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"Pediatric tuberculosis"

Tanya Rogo, Cynthia Eleanya, Priya Hirway, Doreen Pelland, Carol Lewis, Penelope Dennehy, Phyllis Losikoff
BACKGROUND: Refugee populations in the US have a higher reported prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The objective of this study was to assess adherence to LTBI treatment in refugee and non-refugee children living in Rhode Island. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of LTBI patients seen in the Hasbro Pediatric Tuberculosis Clinic between August 2009 and September 2011. RESULTS: Of 120 patients with LTBI, 93% were foreign-born and 30% were refugees...
February 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Payam Mehrain, Amin Momeni Moghaddam, Elham Tavakol, Afshin Amini, Mehrdad Moghimi, Ali Kabir, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pediatric tuberculosis is usually a primary infection presenting mainly as mediastinal or hilar adenopathy in computed tomography (CT) scan. In this study, we study the distribution and other CT scan characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy in childhood tuberculosis. METHODS: Chest CT scans of 75 cases of pediatric tuberculosis at Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2013 were studied regarding characteristics of mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Andrew R DiNardo, Anne Detjen, Pilar Ustero, Katherine Ngo, Jason Bacha, Anna M Mandalakas
BACKGROUND: In pediatric tuberculosis (pTB), culture is the accepted reference standard for assessing new diagnostic tests despite culture only confirming 10-50% of clinically diagnosed cases. METHODS: Using the studies previously included in the systematic review of Gene Xpert, we evaluated the diagnostic yield of culture. Children with symptoms and signs suggestive of TB were considered to have a clinical diagnosis if they were 1) culture positive or 2) followed clinically for at least one month and started on Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy (ATT)...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
(no author information available yet)
In 2014, 49 pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients aged 0-14 years were newly notified in Japan, with a notification rate of 0.30 per 100,000 population. Since 2006, the number of pediatric TB patients notified each year has been less than 100. Of the 49 patients, 17 (34.7%) were aged 0-4 years, 15 (30.6%) were 5-9 years, and 17 (34.7%) were 10-14 years. Until recently, the proportion of those aged 0-4 years was higher than those aged 10-14 years, but this year the proportions have become equal. Of these 49, five had meningeal TB and two had miliary TB...
April 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Lin Sun, Jie-Qiong Li, Na Ren, Hui Qi, Fang Dong, Jing Xiao, Fang Xu, Wei-Wei Jiao, Chen Shen, Wen-Qi Song, A-Dong Shen
Although tuberculosis (TB) has been the greatest killer due to a single infectious disease, pediatric TB is still hard to diagnose because of the lack of sensitive biomarkers. Metabolomics is increasingly being applied in infectious diseases. But little is known regarding metabolic biomarkers in children with TB. A combination of a NMR-based plasma metabolic method and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to provide a broader range of applications in TB diagnosis in our study. Plasma samples obtained from 28 active TB children and 37 non-TB controls (including 21 RTIs and 16 healthy children) were analyzed by an orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model, and 17 metabolites were identified that can separate children with TB from non-TB controls...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Gönül Tanır, Özge Metin, Hülya Şimsek, Türkan Aydın Teke, Fatma Nur Öz, Zeynep Gökçe Gayretli Aydın
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiological, microbiological characteristics, side effects of anti-TB drugs and treatment outcome of childhood definite or probable TB. The medical records of all childhood TB patients were investigated in the department of pediatric infectious disease of a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients who followed-up until the anti-TB treatment was completed were included in the study. One hundred forty four pediatric cases with active TB were included in the study (27 definite, 117 probable)...
September 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Sharmila B Mukherjee, Kamal K Singhal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Luisa Galli, Laura Lancella, Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Elena Chiappini, Barbara Maria Bergamini, Margherita Codifava, Cristina Venturelli, Giulia Tosetti, Caterina Marabotto, Laura Cursi, Elena Boccuzzi, Silvia Garazzino, Pier Angelo Tovo, Michele Pinon, Daniele Le Serre, Laura Castiglioni, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Alfredo Guarino, Eugenia Bruzzese, Giuseppe Losurdo, Elio Castagnola, Grazia Bossi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Rita Grandolfo, Valentina Fiorito, Piero Valentini, Danilo Buonsenso, Raffaele Domenici, Marco Montesanti, Filippo Maria Salvini, Enrica Riva, Icilio Dodi, Francesca Maschio, Luisa Abbagnato, Elisa Fiumana, Chiara Fornabaio, Patrizia Ballista, Vincenzo Portelli, Gabriella Bottone, Nicola Palladino, Mariella Valenzise, Barbara Vecchi, Maria Di Gangi, Carla Lupi, Alberto Villani, Maurizio de Martino
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled...
June 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vikram V Kadu, K A Saindane, Ninad Godghate, Neha N Godghate
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis of calcaneum is a rare entity. Osteoarticular tuberculosis of foot is uncommon and that of calcaneum is very rare. In children, diagnosis is often delayed as clinical presentation is non-specific and awareness is low due to its rare presentation. Also pediatric tuberculosis has traditionally received a lower priority than adult TB in National TB programmes. CASE PRESENTATION: 8 yr old girl presented to OPD with swelling and dull aching pain over left heel...
January 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Jennifer A Grinsdale, Shamim Islam, Olivia Chang Tran, Christine S Ho, L Masae Kawamura, Julie M Higashi
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assay utilization in pediatric tuberculosis (TB) screening is limited by a paucity of longitudinal experience, particularly in low-TB burden populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of QuantiFERON (QFT)-TB Gold results in San Francisco children from 2005 to 2008. Concordance with the tuberculin skin test (TST) was analyzed for a subset of children. Progression to active disease was determined through San Francisco and California TB registry matches...
June 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Andrea T Cruz, Jeffrey R Starke
Traditional treatment of tuberculosis infection (TBI) is efficacious, but adherence is low. Eighty children with TBI received a 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid/rifapentine regimen; 79 (99%) completed therapy, 94% reported no adverse events, 1 child had mildly elevated transaminases but 1 adolescent later developed pulmonary TB. Isoniazid/rifapentine is safe, is well tolerated and has much higher completion rates than traditional TBI regimens.
July 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jieqiong Li, Hui Qi, Lin Sun, Chen Shen, Weiwei Jiao, Fang Xu, Jing Xiao, Adong Shen
UNLABELLED: Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a part of the innate immune system of the lung, performs a vital role in the host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. In order to investigate the relationship between SFTPA polymorphism variations and Tuberculosis (TB) in a Chinese pediatric group, we conducted a case-control study using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Significant difference of the allelic distribution of rs1914663 in SFTPA gene was observed between TB group and control group and, T allele of rs1914663 was associated with increased risk for TB (control vs...
July 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yu Pang, Aihua Zhao, Chad Cohen, Wanli Kang, Jie Lu, Guozhi Wang, Yanlin Zhao, Suhua Zheng
Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments...
April 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yolanda A Yu, Melody Hawkins, Kelechi Iheagwara, Michael Bolton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Synne Jenum, S Dhanasekaran, Rakesh Lodha, Aparna Mukherjee, Deepak Kumar Saini, Sarman Singh, Varinder Singh, Guruprasad Medigeshi, Marielle C Haks, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Timothy Mark Doherty, Sushil K Kabra, Christian Ritz, Harleen M S Grewal
The World Health Organization (WHO) calls for an accurate, rapid, and simple point-of-care (POC) test for the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in order to make progress "Towards Zero Deaths". Whereas the sensitivity of a POC test based on detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is likely to have poor sensitivity (70-80% of children have culture-negative disease), host biomarkers reflecting the on-going pathological processes across the spectrum of MTB infection and disease may hold greater promise for this purpose...
January 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
C A Beneri, L Aaron, S Kim, P Jean-Philippe, S Madhi, A Violari, M F Cotton, C Mitchell, S Nachman
SETTING: Standardized clinical case definitions represent the best option for pediatric tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis and classification. OBJECTIVE: To apply published guidelines for intrathoracic TB classification for use in reporting diagnostic studies with passive case finding to presumed TB patients from International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1041, a trial of isoniazid prophylaxis in healthy human immunodeficiency virus exposed, bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccinated infants which employed active surveillance to assess a novel application of these guidelines in this setting...
January 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Seyed Mohammad Alavi, Shokrollah Salmanzadeh, Pejman Bakhtiyariniya, Ali Albagi, Fatemeh Hemmatnia, Leila Alavi
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Iran is limited. This study aimed to determine the proportion of tuberculosis in children living in Khuzestan in southwest of Iran and its treatment outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the child's medical records registered in national TB program (NTP) unit of Khuzestan Health Center (KHC) for TB treatment from 2005 to 2010 were studied. Data including demographic, clinical presentation, laboratory test results, and treatment outcomes were extracted from the files and were analyzed...
2015: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Lin Sun, Jian-ling Tian, Qing-qin Yin, Jing Xiao, Jie-qiong Li, Ya-jie Guo, Guo-shuang Feng, Xiao-xia Peng, Hui Qi, Fang Xu, Wei-wei Jiao, Chen Shen, A-dong Shen
Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) were developed for the indirect or immunologic diagnosis of tuberculosis infection; however, they have also been used to assist in difficult to diagnose cases of tuberculosis disease in adults, and to a lesser extent, in children, especially in those under 5 years old. We evaluated the utility of using an IGRA in pediatric tuberculosis in younger children in a hospital setting. The diagnostic accuracy of T-SPOT.TB and TST was assessed in 117 children with active tuberculosis and 413 children with respiratory tract infection...
2015: PloS One
Carlotta Montagnani, Susanna Esposito, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini, Nicola Principi, Maurizio de Martino
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is still the only vaccine approved for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), and is widely used in highly endemic countries, where all newborns receive a single intradermal dose immediately after birth; however, the recommendations concerning its use in Europe vary widely from country to country. This document describes the recommendations of a group of Italian scientific societies concerning its pediatric use in Italy, the persistence of the protection it provides, its safety, its interference with tuberculin skin test (TST) responses, and the children who should be vaccinated...
March 3, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
S Murray, L McKenna, E Pelfrene, R Botgros
Despite urgent need, the development, approval and availability of child-friendly anti-tuberculosis drugs lag significantly behind that of adults, with children having been ignored in anti-tuberculosis drug development research. This paper outlines possible strategies for accelerating and better integrating the development of drugs and regimens for pediatric tuberculosis (TB) into existing drug development pathways for adults: initiation of pediatric studies of new treatments as soon as promising efficacy data have been generated in adults following successful phase II studies, shifting from the current age de-escalated approach to concomitant enrollment of children from the various age groups in studies, and leveraging the concepts of both the Unified Pathway and regimen development that have helped speed the study and development of novel regimens in adults...
December 2015: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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