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Mitochondrial plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#1
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749694/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-brain-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#2
Dang Li, Yilang Ke, Rui Zhan, Changjie Liu, Mingming Zhao, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Liang Ji, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Gut microbiota can influence the aging process and may modulate aging-related changes in cognitive function. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of intestinal flora, has been shown to be closely associated with cardiovascular disease and other diseases. However, the relationship between TMAO and aging, especially brain aging, has not been fully elucidated. To explore the relationship between TMAO and brain aging, we analysed the plasma levels of TMAO in both humans and mice and administered exogenous TMAO to 24-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice for 16 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720572/endospanin-2-enhances-skeletal-muscle-energy-metabolism-and-running-endurance-capacity
#3
Steve Lancel, Matthijs Kc Hesselink, Estelle Woldt, Yves Rouillé, Emilie Dorchies, Stephane Delhaye, Christian Duhem, Quentin Thorel, Alicia Mayeuf-Louchart, Benoit Pourcet, Valérie Montel, Gert Schaart, Nicolas Beton, Florence Picquet, Olivier Briand, Jean Pierre Salles, Hélène Duez, Patrick Schrauwen, Bruno Bastide, Bernard Bailleul, Bart Staels, Yasmine Sebti
Metabolic stresses such as dietary energy restriction or physical activity exert beneficial metabolic effects. In the liver, endospanin-1 and endospanin-2 cooperatively modulate calorie restriction-mediated (CR-mediated) liver adaptations by controlling growth hormone sensitivity. Since we found CR to induce endospanin protein expression in skeletal muscle, we investigated their role in this tissue. In vivo and in vitro endospanin-2 triggers ERK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle through an autophagy-dependent pathway...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713335/trends-in-karyotype-evolution-in-astyanax-teleostei-characiformes-characidae-insights-from-molecular-data
#4
Rubens Pazza, Jorge A Dergam, Karine F Kavalco
The study of patterns and evolutionary processes in neotropical fish is not always an easy task due the wide distribution of major fish groups in large and extensive river basins. Thus, it is not always possible to detect or correlate possible effects of chromosome rearrangements in the evolution of biodiversity. In the Astyanax genus, chromosome data obtained since the 1970s have shown evidence of cryptic species, karyotypic plasticity, supernumerary chromosomes, triploidies, and minor chromosomal rearrangements...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706933/the-role-for-myc-in-coordinating-glycolysis-oxidative-phosphorylation-glutaminolysis-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-normal-and-neoplastic-tissues
#5
REVIEW
Eric S Goetzman, Edward V Prochownik
That cancer cells show patterns of metabolism different from normal cells has been known for over 50 years. Yet, it is only in the past decade or so that an appreciation of the benefits of these changes has begun to emerge. Altered cancer cell metabolism was initially attributed to defective mitochondria. However, we now realize that most cancers do not have mitochondrial mutations and that normal cells can transiently adopt cancer-like metabolism during periods of rapid proliferation. Indeed, an encompassing, albeit somewhat simplified, conceptual framework to explain both normal and cancer cell metabolism rests on several simple premises...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703842/targeting-the-proteasome-associated-deubiquitinating-enzyme-usp14-impairs-melanoma-cell-survival-and-overcomes-resistance-to-mapk-targeting-therapies
#6
Robin Didier, Aude Mallavialle, Rania Ben Jouira, Marie Angela Domdom, Mélanie Tichet, Patrick Auberger, Frédéric Luciano, Mickael Ohanna, Sophie Tartare-Deckert, Marcel Deckert
Advanced cutaneous melanoma is one of the most challenging cancers to treat because of its high plasticity, metastatic potential and resistance to treatment. New targeted therapies and immunotherapies have shown remarkable clinical efficacy. However, such treatments are limited to a subset of patients and relapses often occur, warranting validation of novel targeted therapies. Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin coordinates essential cellular functions, including ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function and protein homeostasis...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694499/deformation-of-mitochondrial-cristae-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-valproic-acid
#7
Rodrigo M DA Costa, Karina Karmirian, Stevens K Rehen
Neural development represents a dynamic process where mitochondrial integrity is decisive for neuronal activity. Structural changes in these organelles may be related to neurological disorders. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsive drug commonly used for epilepsy treatment and its use is associated to increased risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently we showed changes in shape and membrane potential in mitochondria from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) exposed to VPA (da Costa et al. 2015). Here, we applied transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography to evaluate mitochondrial damage caused by VPA in NPCs...
April 23, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691383/the-gastrodia-elata-genome-provides-insights-into-plant-adaptation-to-heterotrophy
#8
Yuan Yuan, Xiaohua Jin, Juan Liu, Xing Zhao, Junhui Zhou, Xin Wang, Deyi Wang, Changjiangsheng Lai, Wei Xu, Jingwen Huang, Liangping Zha, Dahui Liu, Xiao Ma, Li Wang, Menyan Zhou, Zhi Jiang, Hubiao Meng, Huasheng Peng, Yuting Liang, Ruiqiang Li, Chao Jiang, Yuyang Zhao, Tiegui Nan, Yan Jin, Zhilai Zhan, Jian Yang, Wenkai Jiang, Luqi Huang
We present the 1.06 Gb sequenced genome of Gastrodia elata, an obligate mycoheterotrophic plant, which contains 18,969 protein-coding genes. Many genes conserved in other plant species have been deleted from the G. elata genome, including most of those for photosynthesis. Additional evidence of the influence of genome plasticity in the adaptation of this mycoheterotrophic lifestyle is evident in the large number of gene families that are expanded in G. elata, including glycoside hydrolases and urease that likely facilitate the digestion of hyphae are expanded, as are genes associated with strigolactone signaling, and ATPases that may contribute to the atypical energy metabolism...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672321/metabolic-plasticity-enables-circadian-adaptation-to-acute-hypoxia-in-zebrafish-cells
#9
Adolf M Sandbichler, Bianca Jansen, Bettina A Peer, Monika Paulitsch, Bernd Pelster, Margit Egg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reduced oxygen availability, hypoxia, is frequently encountered by organisms, tissues and cells, in aquatic environments as well as in high altitude or under pathological conditions such as infarct, stroke or cancer. The hypoxic signaling pathway was found to be mutually intertwined with circadian timekeeping in vertebrates and, as reported recently, also in mammals. However, the impact of hypoxia on intracellular metabolic oscillations is still unknown. METHODS: For determination of metabolites we used Multilabel Reader based fluorescence and luminescence assays, circadian levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha and oxidized peroxiredoxins were semi quantified by Western blotting and ratiometric quantification of cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 was achieved with stable transfections of a redox sensitive green fluorescent protein sensor into zebrafish fibroblasts...
April 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671352/huntington-s-disease-novel-therapeutic-perspectives-hanging-in-the-balance
#10
Ana Saavedra, Gerardo García-Díaz Barriga, Esther Pérez-Navarro, Jordi Alberch
Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene, has long been characterized by the presence of motor symptoms due to the loss of striatal projection neurons. Cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms are also present and they occur in the absence of cell death in most mouse models, pointing to neuronal dysfunction and abnormal synaptic plasticity as causative mechanisms. Areas covered: Here, we focus on those common mechanisms altered by the presence of mutant huntingtin affecting corticostriatal and hippocampal function as therapeutic targets that could prove beneficial to ameliorate both cognitive and motor function in HD...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656010/age-related-defects-in-short-term-plasticity-are-reversed-by-acetyl-l-carnitine-at-the-mouse-calyx-of-held
#12
Mahendra Singh, Pedro Miura, Robert Renden
Hearing acuity and sound localization are affected by aging and may contribute to cognitive dementias. Although loss of sensorineural conduction is well documented to occur with age, little is known regarding short-term synaptic plasticity in central auditory nuclei. Age-related changes in synaptic transmission properties were evaluated at the mouse calyx of Held, a sign-inverting relay synapse in the circuit for sound localization, in juvenile adults (1 month old) and late middle-aged (18-21 months old) mice...
March 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626541/use-the-protonmotive-force-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-reactive-oxygen-species
#13
REVIEW
Brandon J Berry, Adam J Trewin, Andrea M Amitrano, Minsoo Kim, Andrew P Wojtovich
Mitochondrial respiration results in an electrochemical proton gradient, or protonmotive force (pmf), across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The pmf is a form of potential energy consisting of charge (∆ψm ) and chemical (∆pH) components, that together drive ATP production. In a process called uncoupling, proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix independent of ATP production dissipates the pmf and energy is lost as heat. Other events can directly dissipate the pmf independent of ATP production as well, such as chemical exposure or mechanisms involving regulated mitochondrial membrane electrolyte transport...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594645/the-role-of-suboptimal-mitochondrial-function-in-vulnerability-to-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Graeme Preston, Faisal Kirdar, Tamas Kozicz
Post-traumatic stress disorder remains the most significant psychiatric condition associated with exposure to a traumatic event, though rates of traumatic event exposure far outstrip incidence of PTSD. Mitochondrial dysfunction and suboptimal mitochondrial function have been increasingly implicated in several psychopathologies, and recent genetic studies have similarly suggested a pathogenic role of mitochondria in PTSD. Mitochondria play a central role in several physiologic processes underlying PTSD symptomatology, including abnormal fear learning, brain network activation, synaptic plasticity, steroidogenesis, and inflammation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567503/transcriptomic-characterization-of-mri-contrast-with-focus-on-the-t1-w-t2-w-ratio-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#15
Jacob Ritchie, Spiro P Pantazatos, Leon French
Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain are of immense clinical and research utility. At the atomic and subatomic levels, the sources of MR signals are well understood. However, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the macromolecular correlates of MR signal contrast. To address this gap, we used genome-wide measurements to correlate gene expression with MR signal intensity across the cerebral cortex in the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA). We focused on the ratio of T1-weighted and T2-weighted intensities (T1-w/T2-w ratio image) which is considered to be a useful proxy for myelin content...
March 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551635/nampt-mediated-nad-biosynthesis-is-indispensable-for-adipose-tissue-plasticity-and-development-of-obesity
#16
Karen Nørgaard Nielsen, Julia Peics, Tao Ma, Iuliia Karavaeva, Morten Dall, Sabina Chubanava, Astrid L Basse, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Jonas T Treebak, Zachary Gerhart-Hines
OBJECTIVE: The ability of adipose tissue to expand and contract in response to fluctuations in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Given the nutrient scarcity that mammals faced for millions of years, programs involved in this adipose plasticity were likely evolved to be highly efficient in promoting lipid storage. Ironically, this previously advantageous feature may now represent a metabolic liability given the caloric excess of modern society...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545770/centrality-of-early-synaptopathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Paola Imbriani, Tommaso Schirinzi, Maria Meringolo, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the numerous mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The identification of PD pathogenic mutations and the use of different animal models have contributed to better elucidate the processes underlying the disease. Here, we report a brief survey of some relevant cellular mechanisms, including autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial impairment, with the main aim to focus on their potential convergent roles in determining early alterations at the synaptic level, mainly consisting in a decrease in dopamine release at nigrostriatal terminals and loss of synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534029/elucidating-the-metabolic-plasticity-of-cancer-mitochondrial-reprogramming-and-hybrid-metabolic-states
#18
REVIEW
Dongya Jia, Jun Hyoung Park, Kwang Hwa Jung, Herbert Levine, Benny Abraham Kaipparettu
Aerobic glycolysis, also referred to as the Warburg effect, has been regarded as the dominant metabolic phenotype in cancer cells for a long time. More recently, it has been shown that mitochondria in most tumors are not defective in their ability to carry out oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Instead, in highly aggressive cancer cells, mitochondrial energy pathways are reprogrammed to meet the challenges of high energy demand, better utilization of available fuels and macromolecular synthesis for rapid cell division and migration...
March 13, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514282/a-critical-role-of-mitochondria-in-bdnf-associated-synaptic-plasticity-after-one-week-vortioxetine-treatment
#19
Fenghua Chen, Jibrin Danladi, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Heidi K Müller, Gregers Wegener, Connie Sanchez, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Preclinical studies have indicated that antidepressant effect of vortioxetine involves increased synaptic plasticity and promotion of spine maturation. Mitochondria dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological basis of major depressive disorder. Taking into consideration that vortioxetine increases spine number and dendritic branching in hippocampus CA1 faster than fluoxetine, we hypothesize that new spines induced by vortioxetine can rapidly form functional synapses by mitochondrial support, accompanied by increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-signaling...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512083/imaging-of-microglial-activation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-11-c-pbr28-pet
#20
Cornelius K Donat, Nazanin Mirzaei, Sac-Pham Tang, Paul Edison, Magdalena Sastre
Deficits in neuronal function and synaptic plasticity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are believed to be linked to microglial activation. A hallmark of reactive microglia is the upregulation of mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) expression. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging technique that measures the distribution of trace doses of radiolabeled compounds in the body over time. PET imaging using the 2nd generation TSPO tracer [11 C]PBR28 provides an opportunity for accurate visualization and quantification of changes in microglial density in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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