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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140662/re-framing-biotechnology-regulation
#1
Alison Peck
Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140435/hmdb-4-0-the-human-metabolome-database-for-2018
#2
David S Wishart, Yannick Djoumbou Feunang, Ana Marcu, An Chi Guo, Kevin Liang, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Tanvir Sajed, Daniel Johnson, Carin Li, Naama Karu, Zinat Sayeeda, Elvis Lo, Nazanin Assempour, Mark Berjanskii, Sandeep Singhal, David Arndt, Yonjie Liang, Hasan Badran, Jason Grant, Arnau Serra-Cayuela, Yifeng Liu, Rupa Mandal, Vanessa Neveu, Allison Pon, Craig Knox, Michael Wilson, Claudine Manach, Augustin Scalbert
The Human Metabolome Database or HMDB (www.hmdb.ca) is a web-enabled metabolomic database containing comprehensive information about human metabolites along with their biological roles, physiological concentrations, disease associations, chemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and reference spectra. First described in 2007, the HMDB is now considered the standard metabolomic resource for human metabolic studies. Over the past decade the HMDB has continued to grow and evolve in response to emerging needs for metabolomics researchers and continuing changes in web standards...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140300/novel-strategies-on-personalized-medicine-for-breast-cancer-treatment-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Carmen W H Chan, Bernard M H Law, Winnie K W So, Ka Ming Chow, Mary M Y Waye
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women worldwide. With breast cancer patients and survivors being reported to experience a repertoire of symptoms that are detrimental to their quality of life, the development of breast cancer treatment strategies that are effective with minimal side effects is therefore required. Personalized medicine, the treatment process that is tailored to the individual needs of each patient, is recently gaining increasing attention for its prospect in the development of effective cancer treatment regimens...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139263/-next-generation-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-root-bark-from-paeonia-suffruticosa-cv-feng-dan
#4
Dong-Mei Xie, Nian-Jun Yu, Lu-Qi Huang, Dai-Yin Peng, Cong-Bin Liu, Yue-Jian Zhu, Hao Huang
Moutan Cortex is an important traditional Chinese medicine, "Fengdan Pi" was known as Dao-di herbs from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa cv. Feng Dan for its extracted various active components. However, the genetic basis for their activity is virtually unknown. The transcriptome of the root bark from "Fengdan" was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform. The clean reads were then de novo assembled into 72 997 unigenes. Among them, the number of unigenes which could been annotated by dataset Nr and GO was 41 139 and 34 592...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139259/-progress-in-molecular-identification-of-snake-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Yi Xu, Yan Lu, Hai-Ping Wu, Ying Bu
Snake drugs have high values in clinical medication for anti-inflammatory, analgesia activities and dredging collaterals. However, owing to their deficient resource and substantial profit, many counterfeits for snake drugs have appeared on the market. Traditional methods for Chinese medicine authentication include identification of origin, morphology identification, microscopy and physiochemical identification. But these methods are restricted in application because of their high morphological requirement for specimens, complex process for assays and indeterminate results guided by subjective...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133939/precision-medicine-for-urothelial-bladder-cancer-update-on-tumour-genomics-and-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Kenneth M Felsenstein, Dan Theodorescu
Effective management of advanced urothelial bladder cancer is challenging. New discoveries that improve our understanding of molecular bladder cancer subtypes have revealed numerous potentially targetable genomic alterations and demonstrated the efficacy of treatments that harness the immune system. These findings have begun to change paradigms of bladder cancer therapy. For example, DNA repair pathway mutations in genes such as ERCC2, FANCC, ATM, RB1, and others can predict responses to neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapies and to targeted therapies on the basis of mutation status...
November 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133148/adventitious-viruses-in-insect-cell-lines-used-for-recombinant-protein-expression
#7
REVIEW
Christoph Geisler, Donald L Jarvis
Insect cells are widely used for recombinant protein expression, typically as hosts for recombinant baculovirus vectors, but also for plasmid-mediated transient transfection or stable genetic transformation. Insect cells are used to express proteins for research, as well as to manufacture biologicals for human and veterinary medicine. Recently, several insect cell lines used for recombinant protein expression were found to be persistently infected with adventitious viruses. This has raised questions about how these infections might affect research performed using those cell lines...
November 10, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132555/considerations-in-testing-for-inherited-breast-cancer-predisposition-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Powers, Tuya Pal, Christine Laronga
Technological advances realized through next-generation sequencing technologies coupled with the loss of the ability to patent genes have led to reduction in costs for genetic testing. As a result, more people are being identified with inherited breast cancer syndromes that may affect recommendations for surveillance and risk reduction. Surgeons, at the forefront for patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer, must keep current with the changing landscape of genetics to continue to provide appropriate counsel and care...
January 2018: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132412/prospects-for-using-risk-scores-in-polygenic-medicine
#9
Cathryn M Lewis, Evangelos Vassos
Genome-wide association studies have made strides in identifying common variation associated with disease. The modest effect sizes preclude risk prediction based on single genetic variants, but polygenic risk scores that combine thousands of variants show some predictive ability across a range of complex traits and diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we consider the potential for translation to clinical use.
November 13, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132408/using-semantics-for-representing-experimental-protocols
#10
Olga Giraldo, Alexander García, Federico López, Oscar Corcho
BACKGROUND: An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131160/human-primary-liver-cancer-derived-organoid-cultures-for-disease-modeling-and-drug-screening
#11
Laura Broutier, Gianmarco Mastrogiovanni, Monique Ma Verstegen, Hayley E Francies, Lena Morrill Gavarró, Charles R Bradshaw, George E Allen, Robert Arnes-Benito, Olga Sidorova, Marcia P Gaspersz, Nikitas Georgakopoulos, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Sabine Dietmann, Susan E Davies, Raaj K Praseedom, Ruby Lieshout, Jan N M IJzermans, Stephen J Wigmore, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Mathew J Garnett, Luc Jw van der Laan, Meritxell Huch
Human liver cancer research currently lacks in vitro models that can faithfully recapitulate the pathophysiology of the original tumor. We recently described a novel, near-physiological organoid culture system, wherein primary human healthy liver cells form long-term expanding organoids that retain liver tissue function and genetic stability. Here we extend this culture system to the propagation of primary liver cancer (PLC) organoids from three of the most common PLC subtypes: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and combined HCC/CC (CHC) tumors...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130157/target-discovery-for-precision-medicine-using-high-throughput-genome-engineering
#12
Xinyi Guo, Poonam Chitale, Neville E Sanjana
Over the past few years, programmable RNA-guided nucleases such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system have ushered in a new era of precision genome editing in diverse model systems and in human cells. Functional screens using large libraries of RNA guides can interrogate a large hypothesis space to pinpoint particular genes and genetic elements involved in fundamental biological processes and disease-relevant phenotypes. Here, we review recent high-throughput CRISPR screens (e.g. loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and targeting noncoding elements) and highlight their potential for uncovering novel therapeutic targets, such as those involved in cancer resistance to small molecular drugs and immunotherapies, tumor evolution, infectious disease, inborn genetic disorders, and other therapeutic challenges...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130151/viral-vectors-engineered-cells-and-the-crispr-revolution
#13
James E DiCarlo, Anurag Deeconda, Stephen H Tsang
Over the past few decades the ability to edit human cells has revolutionized modern biology and medicine. With advances in genome editing methodologies, gene delivery and cell-based therapeutics targeted at treatment of genetic disease have become a reality that will become more and more essential in clinical practice. Modifying specific mutations in eukaryotic cells using CRISPR-Cas systems derived from prokaryotic immune systems has allowed for precision in correcting various disease mutations. Furthermore, delivery of genetic payloads by employing viral tropism has become a crucial and effective mechanism for delivering genes and gene editing systems into cells...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129848/significance-of-functional-disease-causal-susceptible-variants-identified-by-whole-genome-analyses-for-the-understanding-of-human-diseases
#14
Yuki Hitomi, Katsushi Tokunaga
Human genome variation may cause differences in traits and disease risks. Disease-causal/susceptible genes and variants for both common and rare diseases can be detected by comprehensive whole-genome analyses, such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS), using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, in addition to the application of an NGS as a whole-genome analysis method, we summarize approaches for the identification of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants from abundant genetic variants in the human genome and methods for evaluating their functional effects in human diseases, using an NGS and in silico and in vitro functional analyses...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129583/identification-of-atopic-dermatitis-subgroups-in-children-from-two-longitudinal-birth-cohorts
#15
Lavinia Paternoster, Olga E M Savenije, Jon Heron, David M Evans, Judith M Vonk, Bert Brunekreef, Alet H Wijga, A John Henderson, Gerard H Koppelman, Sara J Brown
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with variable natural history. Longitudinal birth cohort studies provide an opportunity to define subgroups based on disease trajectories, which may represent different genetic and environmental pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of distinct longitudinal phenotypes of AD and test whether these findings are reproducible in two independent cohorts. METHODS: The presence of AD was examined in two birth cohort studies including 9,894 children from the UK (ALSPAC) and 3,652 from the Netherlands (PIAMA)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128445/the-promise-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Katrin Linda, Carol Fiuza, Nael Nadif Kasri
A major challenge in clinical genetics and medicine is represented by genetically and phenotypically highly diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, like for example intellectual disability and autism. Intellectual disability is characterized by substantial limitations in cognitive function and adaptive behaviour. At the cellular level, this is reflected by deficits in synaptic structure and plasticity and therefore has been coined as a synaptic disorder or "synaptopathy". In this review, we summarize the findings from recent studies in which iPSCs have been used to model specific neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams-Beuren syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127892/estimation-of-the-late-postmortem-interval-using-ftir-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics-in-human-skeletal-remains
#17
Qi Wang, Yinming Zhang, Hancheng Lin, Shuai Zha, Ruoxi Fang, Xin Wei, Shuanliang Fan, Zhenyuan Wang
Due to a lack of reliable and accurate methods, determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains is one of the most important and challenging tasks in forensic medicine. In this paper, we studied the changes to bone chemistry with increasing PMI in two different experimental conditions using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics methods Paired bone samples collected from 56 human corpses were buried (placed in soil) and unburied (exposed to the air) for intervals between 76 and 552 days...
November 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127683/gene-and-cell-therapy-for-%C3%AE-thalassemia-and-sickle-cell-disease-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipscs-the-next-frontier
#18
Eirini P Papapetrou
In recent years, breakthroughs in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) research, namely cellular reprogramming and the emergence of sophisticated genetic engineering technologies, have opened new frontiers for cell and gene therapy. The prospect of using hPSCs, either autologous or histocompatible, as targets of genetic modification and their differentiated progeny as cell products for transplantation, presents a new paradigm of regenerative medicine of potential tremendous value for the treatment of blood disorders, including beta-thalassemia (BT) and sickle cell disease (SCD)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127501/characterization-of-a-novel-yeast-species-metschnikowia-persimmonesis-kctc-12991bp-kiom-g15050-type-strain-isolated-from-a-medicinal-plant-korean-persimmon-calyx-diospyros-kaki-thumb
#19
Young Min Kang, Ji Eun Choi, Richard Komakech, Jeong Hwan Park, Dae Wook Kim, Kye Man Cho, Seung Mi Kang, Sang Haeng Choi, Kun Chul Song, Chung Min Ryu, Keun Chul Lee, Jung-Sook Lee
The yeast strain Metschnikowia persimmonesis Kang and Choi et al., sp. nov. [type strain KIOM_G15050 = Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) 12991BP] was isolated from the stalk of native persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki Thumb) obtained from different regions of South Korea and was characterized phenotypically, genetically, and physiologically. The isolate grew between 4 and 40 °C (optimum temperature: 24-28 °C), pH 3-8 (pH optimum = 6.0), and in 0-4% NaCl solution (with optimal growth in absence of NaCl)...
November 10, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126492/oral-cancer-genetics-and-the-role-of-precision-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Chia-Cheng Li, Zhen Shen, Roxanne Bavarian, Fan Yang, Aditi Bhattacharya
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the leading cancers in the world. OSCC patients are managed with surgery and/or chemoradiation. Prognoses and survival rates are dismal, however, and have not improved for more than 20 years. Recently, the concept of precision medicine was introduced, and the introduction of targeted therapeutics demonstrated promising outcomes. This article reviews the current understanding of initiation, progression, and metastasis of OSCC from both genetic and epigenetic perspectives...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
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