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Mitochondrial plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729652/a-genomic-glance-through-the-fog-of-plasticity-and-diversification-in-pocillopora
#1
Erika C Johnston, Zac H Forsman, Jean-François Flot, Sebastian Schmidt-Roach, Jorge H Pinzón, Ingrid S S Knapp, Robert J Toonen
Scleractinian corals of the genus Pocillopora (Lamarck, 1816) are notoriously difficult to identify morphologically with considerable debate on the degree to which phenotypic plasticity, introgressive hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting obscure well-defined taxonomic lineages. Here, we used RAD-seq to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Pocillopora represented by 15 coral holobiont metagenomic libraries. We found strong concordance between the coral holobiont datasets, reads that mapped to the Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) transcriptome, nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, 430 unlinked high-quality SNPs shared across all Pocillopora taxa, and a conspecificity matrix of the holobiont dataset...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721631/1-trichloromethyl-1-2-3-4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-taclo-alters-cell-cycle-progression-in-human-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#3
Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Doris Feineis, Gerhard Bringmann, Bernd L Fiebich, Ravi Shankar Akundi
1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, abbreviated as TaClo, is an endogenous neurotoxin capable of formation in the brain through the condensation of neuronal tryptamine with ingested exogenous toxins such as trichloroethylene or chloral hydrate. Due to its structural resemblance to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and similar ability to inhibit mitochondrial complex I, TaClo has been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown the cytotoxicity of TaClo in various cell culture models...
July 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720712/regulation-of-the-autophagy-system-during-chronic-contractile-activity-induced-muscle-adaptations
#4
Yuho Kim, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is adaptable to exercise stimuli via the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and recent studies have suggested that autophagy also plays a role in exercise-induced muscle adaptations. However, it is still obscure how muscle regulates autophagy over the time course of training adaptations. This study examined the expression of autophagic proteins in skeletal muscle of rats exposed to chronic contractile activity (CCA; 6 h/day, 9V, 10 Hz continuous, 0.1 msec pulse duration) for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 8/group)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720668/efficient-mitochondrial-glutamine-targeting-prevails-over-glioblastoma-metabolic-plasticity
#5
Kristell Oizel, Cynthia Chauvin, Lisa Oliver, Catherine Gratas, Fanny Geraldo, Ulrich Jarry, Emmanuel Scotet, Marion Rabe, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Raluca Teusan, Fabien Gautier, Delphine Loussouarn, Vincent Compan, Jean-Claude Martinou, François M Vallette, Claire Pecqueur
Purpose Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant form of primary human brain tumor in adults, with an average survival at diagnosis of 18 months. Metabolism is a new attractive therapeutic target in cancer, however, little is known about metabolic heterogeneity and plasticity within GBM tumors. We therefore aimed to investigate metabolic phenotyping of primary cultures in the context of molecular tumor heterogeneity to provide a proof-of concept for personalized metabolic targeting of GBM. <p> Experimental Design We have analyzed extensively several primary GBM cultures using transcriptomics, metabolic phenotyping assays and mitochondrial respirometry...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698547/metabolic-reprogramming-is-associated-with-flavopiridol-resistance-in-prostate-cancer-du145-cells
#6
Xiaoran Li, Jie Lu, Quancheng Kan, Xiaoli Li, Qiong Fan, Yaqing Li, Ruixia Huang, Ana Slipicevic, Hiep Phuc Dong, Lars Eide, Junbai Wang, Hongquan Zhang, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Gunnar Kvalheim, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
Flavopiridol (FP) is a pan-cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, which shows strong efficacy in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Although FP is potent against most cancer cells in vitro, unfortunately it proved less efficacious in clinical trials in various aggressive cancers. To date, the molecular mechanisms of the FP resistance are mostly unknown. Here, we report that a small fraction human prostate cancer DU145 cells can survive long-term FP treatment and emerge as FP-resistant cells (DU145(FP)). These DU145(FP) cells show accumulated mitochondrial lesions with stronger glycolytic features, and they proliferate in slow-cycling and behave highly migratory with strong anti-apoptotic potential...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682633/cost-of-tolerance-physiological-consequences-of-evolved-resistance-to-inhabit-a-polluted-environment-in-teleost-fish-fundulus-heteroclitus
#7
Nishad Jayasundara, Pani W Fernando, Joshua S Osterberg, Kristina M Cammen, Thomas F Schultz, Richard T Di Giulio
Anthropogenic stressors, including pollutants, are key evolutionary drivers. It is hypothesized that rapid evolution to anthropogenic changes may alter fundamental physiological processes (e.g., energy metabolism), compromising an organism's capacity to respond to additional stressors. The Elizabeth River (ER) Superfund site represents a "natural-experiment" to explore this hypothesis in several subpopulations of Atlantic killifish that have evolved a gradation of resistance to a ubiquitous pollutant-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677688/mitochondria-on-the-move-emerging-paradigms-of-organelle-trafficking-in-tumour-plasticity-and-metastasis
#8
Dario C Altieri
There is now a resurgent interest in the role of mitochondria in cancer. Long considered controversial or outright unimportant, mitochondrial biology is now increasingly recognised as an important tumour driver. The underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. But recent studies have uncovered a complex landscape where reprogramming of mitochondrial homoeostasis, including organelle dynamics, metabolic output, apoptosis control and redox status converge to promote tumour adaptation to an unfavourable microenvironment and inject new traits of aggressive disease...
July 4, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674997/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-affects-the-brain-function-through-mitochondrial-impairment
#9
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Francisco J Carvajal, Rodrigo G Mira, Camila Arce, José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
In the young population, binge drinking is a pattern of problematic alcohol consumption, characterized by a short period of heavy drinking followed by abstinence which is frequently repeated over time. This drinking pattern is associated with mental problems, use of other drugs, and an increased risk of excessive alcohol intake during adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on brain function in adolescents and its neurobiological impact during the adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of alcohol on hippocampal memory, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial function in adolescent rats after a binge drinking episode in vivo...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671672/deregulation-of-micrornas-mediated-control-of-carnitine-cycle-in-prostate-cancer-molecular-basis-and-pathophysiological-consequences
#10
A Valentino, A Calarco, A Di Salle, M Finicelli, S Crispi, R A Calogero, F Riccardo, A Sciarra, A Gentilucci, U Galderisi, S Margarucci, G Peluso
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain both viability and uncontrolled proliferation. Although an interplay between the genetic, epigenetic and metabolic rewiring in cancer is beginning to emerge, it remains unclear how this metabolic plasticity occurs. Here, we report that in prostate cancer cells (PCCs) microRNAs (miRNAs) greatly contribute to deregulation of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) oxidation via carnitine system modulation. We provide evidence that the downregulation of hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-129-5p and hsa-miR-378 induced an increase in both expression and activity of CPT1A, CACT and CrAT in malignant prostate cells...
July 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652625/dendritic-mitoflash-as-a-putative-signal-for-stabilizing-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#11
Zhong-Xiao Fu, Xiao Tan, Huaqiang Fang, Pak-Ming Lau, Xianhua Wang, Heping Cheng, Guo-Qiang Bi
Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are recently discovered excitable mitochondrial events in many cell types. Here we investigate their occurrence in the context of structural long-term potentiation (sLTP) at hippocampal synapses. At dendritic spines stimulated by electric pulses, glycine, or targeted glutamate uncaging, induction of sLTP is associated with a phasic occurrence of local, quantized mitochondrial activity in the form of one or a few mitoflashes, over a 30-min window. Low-dose nigericin or photoactivation that elicits mitoflashes stabilizes otherwise short-term spine enlargement into sLTP...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651535/molecular-phylogeny-reveals-food-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-true-ladybird-beetles-coleoptera-coccinellidae-coccinellini
#12
Hermes E Escalona, Andreas Zwick, Hao-Sen Li, Jiahui Li, Xingmin Wang, Hong Pang, Diana Hartley, Lars S Jermiin, Oldřich Nedvěd, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Adam Ślipiński, Wioletta Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas))...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648608/structures-of-pgam5-provide-insight-into-active-site-plasticity-and-multimeric-assembly
#13
Apirat Chaikuad, Panagis Filippakopoulos, Sean R Marcsisin, Sarah Picaud, Martin Schröder, Shiori Sekine, Hidenori Ichijo, John R Engen, Kohsuke Takeda, Stefan Knapp
PGAM5 is a mitochondrial membrane protein that functions as an atypical Ser/Thr phosphatase and is a regulator of oxidative stress response, necroptosis, and autophagy. Here we present several crystal structures of PGAM5 including the activating N-terminal regulatory sequences, providing a model for structural plasticity, dimerization of the catalytic domain, and the assembly into an enzymatically active dodecameric form. Oligomeric states observed in structures were supported by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, size-exclusion chromatography, and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments in solution...
July 5, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#14
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625718/synaptic-functions-of-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Alfonso Araque, Pablo E Castillo, Olivier J Manzoni, Raffaella Tonini
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a family of lipid molecules that act as key regulators of synaptic transmission and plasticity. They are synthetized "on demand" following physiological and/or pathological stimuli. Once released from postsynaptic neurons, eCBs typically act as retrograde messengers to activate presynaptic type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and induce short- or long-term depression of neurotransmitter release. Besides this canonical mechanism of action, recent findings have revealed a number of less conventional mechanisms by which eCBs regulate neural activity and synaptic function, suggesting that eCB-mediated plasticity is mechanistically more diverse than anticipated...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621306/targeted-two-photon-chemical-apoptotic-ablation-of-defined-cell-types-in-vivo
#16
Robert A Hill, Eyiyemisi C Damisah, Fuyi Chen, Alex C Kwan, Jaime Grutzendler
A major bottleneck limiting understanding of mechanisms and consequences of cell death in complex organisms is the inability to induce and visualize this process with spatial and temporal precision in living animals. Here we report a technique termed two-photon chemical apoptotic targeted ablation (2Phatal) that uses focal illumination with a femtosecond-pulsed laser to bleach a nucleic acid-binding dye causing dose-dependent apoptosis of individual cells without collateral damage. Using 2Phatal, we achieve precise ablation of distinct populations of neurons, glia and pericytes in the mouse brain and in zebrafish...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620275/genome-wide-target-analyses-of-otx2-homeoprotein-in-postnatal-cortex
#17
Akiko Sakai, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yiwei Ling, Xubin Hou, Norikazu Hara, Tomoya Iijima, Yuchio Yanagawa, Ryozo Kuwano, Shujiro Okuda, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Sayaka Sugiyama
Juvenile brain has a unique time window, or critical period, in which neuronal circuits are remodeled by experience. Mounting evidence indicates the importance of neuronal circuit rewiring in various neurodevelopmental disorders of human cognition. We previously showed that Otx2 homeoprotein, essential for brain formation, is recaptured during postnatal maturation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV cells) to activate the critical period in mouse visual cortex. Cortical Otx2 is the only interneuron-enriched transcription factor known to regulate the critical period, but its downstream targets remain unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619096/presenilins-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-and-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-in-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway
#18
Sang Hun Lee, David Lutz, Mohanad Mossalam, Vadim Y Bolshakov, Michael Frotscher, Jie Shen
BACKGROUND: Presenilins play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in which the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable. Previous studies of Presenilin function in the synapse, however, focused exclusively on the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway. Whether Presenilins play similar or distinct roles in other hippocampal synapses is unknown. METHODS: To investigate the role of Presenilins at mossy fiber (MF) synapses we performed field and whole-cell electrophysiological recordings and Ca(2+) imaging using acute hippocampal slices of postnatal forebrain-restricted Presenilin conditional double knockout (PS cDKO) and control mice at 2 months of age...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606446/plasticity-of-mitochondrial-translation
#19
REVIEW
Sven Dennerlein, Cong Wang, Peter Rehling
Mitochondria maintained a genome during evolution to synthesize core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Expression of the mitochondrial genome requires intraorganellar replication, transcription, and translation. Membrane-associated ribosomes translate mitochondrial-encoded proteins and facilitate co-translational insertion of newly synthesized polypeptides into the inner membrane. Considering that mitochondrial-encoded proteins assemble with imported, nuclear-encoded proteins into enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system, it is expected that expression of mitochondrial genes should adapt to the availability of their nuclear-encoded partners...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605033/the-befuddling-nature-of-mouse-lemur-hands-and-feet-at-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-sw-madagascar
#20
Gina Agostini, Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R Godfrey
The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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