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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151280/oral-nutritional-supplementation-in-patients-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis-a-randomised-crossover-pilot-study
#1
Karen M Salamon, Kelly Lambert
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a significant problem in those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Factors such as gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the need for a fluid reduced diet can limit tolerance and thereby the efficacy of oral nutritional supplements to treat malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acceptability and impact of two different forms of oral nutrition supplementation for 16 weeks on nutritional markers and quality of life of malnourished patients undergoing PD...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149514/isolation-and-characterization-of-high-protein-and-phycocyanin-producing-mutants-of-arthrospira-platensis
#2
Geeta G Shirnalli, Manish S Kaushik, Ajay Kumar, Gerard Abraham, Pawan K Singh
Cyanobacteria are known to exhibit their efficiency in producing high concentrations of compounds of commercial value. Arthrospira is one such cyanobacterium which is considered as important source of protein (65%) and other nutrients. In present study, chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl-Ń-Nitro-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), a proven potent mutagen for cyanobacteria was used to bring stable and desirable alteration in Arthrospira platensis ARM 730. Three morphological mutants (G-1, G-2, and SF) were selected and characterized...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148625/evaluation-of-anabolic-steroid-induced-renal-damage-with-sonography-in-bodybuilders
#3
Umut H Kantarci, Zekine Punduk, Omer Senarslan, Alper Dirik
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anabolic steroids on kidneys in bodybuilders. METHODS: Twenty two bodybuilders were included in the study. Participants were divided into three groups according to the scheme of steroid usage: Group 1 (n=8, intramuscular 500 mg testosterone enanthate, intramuscular 400 mg nandrolone decanoate and oral 40 mg methandrostenolone for 12 weeks), Group 2 (n=7, intramuscular 500 mg testosterone enanthate, intramuscular 300 mg nandrolone decanoate and intramuscular 300 mg boldenone undecylenate for 16 weeks) and Group 3 (n=7, no steroid intake)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144418/nmr-based-identification-of-metabolites-in-polar-and-non-polar-extracts-of-avian-liver
#4
Fariba Fathi, Antonio Brun, Katherine H Rott, Paulo Falco Cobra, Marco Tonelli, Hamid R Eghbalnia, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov, John L Markley
Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1...
November 16, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143803/use-of-novel-high-protein-functional-food-products-as-part-of-a-calorie-restricted-diet-to-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-lean-body-mass-in-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Carol S Johnston, Barry Sears, Mary Perry, Jessica R Knurick
Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR) can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day) using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day) with a similar level of calorie restriction...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142278/diet-selection-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deposition-in-lambs-as-affected-by-restricted-time-at-pasture
#6
X Q Zhang, Y M Jin, W B Badgery, Tana
This study investigates the effects of restricted grazing time on forage selectivity and meat fatty acid deposition of lambs compared to a traditional grazing system. Results showed that the animals preferred to graze pasture species that were more palatable and lower in fibre, while demonstrating a partial preference for species with high protein levels. Leymus chinensis was more preferentially selected by lambs grazing pasture for shorter periods than longer periods. Lambs that grazed for 4 h per day had a high LNA (α-linolenic acid) intake...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133220/effects-of-exercise-and-diet-in-nonobese-asthma-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Louise Lindhardt Toennesen, Howraman Meteran, Morten Hostrup, Nina Rica Wium Geiker, Camilla Bjoern Jensen, Celeste Porsbjerg, Arne Astrup, Jens Bangsbo, Debbie Parker, Vibeke Backer
BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130715/relationship-of-long-term-macronutrients-intake-on-anabolic-catabolic-hormones-in-female-elite-volleyball-players
#8
Juan Mielgo Ayuso, Michael C Zpurdos, Aritz Urdampilleta, Julio Calleja González, Jesús Seco, Alfredo Córdova
INTRODUCTION: Specific macronutrient distribution and training can alter acute and chronic hormone behavior and, subsequently, sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to examine relationships between dietary intake and anabolic/catabolic hormone response in elite female volleyball players during a 29-week season. METHODS: Twenty-two elite female volleyballers (26.4 ± 5.6 years; 178 ± 9 cm; 67.1 ± 7.5 kg) had dietary intake (seven-day dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire), blood concentration of anabolic/catabolic hormones concentration, physical performance, and body composition assessed at four time points: a) T1: baseline/pre-testing; b) T2: eleven weeks after T1; c) T3: ten weeks after T2; and d) T4: eight weeks after T3...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130552/resveratrol-pretreatment-enhanced-homing-of-sdf-1%C3%AE-preconditioned-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-liver-cirrhosis
#9
Mehrdad Hajinejad, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Ameneh Omidi, Keywan Mortezaee, Saied Nekoonam, Reza Mamoudi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) has been known to implicate in homing of MSCs, and resveratrol has been reported to have a positive influence on SDF-1 level in the site of injury. In this study, a combined strategy was applied to evaluate bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) homing to the rat model of liver cirrhosis induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL): (1) pretreatment delivery of resveratrol into the cirrhotic liver, and (2) transplantation of ex vivo BMSC preconditioning with SDF-1α. BMSCs were preconditioned with 10 ng/μl SDF-1α for 1h and then labelled with the CM-Dil...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129652/engineering-strategies-for-enhanced-production-of-protein-and-bio-products-in-pichia-pastoris-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
Pichia pastoris has been recognized as one of the most industrially important hosts for heterologous protein production. Despite its high protein productivity, the optimization of P. pastoris cultivation is still imperative due to strain- and product-specific challenges such as promoter strength, methanol utilization type and oxygen demand. To address the issues, strategies involving genetic and process engineering have been employed. Optimization of codon usage and gene dosage, as well as engineering of promoters, protein secretion pathways and methanol metabolic pathways have proved beneficial to innate protein expression levels...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124044/index-based-dietary-patterns-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Kim, Jeongseon Kim
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause for cancer incidence in male. Although this high incidence is due to prostate specific antigen screening, other risk-factors, such as diet, might also be involved. The results of previous studies on the association between prostate cancer risk and individual dietary components have been conflicting. Thus, evaluation by dietary pattern analysis rather than individual dietary factors is suggested. The purpose of this study was to review the association of prostate cancer with a priori dietary indices, which are less studied and reviewed to date compared to a posteriori indices...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123188/spatio-temporal-trends-in-crop-damage-inform-recent-climate-mediated-expansion-of-a-large-boreal-herbivore-into-an-agro-ecosystem
#12
Michel P Laforge, Nicole L Michel, Ryan K Brook
Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123132/rupturing-giant-plasma-membrane-vesicles-to-form-micron-sized-supported-cell-plasma-membranes-with-native-transmembrane-proteins
#13
Po-Chieh Chiang, Kevin Tanady, Ling-Ting Huang, Ling Chao
Being able to directly obtain micron-sized cell blebs, giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs), with native membrane proteins and deposit them on a planar support to form supported plasma membranes could allow the membrane proteins to be studied by various surface analytical tools in native-like bilayer environments. However, GPMVs do not easily rupture on conventional supports because of their high protein and cholesterol contents. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of using compression generated by the air-water interface to efficiently rupture GPMVs to form micron-sized supported membranes with native plasma membrane proteins...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115143/inclusion-levels-and-modes-of-whole-grain-incorporation-into-wheat-based-rations-differentially-influence-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#14
A F Moss, H H Truong, S Y Liu, P H Selle
1. The objective was to compare three whole grain inclusion levels (7.5, 15 and 30%) offered to broiler chickens by three modes of whole grain (WG) incorporation: (i) pre-pellet WG inclusion, (ii) post-pellet WG inclusion as a blend of WG and pelleted concentrate and (iii) post-pellet WG inclusion where WG and pelleted concentrate were provided in separate feed trays against a ground-grain, wheat-based control diet. 2. Ten dietary treatments was offered to 6 replicate cages (6 birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chickens from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
November 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112961/optimization-of-non-denaturing-protein-extraction-conditions-for-plant-ppr-proteins
#15
Nuria Andrés-Colás, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins are one of the major protein families in flowering plants, containing around 450 members. They participate in RNA editing and are related to plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as to responses to ABA and abiotic stresses. Their characteristics have been described in silico; however, relatively little is known about their biochemical properties. Different types of PPR proteins, with different tasks in RNA editing, have been suggested to interact in an editosome to complete RNA editing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105526/effect-of-omnivorous-and-vegan-diets-with-different-protein-and-carbohydrate-content-on-growth-and-metabolism-of-growing-rats
#16
Gianluca Giuberti, Mauro Morlacchini, Luca Crippa, Jessica Capraro, Beatrice Paganini, Antonio Gallo, Filippo Rossi
The purpose of this study was to observe, in a rat animal model, the short and medium term effects of vegan (VEG) or omnivorous (OMNI) diets with different energy partition between nutrients (zone or classic). Six different diets were administered, for 72 days to 120 growing male Sprague-Dawley rats: (i) VEG zone diet; (ii) VEG classic diet; (iii) OMNI zone diet; (iv) OMNI classic diet; (v) OMNI zone diet with added fibre and (vi) OMNI classic diet with added fibre. Zone diets (high protein and low carbohydrates), resulted in better growth , feed efficiency, lower blood glucose and insulin responses...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104375/environmental-trade-offs-of-pig-production-systems-under-varied-operational-efficiencies
#17
G A McAuliffe, T Takahashi, L Mogensen, J E Hermansen, C L Sage, D V Chapman, M R F Lee
Production of pork, the most consumed meat globally, is estimated to emit 668 m tonnes CO2-eq of greenhouse gases each year. Amongst various production systems that comprise the pig industry, grain-based intensive production is widely regarded as the largest polluter of the environment, and thus it is imperative to develop alternative systems that can provide the right balance between sustainability and food security. Using an original dataset from the Republic of Ireland, this paper examines the life-cycle environmental impacts of representative pig farms operating under varying production efficiencies...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cleaner Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102552/predictive-screening-tools-used-in-high-concentration-protein-formulation-development
#18
Melanie Hofmann, Henning Gieseler
This review examines the use of predictive screening approaches in high concentration protein formulation development. In addition to the normal challenges associated with protein formulation development, for high concentration formulations, solubility, viscosity, and physical protein degradation play major roles. To overcome these challenges, multiple formulation conditions need to be evaluated such that it is desirable to have predictive but also low-volume and high throughput methods in order to identify optimal formulation conditions very early in development without time and material consuming setups...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095933/efficiency-of-two-larval-diets-for-mass-rearing-of-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#19
J G Bond, A Ramírez-Osorio, C F Marina, I Fernández-Salas, P Liedo, A Dor, T Williams
Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for SIT programs. We compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) diet, developed for rearing Ae. albopictus, and a standardized laboratory rodent diet (LRD), under a 14:10 h (light:dark) photoperiod ("light" treatment) or continuous darkness during larval rearing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095532/effects-of-dietary-protein-levels-and-2-methylbutyrate-on-ruminal-fermentation-nutrient-degradability-bacterial-populations-and-urinary-purine-derivatives-in-simmental-steers
#20
C Wang, Q Liu, G Guo, W J Huo, C X Pei, S L Zhang, W Z Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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