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Mitochondrial plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898602/parallel-patterns-of-host-specific-morphology-and-genetic-admixture-in-sister-lineages-of-a-commensal-barnacle
#1
Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Benny K K Chan, John D Zardus, John P Wares
Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic sister lineage of C...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#2
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893328/plasticity-in-host-utilization-by-two-host-associated-populations-of-aphis-gossypii-glover
#3
A K Barman, K R Gadhave, B Dutta, R Srinivasan
Biological and morphological plasticity in polyphagous insect herbivores allow them to exploit diverse host plant species. Geographical differences in resource availability can lead to preferential host exploitation and result in inconsistent host specialization. Biological and molecular data provide insights into specialization and plasticity of such herbivore populations. In agricultural landscapes, Aphis gossypii encounters several crop and non-crop hosts, which exist in temporal and spatial proximity. We investigated the host-specialization of two A...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883650/a-novel-and-stress-adaptive-alternative-oxidase-derived-from-alternative-splicing-of-duplicated-exon-in-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#4
Ming Liu, Ximing Guo
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane oxidase that accepts electrons directly from ubiquinol and reduces oxygen to water without involving cytochrome-linked electron transport chain. It is highly conserved in many non-vertebrate taxa and may protect cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress. We identified two AOX mRNAs in eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, CvAOXA and CvAOXB, which differ by 170 bp but encode AOXs of the same size. Sequence analyses indicate that CvAOX has 10 exons with a tandem duplication of exon 10, and 3' alternative splicing using either the first or second exon 10 produces the two variants CvAOXB or CvAOXA, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863998/changes-in-mitochondrial-respiration-in-the-human-placenta-over-gestation
#5
Olivia J Holland, Anthony J R Hickey, Anna Alvsaker, Stephanie Moran, Christopher Hedges, Lawrence W Chamley, Anthony V Perkins
INTRODUCTION: Placental mitochondria are subjected to micro-environmental changes throughout gestation, in particular large variations in oxygen. How placental mitochondrial respiration adapts to changing oxygen concentrations remains unexplored. Additionally, placental tissue is often studied in culture; however, the effect of culture on placental mitochondria is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Placental tissue was obtained from first trimester and term (laboured and non-laboured) pregnancies, and selectively permeabilized to access mitochondria...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844085/targeting-sentinel-proteins-and-extrasynaptic-glutamate-receptors-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-preventing-the-effects-elicited-by-perinatal-asphyxia
#6
Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Ronald Perez-Lobos, Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo, Andrea Tapia-Bustos, Emmanuel Casanova-Ortiz, Paola Morales, Jose-Luis Valdes, Diego Bustamante, Bruce K Cassels
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a relevant cause of death at the time of labour, and when survival is stabilised, associated with short- and long-term developmental disabilities, requiring inordinate care by health systems and families. Its prevalence is high (1 to 10/1000 live births) worldwide. At present, there are few therapeutic options, apart from hypothermia, that regrettably provides only limited protection if applied shortly after the insult.PA implies a primary and a secondary insult. The primary insult relates to the lack of oxygen, and the secondary one to the oxidative stress triggered by re-oxygenation, formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species, and overactivation of glutamate receptors and mitochondrial deficiencies...
August 26, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839207/relationships-between-serum-induced-ahr-bioactivity-or-mitochondrial-inhibition-and-circulating-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs
#7
Wook Ha Park, Sora Kang, Hong Kyu Lee, Samira Salihovic, Bert van Bavel, P Monica Lind, Youngmi Kim Pak, Lars Lind
Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to elevated serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, it is not clear which specific POPs contribute to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent bioactivity or inhibit mitochondrial function in human subjects. Here, we measured the cumulative bioactivity of AhR ligand mixture (AhR bioactivity) and the effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentration) in recombinant Hepa1c1c7 cells incubated with raw serum samples obtained from 911 elderly subjects in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819136/the-possible-molecular-mechanisms-of-bisphenol-a-action-on-porcine-early-embryonic-development
#8
Jing Guo, Ming-Hui Zhao, Kyung-Tae Shin, Ying-Jie Niu, Yong-Dae Ahn, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental contaminant widely used in the plastic industry. BPA has been demonstrated to be an endocrine disruptor and has an adverse effect on the embryonic development of mammals. However, the mechanism of action of BPA is limited. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of BPA in porcine embryonic development. First, the parthenotes were treated with different concentrations of BPA. We found that blastocyst formation was impaired and the parthenotes were arrested at the 4-cell stage after treatment with 100 μm BPA...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807765/sglt2-inhibitor-and-dpp-4-inhibitor-improve-brain-function-via-attenuating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-insulin-resistance-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-hfd-induced-obese-rats
#9
Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Pongpan Tanajak, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks...
October 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804462/heat-acclimation-mediated-cross-tolerance-origins-in-within-life-epigenetics
#10
REVIEW
Michal Horowitz
The primary outcome of heat acclimation is increased thermotolerance, which stems from enhancement of innate cytoprotective pathways. These pathways produce "ON CALL" molecules that can combat stressors to which the body has never been exposed, via cross-tolerance mechanisms (heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance-HACT). The foundation of HACT lies in the sharing of generic stress signaling, combined with tissue/organ- specific protective responses. HACT becomes apparent when acclimatory homeostasis is achieved, lasts for several weeks, and has a memory...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801915/manganese-and-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-indicate-differences-in-morphological-electrophysiological-and-genome-wide-alterations-implications-for-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Rajeswara Babu Mythri, Narayana Reddy Raghunath, Santosh Chandrakant Narwade, Mirazkar DasharathaRao Pandareesh, Kollarkandi Rajesh Sabitha, Mohamad Aiyaz, Bipin Chand, Manas Sule, Krittika Ghosh, Senthil Kumar, Bhagyalakshmi Shankarappa, Soundarya Soundararajan, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Meera Purushottam, Narayanappa Gayathri, Deepti Dileep Deobagkar, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi, Srinivas Bharath Muchukunte Mukunda
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and manganese-induced atypical Parkinsonism are characterized by movement disorder and nigrostriatal pathology. Although clinical features, brain region involved and responsiveness to levodopa distinguish both, differences at the neuronal level are largely unknown. We studied the morphological, neurophysiological and molecular differences in dopaminergic neurons exposed to the PD toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+) ) and manganese (Mn) followed by validation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and Mn mouse models...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799490/neurotransplantation-therapy-and-cerebellar-reserve
#12
Jan Cendelin, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Neurotransplantation has been recently the focus of interest as a promising therapy to substitute lost cerebellar neurons and improve cerebellar ataxias. However, since cell differentiation and synaptic formation are required to obtain a functional circuitry, highly integrated reproduction of cerebellar anatomy is not a simple process. Rather than a genuine replacement, recent studies have shown that grafted cells rescue surviving cells from neurodegeneration by exerting trophic effects, supporting mitochondrial function, modulating neuroinflammation, stimulating endogenous regenerative processes, and facilitating cerebellar compensatory properties thanks to neural plasticity...
August 10, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764009/the-chitosan-affects-severely-the-carbon-metabolism-in-mango-mangifera-indica-l-cv-palmer-fruit-during-storage
#13
Gláucia Michelle Cosme Silva, Willian Batista Silva, David B Medeiros, Acácio Rodrigues Salvador, Maria Helena Menezes Cordeiro, Natália Martins da Silva, Diederson Bortolini Santana, Gisele Polete Mizobutsi
Mango is a highly perishable fruit with a short post-harvest time due to the intense metabolic activity after harvesting. In attempt to evaluate the effects of chitosan in mango fruits, it was treated with 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% of chitosan solutions, placed into plastic trays, and stored at room temperature. Changes in physical and chemical parameters were evaluated. Chitosan delayed the climacteric peak, water loss and firmness. Further, few changes in soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH of the pulp as well as in sugar content and decreased starch degradation were observed...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753583/tnf%C3%AE-affects-creb-mediated-neuroprotective-signaling-pathways-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-neurons-as-revealed-by-proteomics-and-phospho-proteomics
#14
Pia Jensen, Christa L Myhre, Pernille S Lassen, Athanasios Metaxas, Asif M Khan, Kate L Lambertsen, Alicia A Babcock, Bente Finsen, Martin R Larsen, Stefan J Kempf
Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and TNFα as the main inducer of neuroinflammation has neurodegenerative but also pro-regenerative properties, however, the dose-dependent molecular changes on signaling pathway level are not fully understood. We performed quantitative proteomics and phospho-proteomics to target this point.In HT22 cells, we found that TNFα reduced mitochondrial signaling and inhibited mTOR protein translation signaling but also led to induction of neuroprotective MAPK-CREB signaling...
July 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748213/metabolic-reprogramming-underlies-metastatic-potential-in-an-obesity-responsive-murine-model-of-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Ciara H O'Flanagan, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Xuewen Chen, Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Joel S Parker, Jerry Usary, Charles M Perou, Stephen D Hursting
The vast majority of cancer-related deaths are due to metastatic disease, whereby primary tumor cells disseminate and colonize distal sites within the body. Triple negative breast cancer typically displays aberrant Wnt signaling, lacks effective targeted therapies, and compared with other breast cancer subtypes, is more likely to recur and metastasize. We developed a Wnt-driven lung metastasis model of triple negative breast cancer (metM-Wnt(lung)) through serial passaging of our previously described, nonmetastatic, claudin-low M-Wnt cell line...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741504/eradicating-quiescent-tumor-cells-by-targeting-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#16
REVIEW
Xiaonan Zhang, Angelo De Milito, Asuman Demiroglu-Zergeroglu, Joachim Gullbo, Padraig D'Arcy, Stig Linder
The presence of quiescent cell populations in solid tumors represents a major challenge for disease eradication. Such cells are generally present in poorly vascularized tumor areas, show limited sensitivity to traditional chemotherapeutical drugs, and tend to resume proliferation, resulting in tumor reseeding and growth. There is growing recognition of the importance of developing therapies that target these quiescent cell populations to achieve long-lasting remission. Recent studies have shown that the combination of hypoxia and reduced nutrient availability in poorly vascularized areas results in limited tumor metabolic plasticity coupled with an increased sensitivity to perturbations in mitochondrial flux...
November 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729652/a-genomic-glance-through-the-fog-of-plasticity-and-diversification-in-pocillopora
#17
Erika C Johnston, Zac H Forsman, Jean-François Flot, Sebastian Schmidt-Roach, Jorge H Pinzón, Ingrid S S Knapp, Robert J Toonen
Scleractinian corals of the genus Pocillopora (Lamarck, 1816) are notoriously difficult to identify morphologically with considerable debate on the degree to which phenotypic plasticity, introgressive hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting obscure well-defined taxonomic lineages. Here, we used RAD-seq to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Pocillopora represented by 15 coral holobiont metagenomic libraries. We found strong concordance between the coral holobiont datasets, reads that mapped to the Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) transcriptome, nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, 430 unlinked high-quality SNPs shared across all Pocillopora taxa, and a conspecificity matrix of the holobiont dataset...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#18
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721631/1-trichloromethyl-1-2-3-4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-taclo-alters-cell-cycle-progression-in-human-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#19
Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Doris Feineis, Gerhard Bringmann, Bernd L Fiebich, Ravi Shankar Akundi
1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, abbreviated as TaClo, is an endogenous neurotoxin capable of formation in the brain through the condensation of neuronal tryptamine with ingested exogenous toxins such as trichloroethylene or chloral hydrate. Due to its structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and similar ability to inhibit mitochondrial complex I, TaClo has been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown the cytotoxicity of TaClo in various cell culture models...
July 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720712/regulation-of-the-autophagy-system-during-chronic-contractile-activity-induced-muscle-adaptations
#20
Yuho Kim, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is adaptable to exercise stimuli via the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and recent studies have suggested that autophagy also plays a role in exercise-induced muscle adaptations. However, it is still obscure how muscle regulates autophagy over the time course of training adaptations. This study examined the expression of autophagic proteins in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to chronic contractile activity (CCA; 6 h/day, 9V, 10 Hz continuous, 0.1 msec pulse duration) for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 8/group)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
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