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Dianna Smith, Claire Thompson, Kirk Harland, Storm Parker, Nicola Shelton
Despite the increasing recognition of household food insecurity as a policy issue, there is currently no routine measurement of food insecurity in the UK. There is nothing to suggest that Government will address this in the near future for all parts of the UK. In which case, policy makers and campaigners might instead seek out consistent and robust measures of the population-level factors which are known to contribute to food insecurity. However, no systematic measures exist, meaning that resources may not be targeted at those areas most in need...
February 2018: Applied Geography
Neha Pathak, Shema Tariq
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Michalis I Vousdoukas, Lorenzo Mentaschi, Evangelos Voukouvalas, Martin Verlaan, Svetlana Jevrejeva, Luke P Jackson, Luc Feyen
Global warming is expected to drive increasing extreme sea levels (ESLs) and flood risk along the world's coastlines. In this work we present probabilistic projections of ESLs for the present century taking into consideration changes in mean sea level, tides, wind-waves, and storm surges. Between the year 2000 and 2100 we project a very likely increase of the global average 100-year ESL of 34-76 cm under a moderate-emission-mitigation-policy scenario and of 58-172 cm under a business as usual scenario. Rising ESLs are mostly driven by thermal expansion, followed by contributions from ice mass-loss from glaciers, and ice-sheets in Greenland and Antarctica...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Philipp Lacour, Claas Buschmann, Christian Storm, Jens Nee, Abdul Shokor Parwani, Martin Huemer, Philipp Attanasio, Leif-Hendrik Boldt, Geraldine Rauch, Andreas Kucher, Burkert Pieske, Wilhelm Haverkamp, Florian Blaschke
BACKGROUND: Postmortem interrogations of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), recommended at autopsy in suspected cases of sudden cardiac death, are rarely performed, and data on systematic postmortem CIED analysis in the forensic pathology are missing. The aim of the study was to determine whether nonselective postmortem CIED interrogations and data analysis are useful to the forensic pathologist to determine the cause, mechanism, and time of death and to detect potential CIED-related safety issues...
June 19, 2018: Circulation
Kazuko Yonezaki, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Hitomi Imachi, Takuo Yoshimoto, Fumi Kikuchi, Kensaku Fukunaga, Seisuke Sato, Tomohiro Ibata, Nao Yamaji, Jingya Lyu, Tao Dong, Koji Murao
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have widely been used for the management of advanced melanoma. However, high-grade immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. We report a case of a patient with melanoma who developed thyroid storm following treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old Japanese man with a history of malignant melanoma presented to our department with severe thyrotoxicosis and poor blood glucose control...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Cristobal Rodriguez-Delgado, Rafael J Bergillos, Miguel Ortega-Sánchez, Gregorio Iglesias
The impacts of wave farms (arrays of wave energy converters, or WECs) on the nearshore must be fully understood for wave technology to develop and thus contribute to a sustainable, carbon-free energy mix in the near future. The objective of this work is to investigate the role played by the farm layout on the wave propagation patterns leewards and the implications for longshore sediment transport (LST) and shoreline evolution on a gravel-dominated deltaic coast. Changes in wave propagation in four scenarios, corresponding to as many wave farm layouts, are computed by means of a spectral numerical model (Delft3D-WAVE) under (i) low-energy and storm conditions, and (ii) westerly and easterly waves - the two prevailing wave directions...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Darik A O'Neil, Melissa A Nicholas, Naima Lajud, Anthony E Kline, Corina O Bondi
More than 10 million people worldwide incur a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, with two million cases occurring in the United States. TBI survivors exhibit long-lasting cognitive and affective sequelae that are associated with reduced quality of life and work productivity, as well as mental and emotional disturbances. While TBI-related disabilities often manifest physically and conspicuously, TBI has been linked with a "silent epidemic" of psychological disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
R-Cs Begy, H Simon, Sz Kelemen, L Preoteasa
Being a dynamic environment associated with complex costal, fluvial and marine processes, only a few studies regarding the evolution of the Danube Delta and the human impacts on its ecosystem have been carried out. Being a sensible to all processes occurring in its catchment area, information is stored in the deposited sediments, which can be used as tracers for natural and anthropogenic processes. The aim of this study is to determine a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentation rates in the last century by applying the 210 Pb dating method validated by 137 Cs profiles...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Stephanie J Crowley, Amy R Wolfson, Leila Tarokh, Mary A Carskadon
The maturation of sleep regulatory systems during adolescence in combination with psychosocial and societal pressures culminate in a "Perfect Storm" of short and ill-timed sleep and the associated consequences for many youngsters. This model, first described by Carskadon in 2011, guides our current thinking of adolescent sleep behavior. Since the original description, the field has moved forward with remarkable pace, and this review aims to summarize recent progress and describe how this new work informs our understanding of sleep regulation and sleep behavior during this developmental time frame...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Anne K Lorentzen, Luit Penninga
Greenland is not only the largest island in the world, it is also the least densely populated country on the globe. The majority of Greenland's landmass lies within the Arctic Circle. Weather conditions in Arctic areas can be extreme, thus exposing locals and visitors to a high risk of acquiring frostbite injuries. More than two thirds of Greenland is covered by a permanent ice sheet, and temperatures can drop to below -70°C. In addition, frequent storms, occupational exposure, and alcohol all contribute to an increased risk for frostbite injury...
June 12, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Margaret Sneddon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
Iris E Allijn, Rik Oldenkamp, Gert Storm, Ad M J Ragas, Raymond M Schiffelers
Low amounts of human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment can affect bacteria, animals and ultimately humans. Here, the environmental consequences of a shift in prescription behavior from prednisolone to berberine was modeled using an environmental decision support system based on four consecutive steps: emission, fate, exposure and effect. This model estimates the relative aquatic and human health impacts of alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions throughout Europe. Since a Defined Daily Dose (DDD) of berberine has yet to be formulated, the environmental impacts of berberine and prednisolone were compared under the assumption of equal DDDs...
2018: PloS One
Marc Pineton de Chambrun, Nicolas Bréchot, Alain Combes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Temporary circulatory support (TCS) with short-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices is increasingly used as a salvage therapy for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. This article provides an overview of current devices, their indications and management, and discusses results of recent case series and trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Percutaneous active MCS devices (Impella, TandemHeart…) and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) are utilized as a bridge to 'decision' that includes weaning after cardiac function recovery, transplantation, long-term MCS and withdrawal in case of futility...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Kevin M Rice, Venkata Vinay Kumar Bandarupalli, Nandini D P K Manne, Eric R Blough
Sepsis is a serious life threatening medical emergency which, if not treated properly, oftentimes results in organ failure and death. Current sepsis treatment protocols are largely centered on the use of antibiotics and supportive care. Recent studies have suggested that antibiotics fail to be effective for sepsis treatment when administered during hypo-dynamic phase of sepsis that is usually characterized by the presence of a cytokine storm. As such, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic drugs that target the inflammatory cytokines that are secreted as a result of increased reactive oxygen species...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Lucy Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Ugur Ozturk, Dadiyorto Wendi, Irene Crisologo, Adrian Riemer, Ankit Agarwal, Kristin Vogel, José Andrés López-Tarazón, Oliver Korup
Flash floods and debris flows are iconic hazards in mountainous regions with steep relief, high rainfall intensities, rapid snowmelt events, and abundant sediments. The cuesta landscapes of southern Germany hardly come to mind when dealing with such hazards. A series of heavy rainstorms dumping up to 140 mm in 2 h caused destructive flash floods and debris flows in May 2016. The most severe damage occurred in the Braunsbach municipality, which was partly buried by 42,000 m3 of boulders, gravel, mud, and anthropogenic debris from the small catchment of Orlacher Bach (~6 km2 )...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael W Beck, Iñigo J Losada, Pelayo Menéndez, Borja G Reguero, Pedro Díaz-Simal, Felipe Fernández
Coral reefs can provide significant coastal protection benefits to people and property. Here we show that the annual expected damages from flooding would double, and costs from frequent storms would triple without reefs. For 100-year storm events, flood damages would increase by 91% to $US 272 billion without reefs. The countries with the most to gain from reef management are Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Mexico, and Cuba; annual expected flood savings exceed $400 M for each of these nations. Sea-level rise will increase flood risk, but substantial impacts could happen from reef loss alone without better near-term management...
June 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Meelad Sayma, George Nowell, Aedamar O'Connor, Gemma Clark, Andrew Gaukroger, Dominic Proctor, Jamie Walsh, Brian Rigney, Storm Norman, Andrew Adedeji, David Wilson, Darren O'hagan, Victoria Cook, Robbie Carrington, Preshgena Sekaran, Maya Wehbe, Duncan Paterson, Sophie Welchman, Jay Over, Sheila Payne
OBJECTIVES: Treatment escalation plans (TEPs) are vital in communicating a ceiling of care. However, many patients still deteriorate and die without a pre-established ceiling of care for attending clinicians to rely on. We aimed to increase the proportion of suitable patients that have TEPs in place in a rural district general hospital. METHODS: We undertook three 'Plan-Do-Study-Act' (PDSA) cycles between 1 December 2016 and 9 June 2017. These cycles aimed to assess the problem, implement a solution and monitor its sustainability...
June 12, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Nikolai Christian Passler, Christopher R Gubbin, Thomas Folland, I Razdolski, D Scott Katzer, D F Storm, Martin Wolf, Simone De Liberato, Joshua D Caldwell, Alexander Paarmann
We report the first observation of epsilon near zero (ENZ) phonon polaritons in an ultrathin AlN film fully hybridized with surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) supported by the adjacent SiC substrate. Employing a strong coupling model for the analysis of the dispersion and electric field distribution in these hybridized modes, we show that they share the most prominent features of the two precursor modes. The novel ENZ-SPhP coupled polaritons with a highly propagative character and deeply sub-wavelength light confinement can be utilized as building blocks for future infrared and terahertz (THz) nanophotonic integration and communication devices...
June 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Christine Dominianni, Kathryn Lane, Sarah Johnson, Kazuhiko Ito, Thomas Matte
BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigated potential health effects of large-scale power outages, including the massive power failure that affected the northeastern United States and Ontario, Canada, in August 2003, and outages associated with major storms. However, information on localized outages is limited. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to examine potential health impacts of citywide and localized outages in New York City (NYC). METHODS: Along with the citywide 2003 outage, localized outages in July 1999 and July 2006 were identified...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
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