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Mitochondrial plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141004/lack-of-mitochondrial-muts-homolog-1-in-toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-maintenance-and-fidelity-of-mitochondrial-dna-and-reveals-metabolic-plasticity
#1
Tamila Garbuz, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
The importance of maintaining the fidelity of the mitochondrial genome is underscored by the presence of various repair pathways within this organelle. Presumably, the repair of mitochondrial DNA would be of particular importance in organisms that possess only a single mitochondrion, like the human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Understanding the machinery that maintains mitochondrial DNA in these parasites is of particular relevance, as mitochondrial function is a validated and effective target for anti-parasitic drugs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107506/dietary-restriction-and-ampk-increase-lifespan-via-mitochondrial-network-and-peroxisome-remodeling
#2
Heather J Weir, Pallas Yao, Frank K Huynh, Caroline C Escoubas, Renata L Goncalves, Kristopher Burkewitz, Raymond Laboy, Matthew D Hirschey, William B Mair
Mitochondrial network remodeling between fused and fragmented states facilitates mitophagy, interaction with other organelles, and metabolic flexibility. Aging is associated with a loss of mitochondrial network homeostasis, but cellular processes causally linking these changes to organismal senescence remain unclear. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and dietary restriction (DR) promote longevity in C. elegans via maintaining mitochondrial network homeostasis and functional coordination with peroxisomes to increase fatty acid oxidation (FAO)...
October 23, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106947/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-counteracts-hypoxic-damage-to-hippocampal-neural-network-function-in-vitro
#3
Tatiana V Shishkina, Tatiana A Mishchenko, Elena V Mitroshina, Olesya M Shirokova, Alexei S Pimashkin, Innokentiy A Kastalskiy, Irina V Mukhina, Victor B Kazantsev, Maria V Vedunova
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is regarded as a potent neuroprotector and a corrector of neural network activity in stress conditions. This work aimed to investigate the effect of GDNF on primary hippocampal cultures during acute normobaric hypoxia. Hypoxia induction was performed using day 14 in vitro cultures derived from mouse embryos (E18) with the preventive addition of GDNF (1 ng/ml) to the culture medium 10 minutes before oxygen deprivation. An analysis of spontaneous bioelectrical activity that included defining the internal neural network structure, morphological studies, and viability tests was performed during the post-hypoxic period...
October 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077793/pink1-signalling-rescues-amyloid-pathology-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Fang Du, Qing Yu, Shijun Yan, Gang Hu, Lih-Fen Lue, Douglas G Walker, Long Wu, Shi Fang Yan, Kim Tieu, Shirley ShiDu Yan
Mitochondrial dysfunction and synaptic damage are early pathological features of the Alzheimer's disease-affected brain. Memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease is a manifestation of brain pathologies such as accumulation of amyloid-β peptide and mitochondrial damage. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms and effective disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that decreased PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) expression is associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology...
October 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074957/keeping-it-complicated-mitochondrial-genome-plasticity-across-diplonemids
#5
Matus Valach, Sandrine Moreira, Steve Hoffmann, Peter F Stadler, Gertraud Burger
Chromosome rearrangements are important drivers in genome and gene evolution, with implications ranging from speciation to development to disease. In the flagellate Diplonema papillatum (Euglenozoa), mitochondrial genome rearrangements have resulted in nearly hundred chromosomes and a systematic dispersal of gene fragments across the multipartite genome. Maturation into functional RNAs involves separate transcription of gene pieces, joining of precursor RNAs via trans-splicing, and RNA editing by substitution and uridine additions both reconstituting crucial coding sequence...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052103/patterns-of-specificity-and-diversity-in-species-of-paraorygmatobothrium-ruhnke-1994-cestoda-phyllobothriidae-in-moreton-bay-queensland-australia-with-the-description-of-four-new-species
#6
Scott C Cutmore, Michael B Bennett, Terrence L Miller, Thomas H Cribb
A survey of tapeworms of galeomorph sharks from Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia) identified a complex of species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 infecting 11 carcharhiniform and two orectolobiform species. Combined morphological and multi-locus molecular analyses (based on the 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and partial mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes) revealed the presence of 12 species of Paraorygmatobothrium; four species (Paraorygmatobothrium christopheri n. sp., P. harti n. sp., P. sinclairtaylori n...
November 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034805/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-effect-of-matrix-molecules-on-the-behavior-of-colon-cancer-cells-under-the-effect-of-geldanamycin-derivative
#7
Kamil Vural, Funda Kosova, Feyzan Özdal Kurt, İbrahim Tuğlu
The chaperone-binding drug, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, has recently come into clinical use. It is a derivative of geldanamycin, an ansamycin benzoquinone antibiotic with anti-carcinogenic effect. Understanding the effect of this drug on the cancer cells and their niche is important for treatment. We applied 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to colon cancer cell line (Colo 205) on matrix molecules to investigate the relationship of apoptosis with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling immunocytochemistry and related gene expression...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031555/beneficial-effects-of-dietary-restriction-in-aging-brain
#8
REVIEW
Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Teikur Majaw, Babiangshisha Kharbuli, Ramesh Sharma
Aging is a multifactorial complex process that leads to the deterioration of biological functions wherein its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. It affects the organism at the molecular and cellular level that contributes to the deterioration of structural integrity of the organs. The central nervous system is the most vulnerable organ affected by aging and its effect is highly heterogeneous. Aging causes alteration in the structure, metabolism and physiology of the brain leading to impaired cognitive and motor-neural functions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027980/the-plasticizer-bisphenol-a-perturbs-the-hepatic-epigenome-a-systems-level-analysis-of-the-mirnome
#9
Ludivine Renaud, Willian A da Silveira, E Starr Hazard, Jonathan Simpson, Silvia Falcinelli, Dongjun Chung, Oliana Carnevali, Gary Hardiman
Ubiquitous exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor (ED), has raised concerns for both human and ecosystem health. Epigenetic factors, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are key regulators of gene expression during cancer. The effect of BPA exposure on the zebrafish epigenome remains poorly characterized. Zebrafish represents an excellent model to study cancer as the organism develops a disease that resembles human cancer. Using zebrafish as a systems toxicology model, we hypothesized that chronic BPA-exposure impacts the miRNome in adult zebrafish and establishes an epigenome more susceptible to cancer development...
October 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024780/toxicogenomics-of-the-flame-retardant-tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate-in-hepg2-cells-using-rna-seq
#10
Boris V Krivoshiev, Gerrit T S Beemster, Katrien Sprangers, Bart Cuypers, Kris Laukens, Ronny Blust, Steven J Husson
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is a compound produced at high volume that is used as both a flame retardant and a plasticizer. It is persistent and bioaccumulative, yet little is known of its toxicological modes of action. Such insight may aid risk assessment in a weight-of-evidence approach supplementing current testing strategies. We used an RNA sequencing approach as an unbiased and sensitive tool to explore potential negative health effects of sub-cytotoxic concentrations of TBOEP on the transcriptome of the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, with the lowest concentration used potentially holding relevance to human physiological levels...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017895/short-term-fructose-ingestion-affects-the-brain-independently-from-establishment-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, Zhe Ying, Hyae Ran Byun, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Chronic fructose ingestion is linked to the global epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and poses a serious threat to brain function. We asked whether a short period (one week) of fructose ingestion potentially insufficient to establish peripheral metabolic disorder could impact brain function. We report that the fructose treatment had no effect on liver/body weight ratio, weight gain, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, was sufficient to reduce several aspects of hippocampal plasticity. Fructose consumption reduced the levels of the neuronal nuclear protein NeuN, Myelin Basic Protein, and the axonal growth-associated protein 43, concomitant with a decline in hippocampal weight...
October 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017532/sequencing-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-a-fish-parasitic-flatworm-paratetraonchoides-inermis-platyhelminthes-monogenea-trna-gene-arrangement-reshuffling-and-implications-for-phylogeny
#12
Dong Zhang, Hong Zou, Shan G Wu, Ming Li, Ivan Jakovlić, Jin Zhang, Rong Chen, Gui T Wang, Wen X Li
BACKGROUND: Paratetraonchoides inermis (Monogenea: Tetraonchoididae) is a flatworm parasitising the gills of uranoscopid fishes. Its morphological characteristics are ambiguous, and molecular data have never been used to study its phylogenetic relationships, which makes its taxonomic classification controversial. Also, several decades of unsuccessful attempts to resolve the relationships within the Monogenea present a strong indication that morphological datasets may not be robust enough to be used to infer evolutionary histories...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016888/metabolic-heterogeneity-and-plasticity-of-glioma-stem-cells-in-a-mouse-glioblastoma-model
#13
Shunsuke Shibao, Noriaki Minami, Naoyoshi Koike, Nobuyuki Fukui, Kazunari Yoshida, Hideyuki Saya, Oltea Sampetrean
Background: Glioblastomas have been shown to rely on glycolysis as an energy source. However, recent evidence suggests that at least a subset of glioma cells with stem cell-like properties can thrive on oxidative phosphorylation. It remains unclear whether both metabolic phenotypes support tumor propagation, if they are independent, and how stable they are. The present study investigated these questions with the use of isogenic murine glioma stem cells (GSCs). Methods: GSCs were established from tumors formed by Ink4a/Arf-null, H-RasV12-expressing glioma-initiating cells that differed in extracellular acidification potential...
September 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992511/plant-mitochondrial-membranes-adding-structure-and-new-functions-to-respiratory-physiology
#14
REVIEW
Markus Schwarzländer, Philippe Fuchs
The membranes of mitochondria are focal points of cellular physiology and respiratory energy transformation. Recent discoveries have started painting a refined picture of plant mitochondrial membranes as platforms in which structure and function have evolved in an interconnected and dynamically regulated manner. Hosting ancillary functions that interact with other mitochondrial properties gives mitochondria the characteristics of multitasking and integrated molecular mega machines. We review recent insights into the makeup and the plasticity of the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes, their intimate relationship with respiratory function and regulation, and their properties in mediating solute transport...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988496/6-gingerol-prevents-mehp-induced-dna-damage-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelia-cells
#15
G Yang, X Gao, L Jiang, X Sun, X Liu, M Chen, X Yao, Q Sun, S Wang
Mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the principal metabolite of di (2-etylhexyl) phthalate, which is widely used as a plasticizer, especially in medical devices. MEHP has toxic effects on cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that 6-gingerol may inhibit the oxidative DNA damage of MEHP in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential mechanism. The comet assay was used to monitor DNA strand breaks. We have shown that 6-gingerol significantly reduced the DNA strand breaks caused by MEHP...
November 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987512/genes-linking-mitochondrial-function-cognitive-impairment-and-depression-are-associated-with-endophenotypes-serving-precision-medicine
#16
Peter Petschner, Xenia Gonda, Daniel Baksa, Nora Eszlari, Michael Trivaks, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Mitochondria densely populate cells in central nervous system providing essential energy for neurons and influencing synaptic plasticity. Harm to these organelles can impair cognitive performance through damaged neurotransmission and altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. Impaired cognition could be one underlying factor which can characterize major depressive disorder, a huge burden for society marked by depressed mood and anhedonia. A growing body of evidence binds mitochondrial dysfunctions with the disease. Cognitive disturbances with different severity are also observable in several patients, suggesting that damage or inherited alterations of mitochondria may have an important role in depression...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987401/pm2-5-exposure-stimulates-cox-2-mediated-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-via-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#17
Ben Li, Lin Guo, Tingting Ku, Minjun Chen, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been reported to be closely associated with the neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction, but the mechanisms underlying the process remain unclear. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key player in neuroinflammation, and has been also implicated in the glutamatergic excitotoxicity and synaptic plasticity. Thus, we hypothesized that COX-2 was involved in PM2.5-promoted neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction. Our results revealed that PM2.5 elevated COX-2 expression in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and increased the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in hippocampal brain slices...
September 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982340/the-18-kda-translocator-protein-tspo-as-a-cns-drug-target-finding-our-way-through-the-neuroinflammation-fog
#18
Michaela D Filiou, Richard B Rabati, Manuel B Graeber
The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it is thought to co-regulate steroidogenesis, cellular bioenergetics as well as several other cellular processes. Originally discovered as a binding site for diazepam outside the CNS, notably in steroidogenic tissue and mononuclear phagocytes, the TSPO's historical designation was peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. Much of the recent interest in the TSPO is due to the observation that its regulation in the brain is associated with microglial activation...
October 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972995/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-plant-pathogenic-fungus-stemphylium-lycopersici-uncovers-a-dynamic-structure-due-to-repetitive-and-mobile-elements
#19
Mario Emilio Ernesto Franco, Silvina Marianela Yanil López, Rocio Medina, César Gustavo Lucentini, Maria Inés Troncozo, Graciela Noemí Pastorino, Mario Carlos Nazareno Saparrat, Pedro Alberto Balatti
Stemphylium lycopersici (Pleosporales) is a plant-pathogenic fungus that has been associated with a broad range of plant-hosts worldwide. It is one of the causative agents of gray leaf spot disease in tomato and pepper. The aim of this work was to characterize the mitochondrial genome of S. lycopersici CIDEFI-216, to use it to trace taxonomic relationships with other fungal taxa and to get insights into the evolutionary history of this phytopathogen. The complete mitochondrial genome was assembled into a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 75,911 bp that harbors a set of 37 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rns and rnl) and 28 tRNA genes, which are transcribed from both sense and antisense strands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965983/mitochondrial-targeted-therapies-where-do-we-stand-in-mental-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Dorit Ben-Shachar, Hila M Ene
The neurobiology of psychiatric disorders is still unclear, although changes in multiple neuronal systems, specifically the dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic systems as well as abnormalities in synaptic plasticity and neural connectivity, are currently suggested to underlie their pathophysiology. A growing body of evidence suggests multifaceted mitochondrial dysfunction in mental disorders, which is in line with their role in neuronal activity, growth, development, and plasticity...
August 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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