Read by QxMD icon Read


Congrong Niu, Christine M Livingston, Li Li, Rudolf K Beran, Stephane Daffis, Dhivya Ramakrishnan, Dara Burdette, Leanne Peiser, Eduardo Salas, Hilario Ramos, Mei Yu, Guofeng Cheng, Michel Strubin, William E Delaney Iv, Simon P Fletcher
The structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (Smc5/6) is a restriction factor that represses hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription. HBV counters this restriction by expressing HBV X protein (HBx), which targets Smc5/6 for degradation. However, the mechanism by which Smc5/6 suppresses HBV transcription and how HBx is initially expressed is not known. In this study we characterized viral kinetics and the host response during HBV infection of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) to address these unresolved questions...
2017: PloS One
Lev Shapira, Maya Ralph, Enosh Tomer, Shai Cohen, Oren Kobiler
Although many viral particles can enter a single cell, the number of viral genomes per cell that establish infection is limited. However, mechanisms underlying this restriction were not explored in depth. For herpesviruses, one of the possible mechanisms suggested is chromatinization and silencing of the incoming genomes. To test this hypothesis, we followed infection with three herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) fluorescence expressing recombinants in the presence or absence of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi's)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Song Hu, Li-Bin Jiang, Xiao-Jing Zou, Wei Yi, De-Ying Tian
AIM: To assess the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the expression of host α-1,2-mannosidases and determine the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We measured the expression levels of MAN1A1, MAN1A2, MAN1B1, and MAN1C1 in cell lines HepG2.2.15, HepN10, HepAD38 and HepG2 by Western blot. Viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the culture medium were measured using the chemiluminescence method. HBV DNA quantification assays were performed using a commercial real-time PCR kit...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yi Zheng, Subodh Kumar Samrat, Haidong Gu
: Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an α gene product required for viral replication at low multiplicities of infection. Upon entry, nuclear domain 10 (ND10) converges at the incoming DNA and represses viral gene expression. ICP0 contains a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades the ND10 organizer PML and disperses ND10 to alleviate the repression. In the present study, we focused on understanding the regulation of ICP0 E3 ligase activity in the degradation of different ICP0 substrates...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Santo Landolfo, Marco De Andrea, Valentina Dell'Oste, Francesca Gugliesi
Before a pathogen even enters a cell, intrinsic immune defenses are active. This first-line defense is mediated by a variety of constitutively expressed cell proteins collectively termed "restriction factors" (RFs), and they form a vital element of the immune response to virus infections. Over time, however, viruses have evolved in a variety ways so that they are able to overcome these RF defenses via mechanisms that are specific for each virus. This review provides a summary of the universal characteristics of RFs, and goes on to focus on the strategies employed by some of the most important RFs in their attempt to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection...
August 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
Yongxu Lu, Anne Orr, Roger D Everett
: It is now well established that several cellular proteins that are components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs, also known as ND10) have restrictive effects on herpesvirus infections that are countered by viral proteins that are either present in the virion particle or are expressed during the earliest stages of infection. For example, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early (IE) protein ICP0 overcomes the restrictive effects of PML-NB components PML, Sp100, hDaxx, and ATRX while human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE protein IE1 targets PML and Sp100, and its tegument protein pp71 targets hDaxx and ATRX...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Alexander S Hahn, Anna K Großkopf, Doris Jungnickl, Brigitte Scholz, Armin Ensser
UNLABELLED: Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components restrict herpesviral infection, and herpesviruses antagonize this restriction by a variety of strategies, including degradation or relocalization of ND10 proteins. The rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) shares many key biological features with the closely related Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus 8) and readily infects cells of both human and rhesus monkey origin. We used the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technique to generate knockout (ko) cells for each of the four ND10 components, PML, SP100, DAXX, and ATRX...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Pei Xu, Stephen Mallon, Bernard Roizman
After entry into the nucleus, herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA is coated with repressive proteins and becomes the site of assembly of nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies. These small (0.1-1 μM) nuclear structures contain both constant [e.g., promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), Sp100, death-domain associated protein (Daxx), and so forth] and variable proteins, depending on the function of the cells or the stress to which they are exposed. The amounts of PML and the number of ND10 structures increase in cells exposed to IFN-β...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Myriam Scherer, Thomas Stamminger
Research in the last 2 decades has demonstrated that a specific organelle of the cell nucleus, termed PML nuclear body (PML-NB) or nuclear domain 10 (ND10), is frequently modified during viral infection. This correlates with antagonization of a direct repressive function of individual PML-NB components, such as the PML, hDaxx, Sp100, or ATRX protein, that are able to act as cellular restriction factors. Recent studies now reveal an emerging role of PML-NBs as coregulatory structures of both type I and type II interferon responses...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Haidong Gu, Yi Zheng
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a neurotropic virus that establishes lifelong latent infection in human ganglion sensory neurons. This unique life cycle necessitates an intimate relation between the host defenses and virus counteractions over the long course of infection. Two important aspects of host anti-viral defense, nuclear substructure restriction and epigenetic chromatin regulation, have been intensively studied in the recent years. Upon viral DNA entering the nucleus, components of discrete nuclear bodies termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10), converge at viral DNA and place restrictions on viral gene expression...
April 5, 2016: Virology Journal
Myriam Scherer, Victoria Otto, Joachim D Stump, Stefan Klingl, Regina Müller, Nina Reuter, Yves A Muller, Heinrich Sticht, Thomas Stamminger
UNLABELLED: PML is the organizer of cellular structures termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10) or PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and other viruses. The antiviral function of ND10 is antagonized by viral regulatory proteins such as the immediate early protein IE1 of HCMV. IE1 interacts with PML through its globular core domain (IE1CORE) and induces ND10 disruption in order to initiate lytic HCMV infection. Here, we investigate the consequences of a point mutation (L174P) in IE1CORE, which was shown to abrogate the interaction with PML, for lytic HCMV infection...
November 11, 2015: Journal of Virology
Piia Kivipõld, Liisi Võsa, Mart Ustav, Reet Kurg
BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes can replicate, and are maintained as autonomously replicating extrachromosomal plasmids in human U2OS cells. Previous studies have shown that HPV genomes are transcriptionally active in U2OS cells and can express the viral early proteins required for initiation and establishment of HPV replication. In the present work, we have examined the involvement of cellular DAXX protein in HPV replication in U2OS cells. METHODS: We have used indirect immunofluorescence and FISH analysis in order to study HPV replication compartments in U2OS cells...
2015: Virology Journal
Nadine Wagenknecht, Nina Reuter, Myriam Scherer, Anna Reichel, Regina Müller, Thomas Stamminger
Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, also termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as nuclear protein accumulations mediating an intrinsic cellular defense against viral infections via chromatin-based mechanisms, however, their contribution to the control of herpesviral latency is still controversial. In this study, we utilized the monocytic cell line THP-1 as an in vitro latency model for human cytomegalovirus infection (HCMV). Characterization of THP-1 cells by immunofluorescence andWestern blot analysis confirmed the expression of all major ND10 components...
June 5, 2015: Viruses
Benjamin A Diner, Krystal K Lum, Aaron Javitt, Ileana M Cristea
The interferon-inducible protein IFI16 has emerged as a critical antiviral factor and sensor of viral DNA. IFI16 binds nuclear viral DNA, triggering expression of antiviral cytokines during infection with herpesviruses. The knowledge of the mechanisms and protein interactions through which IFI16 exerts its antiviral functions remains limited. Here, we provide the first characterization of endogenous IFI16 interactions following infection with the prominent human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). By integrating proteomics and virology approaches, we identified and validated IFI16 interactions with both viral and host proteins that are involved in HSV-1 immunosuppressive mechanisms and host antiviral responses...
September 2015: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Yi Zheng, Haidong Gu
UNLABELLED: Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a key regulator in both lytic and latent infections. In lytic infection, an important early event is the colocalization of ICP0 to nuclear domain 10 (ND10), the discrete nuclear bodies that impose restrictions on viral expression. ICP0 contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and Sp100, two major components of ND10, and disperses ND10 to alleviate repression. We previously reported that the association between ICP0 and ND10 is a dynamic process that includes three steps: adhesion, fusion, and retention...
April 2015: Journal of Virology
Yongxu Lu, Roger D Everett
UNLABELLED: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early protein IE1 and the tegument protein pp71 are required for efficient infection. These proteins have some functional similarities with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP0, which stimulates lytic HSV-1 infection and derepresses quiescent HSV-1 genomes. All three proteins counteract antiviral restriction mediated by one or more components of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, and IE1 and pp71, acting together, almost completely complement ICP0 null mutant HSV-1...
March 2015: Journal of Virology
Miles C Smith, Andrew C Box, Jeffrey S Haug, William S Lane, David J Davido
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a significant human pathogen that infects a large portion of the human population. Cells deploy a variety of defenses to limit the extent to which the virus can replicate. One such factor is the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, the nucleating and organizing factor of nuclear domain 10 (ND10). PML responds to a number of stimuli and is implicated in intrinsic and innate cellular antiviral defenses against HSV-1. While the role of PML in a number of cellular pathways is controlled by post-translational modifications, the effects of phosphorylation on its antiviral activity toward HSV-1 have been largely unexplored...
2014: Cells
Aline Lima Leite, Janete Gualiume Vaz Madureira Lobo, Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira, Mileni Silva Fernandes, Tatiani Martini, Fernanda Zucki, Dóris Hissako Sumida, Alfredo Rigalli, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf
Administration of high doses of fluoride (F) can alter glucose homeostasis and lead to insulin resistance (IR). This study determined the profile of protein expression in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes that were chronically exposed to F. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 18 animals. In one group, diabetes was induced through the administration of streptozotocin. Each group (D-diabetic and ND-non-diabetic) was further divided into 3 subgroups each of which was exposed to a different F concentration via drinking water (0 ppm, 10 ppm or 50 ppm F, as NaF)...
2014: PloS One
Thomas Günther, Sabrina Schreiner, Thomas Dobner, Uwe Tessmer, Adam Grundhoff
We have previously demonstrated that acquisition of intricate patterns of activating (H3K4me3, H3K9/K14ac) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications is a hallmark of KSHV latency establishment. The precise molecular mechanisms that shape the latent histone modification landscape, however, remain unknown. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as mediators of innate immune responses that can limit viral gene expression via chromatin based mechanisms...
July 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Mirna Perusina Lanfranca, Heba H Mostafa, David J Davido
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is required for efficient lytic viral replication and regulates the switch between the lytic and latent states of HSV-1. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0 directs the proteasomal degradation of several cellular targets, allowing the virus to counteract different cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how ICP0's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity inactivates the host intrinsic defenses, such as nuclear domain 10 (ND10), SUMO, and the DNA damage response to HSV-1 infection...
2014: Cells
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"