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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770102/rolling-out-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-2003-2017
#1
G Taylor
Multiple issues need to be addressed in order to control the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is key to reducing morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV and has a role in preventing HIV transmission. However, access to cART is very unevenly distributed globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although cost of cART is no longer a major barrier as effective treatment can be had for under US$100 per year, HIV management is compromised by the inadequate number of trained clinicians, the lack of clinical and laboratory infrastructure and the increased prevalence of co-morbidities (e...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764749/prognosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-pulmonary-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#2
Maiko Naito, Yu Kurahara, Shiomi Yoshida, Naoya Ikegami, Takehiko Kobayashi, Shojiro Minomo, Kazunobu Tachibana, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Seiji Hayashi, Katsuhiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (PNTM) is a known risk factor for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). However, few studies have focused on the prognosis of PNTM-associated CPA. In the present investigation, we aimed to elucidate the clinical course and prognostic factors of CPA in patients with PNTM. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 62 patients with CPA and a history of PNTM who were admitted to Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center between 2010 and 2015...
May 11, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764477/meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-in-diabetic-patients-and-its-association-with-cigarette-smoking-in-african-and-asian-countries
#3
Fasil Wagnew, Setegn Eshetie, Animut Alebel, Getenet Dessie, Cheru Tesema, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in diabetic patients and to determine the effect of cigarette smoking. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled overall prevalence of tuberculosis in diabetes was 4.72% (95% CI 3.62-5.83%). In sub-group analyses, the prevalence was 5.13% (95% CI 4.34-5.92%) in Africa, followed by 4.16% (95% CI 2.9-5.4%) in Asia. The odd ratio of tuberculosis among diabetes patients was 7...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740001/predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality-among-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Patrícia Klarmann Ziegelmann, Rachel Couban, Li Wang, Jason Walter Busse, Denise Rossato Silva
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty regarding which factors are associated with in-hospital mortality among patients with pulmonary TB (PTB). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality among patients with PTB. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health, for cohort and case-control studies that reported risk factors for in-hospital mortality in PTB. We pooled all factors that were assessed for an association, and presented relative associations as pooled odds ratios (ORs)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717163/in-patient-outcomes-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-a-nationwide-study
#5
Kathan Mehta, Palashkumar Jaiswal, Farren Briggs, William A Faubion, James H Tabibian, Fabio Cominelli, Maneesh Dave
The impact of underlying immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is unclear. Hematopoietic cell transplantation co-morbidity index (HCT-CI) is gaining acceptance as a reliable clinical method to score pre-transplant co-morbidities. Higher HCT-CI from a co-morbid IMID implies higher NRM. However, HCT-CI integrates many IMIDs with different pathogenesis and treatment together which may lead to spurious results. We performed a cross-sectional study using Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset from 1998 to 2011 to compare the outcomes of HSCT in patients with different co-morbid IMIDs with patients without any co-morbid IMIDs...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715323/virological-and-immunological-failure-of-haart-and-associated-risk-factors-among-adults-and-adolescents-in-the-tigray-region-of-northern-ethiopia
#6
Genet Gebrehiwet Hailu, Dawit Gebregziabher Hagos, Amlsha Kahsay Hagos, Araya Gebreyesus Wasihun, Tsehaye Asmelash Dejene
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated morbidity and mortality has reduced significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. As a result of increasing access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the survival and quality of life of the patients has significantly improved globally. Despite this promising result, regular monitoring of people on antiretroviral therapy is recommended to ensure whether there is an effective treatment response or not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707388/risk-factors-and-co-morbidities-associated-with-changes-in-renal-function-among-antiretroviral-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-in-south-africa-a-chart-review
#7
Shirelle Assaram, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Nombulelo P Magula
Introduction: Our systematic scoping review has demonstrated a research gap in antiretroviral treatment (ART) nephrotoxicity as well as in the long-term outcomes of renal function for patients on ART in South Africa. Bearing in mind the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa, this is of great concern. Objectives: To determine the risk factors and co-morbidities associated with changes in renal function in HIV-infected adults in South Africa...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687912/tuberculosis-smart-manipulation-of-a-lethal-host
#8
REVIEW
Shivendra K Chaurasiya
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a global threat for human health. Development of drug resistance and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus has increased the morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis. Macrophages serve as primary defense against microbial infections including tuberculosis. Upon recognition and uptake of mycobacteria macrophages initiate a series of events leading to the generation of effective immune response and clearance of infection. On the other hand, pathogen utilizes multiple mechanisms for manipulating macrophage response to protect itself from killing and survive within these cells which are designed for killing them...
April 24, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607596/epidemiological-clinical-and-mechanistic-perspectives-of-tuberculosis-in-older-people
#9
REVIEW
Wing W Yew, Takashi Yoshiyama, Chi C Leung, Denise P Chan
With the ageing population globally, tuberculosis (TB) in older people becomes a major clinical and public health challenge. In many Asian countries, especially those located in the eastern and southeastern parts of the continent, geriatric TB is a significant problem. TB in the older patients is more difficult to diagnose in the early course of disease, and has poorer treatment outcomes, largely as increased failure and death. More drug-induced adverse reactions are also experienced by this population during TB therapy...
April 1, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605219/bacterial-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
REVIEW
D Wilmes, E Coche, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, N Kanaan
Bacterial pathogens are the most frequent cause of pneumonia after transplantation. Early after transplantation, recipients are at higher risk for nosocomial infections. The most commonly encountered pathogens during this period are gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa …), but gram-positive coccus such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria can also be found. Empirical antibiotic therapy should be guided by previous colonisation of the recipient and bacterial resistance pattern in the hospital...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579427/factors-predicting-treatment-success-in-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-treated-under-programmatic-conditions
#11
A K Janmeja, Deepak Aggarwal, Ruchika Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis under programmatic conditions has been far from satisfactory. Knowledge of the factors predicting treatment outcome can guide us to take appropriate corrective measures for better results. However, there is a scarcity of data on these predictors in Indian patients. The present study was sought to evaluate association of different patient and disease specific factors with treatment outcome in MDR-TB patients. METHODS: It was a retrospective study that involved evaluation of data of MDR-TB patients who were started on Cat-IV treatment between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571116/the-critically-ill-patient-with-tuberculosis-in-intensive-care-clinical-presentations-management-and-infection-control
#12
REVIEW
Akaninyene Otu, Madiha Hashmi, Ahmed M Mukhtar, Arthur Kwizera, Simon Tiberi, Bruce Macrae, Alimudin Zumla, Martin W Dünser, Mervyn Mer
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death worldwide. In 2016, there were 490,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB globally. Over 2 billion people have asymptomatic latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. TB represents an important, but neglected management issue in patients presenting to intensive care units. Tuberculosis in intensive care settings may present as the primary diagnosis (active drug sensitive or resistant TB disease). In other patients TB may be an incidental co-morbid finding as previously undiagnosed sub-clinical or latent TB which may re-activate under conditions of stress and immunosuppression...
June 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563561/comorbidities-and-treatment-outcomes-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Joel Philip Samuels, Aashna Sood, Jonathon R Campbell, Faiz Ahmad Khan, James Cameron Johnston
Little is known about the impact of comorbidities on multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes. We aimed to examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), alcohol misuse, and smoking on MDR/XDRTB treatment outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Registrar and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews as per PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies were identified and treatment outcome data were extracted...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523313/modulation-of-iron-status-biomarkers-in-tuberculosis-diabetes-co-morbidity
#14
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Chandrakumar Dolla, Paul Kumaran, Subash Babu
Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) remain vital disease burdens in developing countries and the dual burden of DM and TB clearly signifies a growing global public health concern. While modulation of iron status biomarkers in TB is well described, very little is known about the association of these markers with TB-DM. To examine the association of circulating iron status biomarkers in TB disease, we examined the systemic levels of ferritin, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin, apotransferrin and hemopexin in pulmonary TB (PTB) individuals with DM (PTB-DM), without DM (PTB) and those with diabetes only (DM)...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420060/platelets-regulate-pulmonary-inflammation-and-tissue-destruction-in-tuberculosis
#15
Katharine A Fox, Daniela E Kirwan, Ashley M Whittington, Nitya Krishnan, Brian D Robertson, Robert H Gilman, José W López, Shivani Singh, Joanna C Porter, Jon S Friedland
RATIONALE: Platelets may interact with the immune system in tuberculosis (TB) to regulate human inflammatory responses that lead to morbidity and spread of infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify a functional role of platelets in the innate inflammatory and matrix degrading response in TB. METHODS: Markers of platelet activation were examined in plasma from 50 TB patients pre-treatment, and 50 controls. 25 patients were followed longitudinally...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414451/the-influence-of-psychiatric-disorders-on-the-course-of-lung-cancer-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-tuberculosis
#16
Melina Gade Sikjær, Anders Løkke, Ole Hilberg
BACKGROUND: This Danish study evaluated the association between psychiatric comorbidity and the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and tuberculosis (TB) of an entire nation. METHODS: Data from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2009), material status, gender, educational level, comorbidities, age at diagnosis and death, medication, and causes of death were extracted from national databases. We identified 71,874 patients with COPD and found 32,282 with a pre-index psychiatric comorbidity, 20,787 patients with lung cancer and found 8406 with a pre-index psychiatric comorbidity, and 3495 patients with TB and found 797 with a pre-index psychiatric morbidity...
February 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#17
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326327/national-roll-out-of-latent-tuberculosis-testing-and-treatment-for-new-migrants-in-england-a-retrospective-evaluation-in-a-high-incidence-area
#18
Miranda G Loutet, Matthew Burman, Nivenka Jayasekera, Duncan Trathen, Susan Dart, Heinke Kunst, Dominik Zenner
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is an important intervention for tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low-incidence countries and is, therefore, a key component of England's TB control strategy. This study describes outcomes from a LTBI screening programme in a high-incidence area to inform national LTBI screening in England and other low-incidence countries.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of LTBI screening among eligible migrants (from high-incidence countries and entered the UK within the last 5 years), who were identified at primary-care clinics in Newham, London between August 2014 and August 2015...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291251/gaps-in-the-child-tuberculosis-care-cascade-in-32-rural-communities-in-uganda-and-kenya
#19
Florence Mwangwa, Gabriel Chamie, Dalsone Kwarisiima, James Ayieko, Asiphas Owaraganise, Theodore D Ruel, Albert Plenty, Khai Hoan Tram, Tamara D Clark, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Maya Petersen, Moses R Kamya, Edwin D Charlebois, Diane V Havlir, Carina Marquez
Background: Reducing tuberculosis (TB) deaths among children requires a better understanding of the gaps in the care cascade from TB diagnosis to treatment completion. We sought to assess the child TB care cascade in 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya using programmatic data. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 160,851 children (ages <15 years) living in 12 rural communities in Kenya and 22 in Uganda. We reviewed national TB registries from health centers in and adjacent to the 32 communities, and we included all child TB cases recorded from January 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275968/tuberculosis-social-determinants-and-co-morbidities-including-hiv
#20
R Duarte, K Lönnroth, C Carvalho, F Lima, A C C Carvalho, M Muñoz-Torrico, R Centis
The risk of exposure, progression to active tuberculosis (TB) and then to cure is a process affected by several risk factors. Along with well known risk factors such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), use of immunosuppressive drugs and being of young age, emerging risk factors such socio-economic and behavioral aspects play a significant role in increasing the susceptibility to infection, and unsuccessful treatment outcomes. This paper summarizes the effects of these socio-economic determinants and co-morbidities (including HIV) on TB infection and disease...
March 2018: Pulmonology
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