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Mitochondrial plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331712/genetic-biomarkers-for-differential-diagnosis-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-and-critical-review
#1
REVIEW
Itiana Castro Menezes, Cristiane von Werne Baes, Riccardo Lacchini, Mario Francisco Juruena
Depressive symptoms are present in the depressive mood state of bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depression disorder (MDD). Often, in clinical practice, BPD patients are misdiagnosed with MDD. Therefore, genetic biomarkers could contribute to the improvement of differential diagnosis between BPD and MDD. This systematic and critical review aimed to find in literature reliable genetic biomarkers that may show differences between BPD and MDD. This systematic review followed the PRISMA-P method. The terms used to search PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were depress*, bipolar, diagnos*, genetic*, biomark*...
January 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#2
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295823/the-stress-induced-transcription-factor-nr4a1-adjusts-mitochondrial-function-and-synapse-number-in-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Freddy Jeanneteau, Christian Barrère, Mariska Vos, Carlie Jm De Vries, Claude Rouillard, Daniel Levesque, Yann Dromard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Vanja Duric, Tina C Franklin, Ronald S Duman, David A Lewis, Stephen D Ginsberg, Margarita Arango-Lievano
The energetic costs of behavioral chronic stress are unlikely to be sustainable without neuronal plasticity. Mitochondria have the capacity to handle synaptic activity up to a limit before energetic depletion occurs. Protective mechanisms driven by the induction of neuronal genes likely evolved to buffer the consequences of chronic stress on excitatory neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this circuitry is vulnerable to excitotoxic insults. Little is known about the genes involved in mitochondrial adaptation to the build up of chronic stress...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288138/phenotypic-plasticity-of-six-unusual-cercariae-in-nassariid-gastropods-and-their-relationships-to-the-acanthocolpidae-and-brachycladiidae-digenea
#4
Leonie J Barnett, Terrence L Miller
Species-level relationships of a complex of six putative acanthocolpid cercariae with ventral keels from nassariid gastropods from Capricornia, Queensland (Cercaria capricornia I-VI) were explored using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data. Analysis of the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the internal transcribed spacer 2 rDNA and subunit 3 of the nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide dehydrogenase mitochondrial gene indicates that the six distinct morphotypes previously identified relate to only three discrete genotypes...
December 26, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248464/decanoic-acid-suppresses-proliferation-and-invasiveness-of-human-trophoblast-cells-by-disrupting-mitochondrial-function
#5
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Decanoic acid (DA) is a medium-chain fatty acid used in the manufacture of various products including plastics, cosmetics, and lubricants. In addition to antiviral and antibacterial effects, DA's, reported biological activities include regulation of signaling pathways and redox homeostasis in various human cell types. The influence of DA on functional properties of human trophoblasts, including proliferation, invasion and apoptosis is currently unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of DA on the human trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo...
December 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242278/ampk-in-skeletal-muscle-function-and-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Rasmus Kjøbsted, Janne R Hingst, Joachim Fentz, Marc Foretz, Maria-Nieves Sanz, Christian Pehmøller, Michael Shum, André Marette, Remi Mounier, Jonas T Treebak, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Benoit Viollet, Louise Lantier
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233065/understanding-the-role-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Hojin Choi, Seong-Ho Koh
Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term use is associated with various complications, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Many studies have suggested that L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID are associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation. Areas covered: LID is caused by striatal dopamine (DA) denervation in PD and pulsatile L-DOPA treatment. These factors lead to dysregulated DA transmission, abnormal intracellular signaling and transcription factors in striatal neurons, and altered gene expression and plasticity at corticostriatal synapses...
December 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228215/mitochondria-are-critical-for-bdnf-mediated-synaptic-and-vascular-plasticity-of-hippocampus-following-repeated-electroconvulsive-seizures
#8
Fenghua Chen, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener, Torsten M Madsen, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a fast acting and efficient treatment of depression used in the clinic. The underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effect is still unclear. However, recovery of synaptic connections and synaptic remodeling is thought to play a critical role for the clinical efficacy obtained from a rapid antidepressant response. Here, we investigated the relationship between, synaptic changes and concomitant non-neuronal changes in microvasculature and mitochondria, and it relationship to Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level changes after repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208765/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-expression-and-activity-during-myogenesis
#9
Nicole Y Shen, Sean Y Ng, Stephen L Toepp, Vladimir Ljubicic
Despite the emerging importance of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) in regulating skeletal muscle plasticity, PRMT biology during muscle development is complex and not completely understood. Therefore, our purpose was to investigate PRMT1, -4, and -5 expression and function in skeletal muscle cells during the phenotypic remodeling elicited by myogenesis. C2C12 muscle cell maturation, assessed during the myoblast stage, and during days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of differentiation, was employed as an in vitro model of myogenesis...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205598/an-auditory-brainstem-nucleus-as-a-model-system-for-neuronal-metabolic-demands
#10
Sonja Brosel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The correlation between neuronal activity and metabolism is essential for coding, plasticity, neurological disorders and the interpretation of functional neuroimaging data. Most likely, metabolic requirements depend upon neuron type and macroscopic energy demands vary with brain region. However, specific needs of individual neuron types are enigmatic. Therefore, we monitored metabolic activity in the lateral superior olive (LSO), an auditory brainstem nucleus containing only one neuron type. LSO neurons exhibit extreme but well described biophysics with firing rates of several hundred hertz and low input resistances of a few megaohms...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197232/uptake-tissue-distribution-and-toxicity-of-polystyrene-nanoparticles-in-developing-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Jordan A Pitt, Jordan S Kozal, Nishad Jayasundara, Andrey Massarsky, Rafael Trevisan, Nick Geitner, Mark Wiesner, Edward D Levin, Richard T Di Giulio
Plastic pollution is a critical environmental concern and comprises the majority of anthropogenic debris in the ocean, including macro, micro, and likely nanoscale (less than 100nm in at least one dimension) plastic particles. While the toxicity of macroplastics and microplastics is relatively well studied, the toxicity of nanoplastics is largely uncharacterized. Here, fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) were used to investigate the potential toxicity of nanoplastics in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio), as well as to characterize the uptake and distribution of the particles within embryos and larvae...
November 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184058/doxycycline-induces-apoptosis-via-er-stress-selectively-to-cells-with-a-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-importance-of-stem-cell-plasticity
#12
Takashi Matsumoto, Takeshi Uchiumi, Keisuke Monji, Mikako Yagi, Daiki Setoyama, Rie Amamoto, Yuichi Matsushima, Masaki Shiota, Masatoshi Eto, Dongchon Kang
Tumor heterogeneity can be traced back to a small subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can be derived from a single stem cell and show chemoresistance. Recent studies showed that CSCs are sensitive to mitochondrial targeting antibiotics such as doxycycline. However, little is known about how cancer cells undergo sphere formation and how antibiotics inhibit CSC proliferation. Here we show that under sphere-forming assay conditions, prostate cancer cells acquired CSC-like properties: promoted mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, expression of characteristic CSC markers and resistance to anticancer agents...
November 29, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178461/the-guardian-of-the-genome-p53-regulates-exercise-induced-mitochondrial-plasticity-beyond-organelle-biogenesis
#13
REVIEW
William J Smiles, Donny M Camera
The Guardian of the Genome p53 has been established as a potent tumor suppressor. However, culminating from seminal findings in rodents more than a decade ago, several studies have demonstrated that p53 is required to maintain basal mitochondrial function [i.e., respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis]. Specifically, via its role(s) as a tumor suppressor, p53 intimately surveys cellular DNA damage, in particular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), to ensure that the mitochondrial network is carefully monitored and cell viability is upheld, since aberrant mtDNA damage leads to apoptosis and widespread cellular perturbations...
November 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176558/intraspecific-variation-and-plasticity-in-mitochondrial-oxygen-binding-affinity-as-a-response-to-environmental-temperature
#14
Dillon J Chung, P R Morrison, H J Bryant, E Jung, C J Brauner, P M Schulte
Mitochondrial function has been suggested to underlie constraints on whole-organism aerobic performance and associated hypoxia and thermal tolerance limits, but most studies have focused on measures of maximum mitochondrial capacity. Here we investigated whether variation in mitochondrial oxygen kinetics could contribute to local adaptation and plasticity in response to temperature using two subspecies of the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) acclimated to a range of temperatures (5, 15, and 33 °C)...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167273/restorer-of-fertility%C3%A2-mutations-recovered-in-transposon-active-lines-of-s-male-sterile-maize
#15
Susan Gabay-Laughnan, A Mark Settles, L Curtis Hannah, Timothy G Porch, Philip W Becraft, Donald R McCarty, Karen E Koch, Liming Zhao, Terry L Kamps, Karen C Chamusco, Christine D Chase
Mitochondria execute key pathways of central metabolism and serve as cellular sensing and signaling entities - functions that depend upon interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems. This is exemplified in cytoplasmic male sterility type S (CMS-S) of Zea mays, where novel mitochondrial open reading frames are associated with a pollen collapse phenotype, but nuclear restorer-of-fertility (restorer) mutations rescue pollen function. To better understand these genetic interactions, we screened Activator-Dissociation (Ac-Ds), Enhancer/Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm) and Mutator (Mu) transposon-active CMS-S stocks to recover new restorer mutants...
November 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166700/dlp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fragmentation-and-redistribution-mediate-prion-associated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-neuronal-death
#16
Chaosi Li, Di Wang, Wei Wu, Wei Yang, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Ying Zhao, Yuhan Duan, Lu Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao, Lifeng Yang
Mitochondrial malfunction is a universal and critical step in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases including prion diseases. Dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) is one of the key regulators of mitochondrial fission. In this study, we investigated the role of DLP1 in mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction in neurons using in vitro and in vivo prion disease models. Mitochondria became fragmented and redistributed from axons to soma, correlated with increased mitochondrial DLP1 expression in murine primary neurons (N2a cells) treated with the prion peptide PrP(106-126) in vitro as well as in prion strain-infected hamster brain in vivo...
November 22, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158224/a-novel-fluorescent-reporter-detects-plastic-remodeling-of-mitochondria-er-contact-sites
#17
Zhaoying Yang, Xiaocui Zhao, Jiashen Xu, Weina Shang, Chao Tong
Mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs) enable communication between ER and mitochondria and serve as platforms for many cellular events, including autophagy. Nonetheless, the molecular organization of MERCs is not known, and there is no bona fide marker of these contact sites in mammalian cells. In this study, we designed a genetically encoded reporter using split super-folder GFP protein for labeling MERCs. We subsequently analyzed its distribution and dynamics during the cell cycle and under normal or stressful cellular conditions such as starvation, apoptosis, and ER stress...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152106/disrupting-glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase-fully-suppresses-the-warburg-effect-and-activates-oxphos-with-minimal-impact-on-tumor-growth-except-in-hypoxia
#18
Monique Cunha de Padua, Giulia Delodi, Milica Vučetić, Jérôme Durivault, Valérie Vial, Pascale Bayer, Guilhermina Rodrigues Noleto, Nathalie M Mazure, Maša Ždralević, Jacques Pouysségur
As Otto Warburg first observed, cancer cells largely favor fermentative glycolysis for growth even under aerobic conditions. This energy paradox also extends to rapidly growing normal cells indicating that glycolysis is optimal for fast growth and biomass production. Here we further explored this concept by genetic ablation of fermentative glycolysis in two fast growing cancer cell lines: human colon adenocarcinoma LS174T and B16 mouse melanoma. We disrupted the upstream glycolytic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), to allow cells to re-route glucose-6-phosphate flux into the pentose-phosphate branch...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141004/lack-of-mitochondrial-muts-homolog-1-in-toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-maintenance-and-fidelity-of-mitochondrial-dna-and-reveals-metabolic-plasticity
#19
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107506/dietary-restriction-and-ampk-increase-lifespan-via-mitochondrial-network-and-peroxisome-remodeling
#20
Heather J Weir, Pallas Yao, Frank K Huynh, Caroline C Escoubas, Renata L Goncalves, Kristopher Burkewitz, Raymond Laboy, Matthew D Hirschey, William B Mair
Mitochondrial network remodeling between fused and fragmented states facilitates mitophagy, interaction with other organelles, and metabolic flexibility. Aging is associated with a loss of mitochondrial network homeostasis, but cellular processes causally linking these changes to organismal senescence remain unclear. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and dietary restriction (DR) promote longevity in C. elegans via maintaining mitochondrial network homeostasis and functional coordination with peroxisomes to increase fatty acid oxidation (FAO)...
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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