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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913577/metabolite-profiling-of-lada-challenges-the-view-of-a-metabolically-distinct-subtype
#1
Mahmoud Al-Majdoub, Arslan Ali, Petter Storm, Anders Rosengren, Leif Groop, Peter Spégel
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) usually refers to GADAb positive diabetes with onset after 35 years of age and no insulin treatment within the first 6 months after diagnosis. However, it is not always easy to distinguish LADA from type 1 or type 2 diabetes.In this study we examined whether metabolite profiling could help to distinguish LADA (N=50) from type 1 (N=50) and type 2 diabetes (N=50).Out of 123 identified metabolites, 99 differed between the diabetes types. However, no unique metabolite profile could be identified for any of the types...
December 2, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911995/allometry-data-and-equations-for-coastal-marsh-plants
#2
Meng Lu, Joshua S Caplan, Jonathan D Bakker, J Adam Langley, Thomas J Mozdzer, Bert G Drake, J Patrick Megonigal
Coastal marshes are highly valued for ecosystem services such as protecting inland habitats from storms, sequestering carbon, removing nutrients and other pollutants from surface water, and providing habitat for fish, shellfish, and birds. Because plants largely determine the structure and function of coastal marshes, quantifying plant biomass is essential for evaluating these ecosystem services, understanding the biogeochemical processes that regulate ecosystem function, and forecasting tidal wetland responses to accelerated sea level rise...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911417/plasma-assisted-molecular-beam-epitaxy-of-n-polar-inaln-barrier-high-electron-mobility-transistors
#3
Matthew T Hardy, David F Storm, D Scott Katzer, Brian P Downey, Neeraj Nepal, David J Meyer
Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is well suited for the epitaxial growth of III-nitride thin films and heterostructures with smooth, abrupt interfaces required for high-quality high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). A procedure is presented for the growth of N-polar InAlN HEMTs, including wafer preparation and growth of buffer layers, the InAlN barrier layer, AlN and GaN interlayers and the GaN channel. Critical issues at each step of the process are identified, such as avoiding Ga accumulation in the GaN buffer, the role of temperature on InAlN compositional homogeneity, and the use of Ga flux during the AlN interlayer and the interrupt prior to GaN channel growth...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909693/unfractionated-and-low-molecular-weight-heparin-and-the-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-ibmx-and-cilostazol-block-ex-vivo-equid-herpesvirus-type-1-induced-platelet-activation
#4
Tracy Stokol, Priscila B D Serpa, Muhammad N Zahid, Marjory B Brooks
Equid herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. These clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. The mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. We have previously shown that EHV-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. Activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by providing a surface to localize coagulation factor complexes that amplify and propagate thrombin generation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908836/gq-and-gs-signaling-acting-in-synergy-to-control-glp-1-secretion
#5
Maria Hauge, Jeppe Pio Ekberg, Maja Storm Engelstoft, Pascal Timshel, Andreas N Madsen, Thue W Schwartz
GPR40 is generally known to signal through Gq. However, in transfected cells, certain synthetic agonists can make the receptor signal also through Gs and cAMP (Hauge et al., 2015). Here we find that, in colonic crypt cultures, the GLP-1 secretion induced by such Gq + Gs GPR40 agonists is indeed inhibited by blockers of both Gq and Gs and is eliminated by combining these. This in contrast to Gq-only GPR40 agonists which only are affected by the Gq inhibitor. Importantly, Gq-only GPR40 agonists in combination with low doses of selective synthetic agonists for Gs coupled receptors, e...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903266/environmental-determinants-of-malaria-transmission-in-african-villages
#6
Noriko Endo, Elfatih A B Eltahir
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is complex, involving a range of hydroclimatological, biological, and environmental processes. The high degree of non-linearity in these processes makes it difficult to predict and intervene against malaria. This study seeks both to define a minimal number of malaria transmission determinants, and to provide a theoretical basis for sustainable environmental manipulation to prevent malaria transmission. METHODS: Using a field-tested mechanistic malaria model, HYDREMATS, a theoretical study was conducted under hypothetical conditions...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902531/preventing-pressure-ulcers-in-the-veterans-health-administration-using-a-virtual-breakthrough-series-collaborative
#7
Lisa Zubkoff, Julia Neily, Beth King, Storm Morgan, Yinong Young-Xu, Shoshana Boar, Peter Mills
The Veterans Health Administration implemented a Virtual Breakthrough Series to prevent pressure ulcers. The pressure ulcer rate decreased from 1.2 to 0.9 per 1000 bed days of care (P = .017). The most common interventions were education (N = 26; 68%), improved documentation (N = 23; 61%), and the use of equipment and supplies (N = 21; 55%). In summary, this project helped improve pressure ulcer rates in the Veterans Health Administration and presents a promising model for implementing a virtual model for improvement...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901165/the-requirements-at-the-c-3-position-of-alkylquinolones-for-signalling-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Rachel Shanahan, F Jerry Reen, Rafael Cano, Fergal O'Gara, Gerard P McGlacken
The 'perfect storm' of increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and a decline in the discovery of new antibiotics, has made it necessary to search for new and innovative strategies to treat bacterial infections. Interruption of bacterial cell-to-cell communication signalling (Quorum Sensing), thus neutralizing virulence in pathogenic bacteria, is a growing area. 2-Alkyl-4-quinolones, HHQ and PQS, play a key role in the quorum sensing circuitry of P. aeruginosa. We report a new set of isosteres of 2-heptyl-6-nitroquinolin-4-one, with alterations at C-3, and evaluate the key structural requirements for agonistic and antagonistic activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
November 30, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899087/paradoxical-physiological-responses-to-propranolol-in-a-rett-syndrome-patient-a-case-report
#9
P J Santosh, L Bell, K Lievesley, J Singh, F Fiori
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898802/nutrient-cycling-in-grassed-roadside-ditches-and-lawns-in-a-suburban-watershed
#10
Lauren E McPhillips, Peter M Groffman, Rebecca L Schneider, M Todd Walter
Roadside ditches are ubiquitous in developed landscapes. They are designed to route water from roads for safety, with little consideration of water quality or biogeochemical implications in ditch design and minimal data on environmental impacts. We hypothesize that periodic saturation and nutrient influxes may make roadside ditches hotspots for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification as well as biological production of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO). Research sites included 12 grassed ditches and adjacent lawns with varying fertilization in a suburban watershed in central New York, where lawns represented a reference with similar soils as ditches but differing hydrology...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898797/effectiveness-of-livestock-exclusion-in-a-pasture-of-central-north-carolina
#11
Daniel E Line, Deanna L Osmond, Wesley Childres
Reducing the export of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sediment from agricultural land in water-supply watersheds is a continuing goal in central North Carolina. The objective of this project was to document the effectiveness of a combination of livestock exclusion fencing and nutrient management implemented on a beef cattle pasture located in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The quantity and quality of discharge from two predominantly pasture watersheds were monitored simultaneously for 3.8 yr before and after implementation of the exclusion fencing and nutrient management in the treatment watershed; a control watershed remained unchanged...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898780/estrogen-transport-in-surface-runoff-from-agricultural-fields-treated-with-two-application-methods-of-dairy-manure
#12
Odette Mina, Heather E Gall, Louis S Saporito, Peter J A Kleinman
This study compares two methods of dairy manure application-surface broadcast and shallow disk injection-on the fate and transport of natural estrogens in surface runoff from 12 field plots in central Pennsylvania. Ten natural surface runoff events were sampled over a 9-mo period after fall manure application. Results show that the range of estrogen concentrations observed in surface runoff from the broadcast plots was several orders of magnitude higher (>5000 ng L) than the concentrations in runoff from the shallow disk injection plots (<10 ng L)...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898726/using-proxy-records-to-document-gulf-of-mexico-tropical-cyclones-from-1820-1915
#13
Jordan V Pino, Robert V Rohli, Kristine L DeLong, Grant L Harley, Jill C Trepanier
Observations of pre-1950 tropical cyclones are sparse due to observational limitations; therefore, the hurricane database HURDAT2 (1851-present) maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration may be incomplete. Here we provide additional documentation for HURDAT2 from historical United States Army fort records (1820-1915) and other archived documents for 28 landfalling tropical cyclones, 20 of which are included in HURDAT2, along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. One event that occurred in May 1863 is not currently documented in the HURDAT2 database but has been noted in other studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898011/update-on-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-treatments-in-ischemic-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Matteo Casula, Federico Carbone, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco
After an acute ischemic stroke (AIS), inflammatory processes are able to concomitantly induce both beneficial and detrimental effects. In this narrative review, we updated evidence on the inflammatory pathways and mediators that are investigated as promising therapeutic targets. We searched for papers on PubMed and MEDLINE up to August 2016. The terms searched alone or in combination were: ischemic stroke, inflammation, oxidative stress, ischemia reperfusion, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, autoimmunity...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898005/validation-and-parameter-sensitivity-tests-for-reconstructing-swell-field-based-on-an-ensemble-kalman-filter
#15
Xuan Wang, Pierre Tandeo, Ronan Fablet, Romain Husson, Lei Guan, Ge Chen
The swell propagation model built on geometric optics is known to work well when simulating radiated swells from a far located storm. Based on this simple approximation, satellites have acquired plenty of large samples on basin-traversing swells induced by fierce storms situated in mid-latitudes. How to routinely reconstruct swell fields with these irregularly sampled observations from space via known swell propagation principle requires more examination. In this study, we apply 3-h interval pseudo SAR observations in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to reconstruct a swell field in ocean basin, and compare it with buoy swell partitions and polynomial regression results...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897609/a-video-based-intervention-on-and-evaluation-of-nursing-aides-therapeutic-communication-and-residents-agitation-during-mealtime-in-a-dementia-care-unit
#16
Lené Levy-Storms, Lesley M Harris, Xiao Chen
The researchers conducted a communication training intervention for certified nursing assistants (CNAs). The intervention aimed at improving CNAs' therapeutic techniques for relating to agitated residents during care. This study focused on an in-depth evaluation of mealtime interactions using videos. Sixteen CNAs and 16 residents living with dementia from one long-term care facility were videotaped during mealtime interactions before and after a therapeutic communication training program. Mixed-effect Poisson regression revealed no effect of the intervention as a whole on residents' refusals, but the intervention did improve CNAs' communication...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896824/patients-with-the-worst-outcomes-after-paracetamol-acetaminophen-induced-liver-failure-have-an-early-monocytopenia
#17
J K Moore, A C MacKinnon, T Y Man, J R Manning, S J Forbes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. AIM: To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. METHODS: In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited...
November 28, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894327/a-statistical-analysis-protocol-for-the-time-differentiated-target-temperature-management-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-tth48-clinical-trial
#18
Hans Kirkegaard, Asger Roer Pedersen, Ville Pettilä, Jakob Hjort, Bodil Steen Rasmussen, Inge de Haas, Jørgen Feldbæk Nielsen, Susanne Ilkjær, Anne Kaltoft, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Anders Morten Grejs, Christophe Henri Valdemar Duez, Alf Inge Larsen, Valdo Toome, Urmet Arus, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Christian Storm, Timo Laitio, Markus B Skrifvars, Eldar Søreide
BACKGROUND: The TTH48 trial aims to determine whether prolonged duration (48 hours) of targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 (±1) °C results in better neurological outcomes compared to standard duration (24 hours) after six months in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS: TTH48 is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, assessor-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial of 24 and 48 hours of TTM at 33 (±1) ° C performed in 355 comatose OHCA patients aged 18 to 80 years who were admitted to ten intensive care units (ICUs) in six Northern European countries...
November 28, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893165/enabling-stakeholder-involvement-in-coastal-disaster-resilience-planning
#19
Thomas P Bostick, Thomas H Holzer, Shahryar Sarkani
Coastal hazards including storm surge, sea-level rise, and cyclone winds continue to have devastating effects on infrastructure systems and communities despite costly investments in risk management. Risk management has generally not been sufficiently focused on coastal resilience, with community stakeholders involved in the process of making their coastline, as a system, more resilient to coastal storms. Thus, without stakeholder earlier involvement in coastal resilience planning for their community, they are frustrated after disasters occur...
November 28, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891587/intestinal-mononuclear-cells-primed-by-systemic-interleukin-12-display-long-term-ability-to-aggravate-colitis-in-mice
#20
Luciano P Pedrotti, Angela A Sena, María Cecilia Rodriguez Galán, Hugo Cejas, Silvia G Correa
To address whether the burst of systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) influences intestinal inflammation elicited by luminal stimuli, we induced IL-12 release by cDNA injection in C57BL/6 mice and simultaneously started dextran sulphate sodium administration. The sequence of the inflammatory response triggered by IL-12 release was characterized by assessing myeloperoxidase activity and histological damage in colon samples on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after colitis induction. To evaluate the persistence of IL-12 priming, colitis was induced in mice 7 or 60 days after cDNA injection...
November 5, 2016: Immunology
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