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Anil K Deshantri, Sander A A Kooijmans, Sylvia A Kuijpers, Maria Coimbra, Astrid Hoeppener, Gert Storm, Marcel H A M Fens, Raymond M Schiffelers
Cancers are abundantly infiltrated by inflammatory cells that are modulated by tumor cells to secrete mediators fostering tumor cell survival and proliferation. Therefore, agents that interfere with inflammatory signaling molecules or specific immune cell populations have been investigated as anticancer drugs. Corticosteroids are highly potent anti-inflammatory drugs, whose activity is intensified when targeted by nanocarrier systems. Liposome-targeted corticosteroids have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in different syngeneic murine tumor models as well as human xenograft mouse models, which is attributed to a switch in the tumor microenvironment from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Shang-Ju Li, Abraham Flaxman, Riyadh Lafta, Lindsay Galway, Tim K Takaro, Gilbert Burnham, Amy Hagopian
OBJECTIVES: We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. METHOD: To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings...
2016: PloS One
Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Waltraud Maierhofer, Emanuella Israel
The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Koen E Merkus, Menno W J Prins, Cornelis Storm
Tethered particle motion (TPM), the motion of a micro- or nanoparticle tethered to a substrate by a macromolecule, is a system that has proven to be extremely useful for its ability to reveal physical features of the tether, because the thermal motion of the bound particle reports sensitively on parameters like the length, the rigidity, or the folding state of its tether. In this article, we survey the applicability of TPM to probe the kinetics of single secondary bonds, bonds that form and break between the tethered particle and a substrate due, for instance, to receptor/ligand pairs on particle and substrate...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Catherine Johnson, Shelbye Schweinhart, Ishi Buffam
Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yini Wang, Zhao Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition of uncontrolled immune activation with a high mortality rate. The recommended therapeutic guideline for HLH was published by the Histiocyte Society in 1994 and revised in 2004, which greatly improved the survival in patients with HLH. However, HLH is still a refractory disease for which the search for novel treatments continues. This article overviewed recent advances in treatment of HLH. RECENT FINDINGS: Current practices in treatment extend from chemo-immunotherapy to some new cytokine-targeting biologicals, which are more effective to eliminate pathologically activated T cells and resist exaggerated cytokine storm...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Hematology
Solène Le Pennec-Prigent, Erwan Flecher, Vincent Auffret, Guillaume Leurent, Jean-Claude Daubert, Christophe Leclercq, Philippe Mabo, Jean-Philippe Verhoye, Raphael P Martins
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal life support is used for patients with severe heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. We aimed at analyzing the efficacy and safety of extracorporeal life support to treat refractory arrhythmic storm responsible for cardiogenic shock in patients resistant to antiarrhythmic drugs. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital of Rennes, France. PATIENTS: Patients with refractory arrhythmic storm admitted between January 2005 and March 2015...
October 14, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Elżbieta Zębek, Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Krzebietke
Lake Jeziorak Mały is a shallow urban lake where storm water pretreatment separators and a fountain-based water aeration system were installed as protective-restoration measures to enhance water quality. We investigated the effect of these procedures on phytoplankton dynamics and physicochemical properties in the littoral and pelagial zones in 1996-2003, 2005, and 2013. A decrease in cyanobacteria proportion, abundance, and biomass has been noticed, and other phytoplankton groups increased after these procedures...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mingjie Kang, Pingqing Fu, Shankar G Aggarwal, Sudhanshu Kumar, Ye Zhao, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang
Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in New Delhi, India from March 6 to April 6, 2012. Homologous series of n-alkanes (C19C33), n-fatty acids (C12C30) and n-alcohols (C16C32) were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed a high-variation in the concentrations and size distributions of these chemicals during non-haze, haze, and dust storm days. In general, n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and n-alcohols presented a bimodal distribution, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm for fine modes and coarse modes, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Massimiliano Faustino, Tullio Agricola, Borejda Xyheri, Enrico Di Girolamo, Luigi Leonzio, Carmine Pizzi
We report a patient with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and low left ventricular systolic function (28%) presenting with an electrical storm originated in epicardial scar and ablated by radiofrequency. This case report suggests that a strategy of epicardial catheter ablation is reasonable for the patient presenting with electrical storm related to structural disease with a low left ventricular ejection fraction.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Guozhu Zhao, Guohua Yin, Arati A Inamdar, Jing Luo, Ning Zhang, Ill Yang, Brian Buckley, Joan W Bennett
Super Storm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to 8 genera: Penicillium (12 species), Fusarium (4 species), Aspergillus (3 species), Trichoderma (2 species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
John Rathbone, Richard Franklin, Clinton Gibbs, David Williams
Signs of Irukandji syndrome (IS) suggest an underlying catecholamine storm with research demonstrating that Carukia barnesi venom causes a significant rise in adrenaline/noradrenaline serum levels. A systematic review was undertaken to ascertain the current evidence in treating IS with magnesium salts. A literature search was conducted using Scopus, Medline and ScienceDirect. Further articles were discarded via title description and/or abstract details. The remaining were read in full, and those identified as not having sufficient information regarding magnesium and patient outcomes were removed...
October 17, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Tetsurou Satoh, Osamu Isozaki, Atsushi Suzuki, Shu Wakino, Tadao Iburi, Kumiko Tsuboi, Naotetsu Kanamoto, Hajime Otani, Yasushi Furukawa, Satoshi Teramukai, Takashi Akamizu
Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan...
October 15, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Mandy Day-Calder
After your first few shifts and catching up with colleagues, you will usually quickly get back into the swing of working life. But sometimes, especially if you have been nursing for a while and weathered many healthcare storms, you may feel a deeper sense of malaise for your work.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
David Taylor
Experiments and observations were carried out to investigate the response to impact of the shells of the limpet Patella vulgata. Dropped-weight impact tests were conducted, creating damage which usually took the form of a hole in the shell's apex. Similar damage was found to occur naturally, presumably as a result of stones propelled by the sea during storms. Apex holes were usually fatal, but small holes were sometimes repaired, and the repaired shell was as strong as the original, undamaged shell.The impact strength (energy to failure) of shells tested in situ was found to be 3...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hsiang-I Wang, Giou-Teng Yiang, Chin-Wang Hsu, Jen-Chun Wang, Chien-Hsing Lee, Yu-Long Chen
BACKGROUND: Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is recognized to develop as a result of several factors, including infection, surgery, acute illness, and rarely, trauma. Recognition of thyroid storm in a trauma patient is difficult because the emergency physician usually focuses on managing more obvious injuries. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: We present a case of trauma-related thyroid storm and review the previous literature on posttraumatic thyroid storm to delineate risk factors of the disease...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jennifer M Brown, Jack J C Phelps, Andrew Barkwith, Martin D Hurst, Michael A Ellis, Andrew J Plater
Resilient coastal protection requires adaptive management strategies that build with nature to maintain long-term sustainability. With increasing pressures on shorelines from urbanisation, industrial growth, sea-level rise and changing storm climates soft approaches to coastal management are implemented to support natural habitats and maintain healthy coastal ecosystems. The impact of a beach mega-nourishment along a frontage of interactive natural and engineered systems that incorporate soft and hard defences is explored...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Wen-Liang Gong, Jie Yan, Ling-Xi Zhao, Chong Li, Zhen-Li Huang, Ben Zhong Tang, Ming-Qiang Zhu
Photoswitchable fluorophores are promising in single-molecule optical devices and super-resolution fluorescence imaging, especially in single-molecule photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) or stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). However, the scarcity of current photoswitchable fluorophores stimulates researchers to develop complicated optical systems and processing software, in accordance with the limited photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and organic fluorophores. Previous efforts to develop synthetic photoswitchable fluorophores have exhibited their promising potential in super-resolution fluorescence imaging...
October 14, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Allison R Heid, Seran Schug, Francine P Cartwright, Rachel Pruchno
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative physical and psychological outcomes. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable; however, social support can act as a resource to help individuals respond to severe stressors. This study explored the challenges older people faced before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and the people they turned to for support. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older adults in New Jersey drawn from the ORANJ BOWL (Ongoing Research on Aging in New Jersey - Bettering Opportunities for Wellness in Life) research panel, who experienced high levels of primary home damage during Hurricane Sandy...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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