF-β2-mediated conjunctival fibrosis. Methods: Primary human conjunctival fibroblasts were treated with TGF-β2. The expression of YAP/TAZ was examined by Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. The expression of fibrotic proteins and genes were evaluated by Western blot analyses and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Liwen Chen, Mu Li, Zhaoxia Luo, Xiaoqin Yan, Ke Yao, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Purpose: To investigate the roles of vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIPs) in regulating the morphology and F-actin distribution of Schlemm's canal (SC) of rat eyes. Methods: Chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) hypertension models with episcleral venous cauterization (EVC) were treated with topical VIP or PG99-465 (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors 2 [VPAC2] antagonist). IOPs were measured with Tono-Pen, and the SC parameters, including the cross-section area, circumference, and length, were statistically evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin and CD31 immunohistochemical staining...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Min He, Marit Lippestad, Dayu Li, Robin R Hodges, Tor P Utheim, Darlene A Dartt
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if histamine receptors interact with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells. Methods: Goblet cells from rat conjunctiva were grown in organ culture. First-passage goblet cells were used in all experiments. Phosphorylated (active) and total EGFR, AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were measured by Western blot analysis. Cells were preincubated with the EGFR antagonist AG1478 for 30 minutes or small interfering RNA specific to the EGFR for 3 days prior to stimulation with histamine or agonists specific for histamine receptor subtypes for 2 hours...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stanley Ka-Lok Li, Sze-Wan Shan, Hoi-Lam Li, Angela King-Wah Cheng, Feng Pan, Shea-Ping Yip, Mortimer M Civan, Chi-Ho To, Chi-Wai Do
Purpose: Gap junctions provide a conduit between the intracellular fluids of the pigmented (PE) and non-pigmented (NPE) ciliary epithelial cells, and are therefore critical in the secretion of the aqueous humor (AH). However, opinions differ concerning the connexin (Cx) composition of the gap junctions. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the expression of Cx in the porcine ciliary epithelium (CE), a favorable model for humans; and determine the contribution of the highest expressed Cx to AH secretion...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiaoqing Guo, Sriniwas Sriram, Jennifer A Tran, Audrey E K Hutcheon, James D Zieske
Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoform 1 (T1) is involved in corneal fibrotic wound healing by stimulating myofibroblast transformation and altering fibrotic gene expression. In this study, two specific inhibitors were used to dissect the relationship between myofibroblast generation and the TGF-β/Smad- or TGF-β/p38-signaling pathway in human corneal fibroblasts (HCF). Methods: In HCF, Trx-SARA (Smad-pathway inhibitor) was used to block the TGF-β/Smad-signaling pathway, and the p38 inhibitor (p38inh, SB202190) was used to inhibit p38MAPK, thus blocking the TGF-β/p38-signaling pathway...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Chenlu Han, Jinyan Li, Chunxiao Wang, Hong Ouyang, Xiaoyan Ding, Yizhi Liu, Shuyi Chen, Lixia Luo
Purpose: Recent work has indicated that Wnt5a has a critical role in embryonic development. We investigate whether the Wnt5a-activated noncanonical Wnt pathway is capable of promoting embryonic lens differentiation. Methods: A "three-stage" protocol was used to induce lens differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and Wnt5a levels were modified by addition of exogenous protein and RNA interference. SP600125 was adopted to inhibit JNK cascades...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiao Xia Li, Zheng Zhang, Hui Yang Zeng, Shen Wu, Lu Liu, Jing Xue Zhang, Qian Liu, Di Ya Yang, Ning Li Wang
Purpose: To examine the early glial reactivity and neuron damage in response to short-term cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp) reduction, as compared with intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Methods: The experiment included 54 male Sprague-Dawley rats with elevated translaminar cribrosa pressure difference (TLPD), defined as IOP minus CSFp. These rats underwent either continuous CSF drainage for 6 hours (n = 18), or unilateral IOP elevation to 40 mm Hg for 6 hours (n = 18)...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Brian J Wienhold, Virginia L Jin, Marty R Schmer, Gary E Varvel
The western US Corn Belt is projected to experience major changes in growing conditions due to climate change over the next 50 to 100 yr. Projected changes include increases in growing season length, number of high temperature stress days and warm nights, and precipitation, with more heavy rainfall events. The impact these changes will have on soil organic carbon (SOC) needs to be estimated and adaptive changes in management developed to sustain soil health and system services. The process-based model CQESTR was used to model changes in SOC stocks (0-30 cm) of continuous corn ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ju-Fang Teng, Chien-Hsing Lee, Tai-Hao Hsu, Hui-Chen Lo
Polysaccharides derived from mushrooms have potential to control blood sugar, reduce insulin resistance and prevent diabetic complications. The intracellular polysaccharopeptides of Trametes versicolor (TV) have been used as immunologic and oncologic adjuvants. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential activities and mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharopeptides (ePSP) obtained from TV strain LH-1 on regulating glucose homeostasis. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells incubated with normal glucose (5...
2018: PloS One
Aishwarya Vijay, Jessica E Becker, Joseph S Ross
Off-label prescribing of psychiatric drugs is common, despite lacking strong scientific evidence of efficacy and potentially increasing risk for adverse events. The goal of this study was to characterize prevalence of off-label prescriptions of psychiatric drugs and examine patient and clinician predictors of off-label use. This manuscript presents a retrospective, cross-sectional study using data from the 2012 and 2013 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS). The study examined all adult outpatient visits to psychiatric practices for chronic care management with a single listed visit diagnosis in which at least one psychiatric drug was prescribed...
2018: PloS One
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