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"Pediatric tuberculosis"

Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Solange Gonçalves David, Kathryn L Lovero, Maria de Fátima B Pombo March, Thalita G Abreu, Antonio Ruffino Netto, Afranio L Kritski, Clemax C Sant'Anna
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) presents many challenges, and is further complicated in HIV-infected patients. While many diagnostic systems have been proposed, there is no pediatric TB diagnosis gold standard. The outcomes of four TB diagnostic systems in HIV-infected children were compared in this study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a TB/HIV reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro. HIV-infected pediatric patients evaluated for TB from 1998 to 2010 were reassessed using four diagnostic systems: Kenneth Jones, 1969; Tidjani, 1986; Ben Marais, 2006; Brazilian Ministry of Health, 2010...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Anil Agarwal, Pradeep Kumar Dabla, Madhusudan Mishra, Anubrat Kumar, Abbas Shaharyar
OBJECTIVES: It is still unknown whether altered vitamin D levels observed with osteoarticular tuberculosis change during treatment in a child or modify the disease course. To find a possible answer to the above query, we investigated serial serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in children suffering from osteoarticular tuberculosis treated with multidrug antitubercular drugs. METHODS: The prospective study enrolled 19 untreated immunocompetent children with an established diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Ian Kitai, Shaun K Morris, Faisal Kordy, Ray Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Elizabeth Whittaker, Isobella Honeyborne, Timothy D McHugh, Nigel Klein, Delane Shingadia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Tanya Rogo, Cynthia Eleanya, Priya Hirway, Doreen Pelland, Carol Lewis, Penelope Dennehy, Phyllis Losikoff
BACKGROUND: Refugee populations in the US have a higher reported prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The objective of this study was to assess adherence to LTBI treatment in refugee and non-refugee children living in Rhode Island. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of LTBI patients seen in the Hasbro Pediatric Tuberculosis Clinic between August 2009 and September 2011. RESULTS: Of 120 patients with LTBI, 93% were foreign-born and 30% were refugees...
February 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Payam Mehrain, Amin Momeni Moghaddam, Elham Tavakol, Afshin Amini, Mehrdad Moghimi, Ali Kabir, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pediatric tuberculosis is usually a primary infection presenting mainly as mediastinal or hilar adenopathy in computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, we study the distribution and other CT scan characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in childhood tuberculosis. METHODS: Chest CT scans of 75 cases of pediatric tuberculosis at Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2013 were studied regarding characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Andrew R DiNardo, Anne Detjen, Pilar Ustero, Katherine Ngo, Jason Bacha, Anna M Mandalakas
BACKGROUND: In pediatric tuberculosis (pTB), culture is the accepted reference standard for assessing new diagnostic tests despite culture only confirming 10-50% of clinically diagnosed cases. METHODS: Using the studies previously included in the systematic review of Gene Xpert, we evaluated the diagnostic yield of culture. Children with symptoms and signs suggestive of TB were considered to have a clinical diagnosis if they were 1) culture positive or 2) followed clinically for at least one month and started on Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy (ATT)...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
(no author information available yet)
In 2014, 49 pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients aged 0-14 years were newly notified in Japan, with a notification rate of 0.30 per 100,000 population. Since 2006, the number of pediatric TB patients notified each year has been less than 100. Of the 49 patients, 17 (34.7%) were aged 0-4 years, 15 (30.6%) were 5-9 years, and 17 (34.7%) were 10-14 years. Until recently, the proportion of those aged 0-4 years was higher than those aged 10-14 years, but this year the proportions have become equal. Of these 49, five had meningeal TB and two had miliary TB...
April 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Lin Sun, Jie-Qiong Li, Na Ren, Hui Qi, Fang Dong, Jing Xiao, Fang Xu, Wei-Wei Jiao, Chen Shen, Wen-Qi Song, A-Dong Shen
Although tuberculosis (TB) has been the greatest killer due to a single infectious disease, pediatric TB is still hard to diagnose because of the lack of sensitive biomarkers. Metabolomics is increasingly being applied in infectious diseases. But little is known regarding metabolic biomarkers in children with TB. A combination of a NMR-based plasma metabolic method and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to provide a broader range of applications in TB diagnosis in our study. Plasma samples obtained from 28 active TB children and 37 non-TB controls (including 21 RTIs and 16 healthy children) were analyzed by an orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model, and 17 metabolites were identified that can separate children with TB from non-TB controls...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Gönül Tanır, Özge Metin, Hülya Şimsek, Türkan Aydın Teke, Fatma Nur Öz, Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydın
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiological, microbiological characteristics, side effects of anti-TB drugs and treatment outcome of childhood definite or probable TB. The medical records of all childhood TB patients were investigated in the department of pediatric infectious disease of a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients who followed-up until the anti-TB treatment was completed were included in the study. One hundred forty four pediatric cases with active TB were included in the study (27 definite, 117 probable)...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Sharmila B Mukherjee, Kamal K Singhal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Luisa Galli, Laura Lancella, Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Elena Chiappini, Barbara Maria Bergamini, Margherita Codifava, Cristina Venturelli, Giulia Tosetti, Caterina Marabotto, Laura Cursi, Elena Boccuzzi, Silvia Garazzino, Pier Angelo Tovo, Michele Pinon, Daniele Le Serre, Laura Castiglioni, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Alfredo Guarino, Eugenia Bruzzese, Giuseppe Losurdo, Elio Castagnola, Grazia Bossi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Rita Grandolfo, Valentina Fiorito, Piero Valentini, Danilo Buonsenso, Raffaele Domenici, Marco Montesanti, Filippo Maria Salvini, Enrica Riva, Icilio Dodi, Francesca Maschio, Luisa Abbagnato, Elisa Fiumana, Chiara Fornabaio, Patrizia Ballista, Vincenzo Portelli, Gabriella Bottone, Nicola Palladino, Mariella Valenzise, Barbara Vecchi, Maria Di Gangi, Carla Lupi, Alberto Villani, Maurizio de Martino
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled...
June 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vikram V Kadu, K A Saindane, Ninad Godghate, Neha N Godghate
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis of calcaneum is a rare entity. Osteoarticular tuberculosis of foot is uncommon and that of calcaneum is very rare. In children, diagnosis is often delayed as clinical presentation is non-specific and awareness is low due to its rare presentation. Also pediatric tuberculosis has traditionally received a lower priority than adult TB in National TB programmes. CASE PRESENTATION: 8 yr old girl presented to OPD with swelling and dull aching pain over left heel...
January 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Jennifer A Grinsdale, Shamim Islam, Olivia Chang Tran, Christine S Ho, L Masae Kawamura, Julie M Higashi
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assay utilization in pediatric tuberculosis (TB) screening is limited by a paucity of longitudinal experience, particularly in low-TB burden populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of QuantiFERON (QFT)-TB Gold results in San Francisco children from 2005 to 2008. Concordance with the tuberculin skin test (TST) was analyzed for a subset of children. Progression to active disease was determined through San Francisco and California TB registry matches...
June 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Andrea T Cruz, Jeffrey R Starke
Traditional treatment of tuberculosis infection (TBI) is efficacious, but adherence is low. Eighty children with TBI received a 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid/rifapentine regimen; 79 (99%) completed therapy, 94% reported no adverse events, 1 child had mildly elevated transaminases but 1 adolescent later developed pulmonary TB. Isoniazid/rifapentine is safe, is well tolerated and has much higher completion rates than traditional TBI regimens.
July 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jieqiong Li, Hui Qi, Lin Sun, Chen Shen, Weiwei Jiao, Fang Xu, Jing Xiao, Adong Shen
UNLABELLED: Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a part of the innate immune system of the lung, performs a vital role in the host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. In order to investigate the relationship between SFTPA polymorphism variations and Tuberculosis (TB) in a Chinese pediatric group, we conducted a case-control study using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Significant difference of the allelic distribution of rs1914663 in SFTPA gene was observed between TB group and control group and, T allele of rs1914663 was associated with increased risk for TB (control vs...
July 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yu Pang, Aihua Zhao, Chad Cohen, Wanli Kang, Jie Lu, Guozhi Wang, Yanlin Zhao, Suhua Zheng
Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments...
April 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yolanda A Yu, Melody Hawkins, Kelechi Iheagwara, Michael Bolton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
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