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S K Sharma, S H Verma
OBJECTIVES: To study the complete fasting lipid profile and other parameters (weight, body mass index, HbA1c, fasting blood sugar and postprandial blood sugar)in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin, to study the effect of addition of pioglitazone on lipid profile and other parameters in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin, to study the effect of addition of rosiglitazone on lipid profile and other parameters in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin and to compare the effect of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on lipid profile and other parameters in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Fabio Broglio, Edoardo Mannucci, Raffaele Napoli, Antonio Nicolucci, Francesco Purrello, Elena Nikonova, William Stager, Roberto Trevisan
AIMS: To evaluate long term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial GLP-1 RA (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A meta-analysis of 76-week results of five placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal program was performed including 3,000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lingling He, Xiaoli Liu, Lijia Wang, Zhiyun Yang
The findings regarding the effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients have been inconsistent, and the assessment of different clinical variables for evaluating the effects of TZDs confound a direct comparison of the results of different randomized clinical trials (RCTs), especially with regard to lifestyle changes. In this paper, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to clarify the effects of TZD treatment with and without lifestyle changes on histological markers of NASH and clinical variables related to insulin resistance (IR), hyperlipidemia, and obesity...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yu-Cheng Li, Ya-Min Liu, Ji-Duo Shen, Jun-Jie Chen, Yang-Yi Pei, Xiao-Yan Fang
Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration...
October 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kazuhiko Kotani, Michiaki Miyamoto, Hitoshi Ando
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a potential cardiovascular (CV) risk. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) is an ultrasonic method to evaluate endothelial function. RA is a contributor to endothelial dysfunction, a CV risk. Relevant insights on the improvement of the CV outcomes in RA patients may be obtained by a systematic review of trials that investigated the effects of RA treatment on FMD in RA patients. This review found that treatments with antirheumatic drugs and some non-antirheumatic drugs could improve the FMD in RA patients...
October 13, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Rong Qiu, Dainius Balis, George Capuano, John Xie, Gary Meininger
: Metformin is typically the first pharmacologic treatment recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but many patients do not achieve glycemic control with metformin alone and eventually require combination therapy with other agents. Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, was assessed in a comprehensive Phase 3 clinical development program consisting of ~10,000 participants, of which ~80% were on background therapy that consisted of metformin alone or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs; e...
October 12, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim A Qureshi
Rauwolfia serpentina is well-reported in traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertensive and neurological disorders. However, its antidiabetic potential has been currently described in both alloxan-treated and normoglycemic mice. Present effort was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol root extract (MREt) of R.serpentina in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Experimental mice were grouped into normal control (distilled water 1ml/kg) and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic groups (10% fructose 1 ml/kg)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S Vallabhajosyula, S Nair, A Kamath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Hugo Perazzo, Jean-François Dufour
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning, and may be associated with liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and its complications. A pharmacological approach is necessary to treat NASH because of failure to change dietary habits and lifestyle in most patients. Insulin resistance with an increased release of free fatty acids, oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory cytokines seem to be key features for disease progression. Thiazolidinediones, such as pioglitazone and antioxidant agents, such as vitamin E, were the first pharmacological options to be evaluated for NASH...
October 11, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Lingman Ma, Lifen Qian, Qidi Ying, Yan Zhang, Changlin Zhou, Guanzhong Wu
Here, we investigated whether I4, which was initially developed as a hypoglycemic agent, possesses anti-atherosclerotic activity and attempted to elucidate the probable mechanism of action underlying this activity. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet and simultaneously administered I4, glimepiride, or pioglitazone once daily for 12 weeks, and the atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid content, and expression levels of LOX-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and Bax/Bcl-2 in mouse aortas were assessed. RAW264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells were obtained via ox-LDL stimulation to investigate the lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerotic inflammation and anti-apoptotic effect of I4...
October 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Qiuying Zhao, Xiaohui Wu, Shuo Yan, Xiaofang Xie, Yonghua Fan, Jinqiang Zhang, Cheng Peng, Zili You
BACKGROUND: Discoveries that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is involved in the pathological process of depression provided a new strategy for novel antidepressant therapy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor regulating inflammation and microglial polarization and, therefore, a potential target for resolving depressive disorders. Our hypothesis was that antidepressant effects could be achieved through anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities by PPARγ-dependent microglia-modulating agents...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Giordano de Guglielmo, Marsida Kallupi, Giulia Scuppa, Gregory Demopulos, George Gaitanaris, Roberto Ciccocioppo
RATIONALE: Relapse to opioids is often driven by the avoidance of the aversive states of opioid withdrawal. We recently demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. However, the role of PPARγ in withdrawal and other forms of relapse to heroin is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To further address this issue, we investigated the role of PPARγ on the development and expression of morphine withdrawal in mice and the effect of pioglitazone on several forms of heroin relapse in rats...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Tetsuya Kubota, Naoto Kubota, Hiroyuki Sato, Mariko Inoue, Hiroki Kumagai, Tomokatsu Iwamura, Iseki Takamoto, Tsuneo Kobayashi, Masao Moroi, Yasuo Terauchi, Kazuyuki Tobe, Kohjiro Ueki, Takashi Kadowaki
The aim of this study is to elucidate to what degree adiponectin is involved in TZD-mediated amelioration of neointimal formation. We investigated the effect of 3- or 8-weeks' pioglitazone on cuff-induced neointimal formation in adiponectin-deficient (APN-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pioglitazone for 3 weeks reduced neointimal formation in the WT mice with upregulation of the plasma adiponectin levels, but failed to reduce neointimal formation in the APN-KO mice, suggesting that pioglitazone suppressed neointimal formation by adiponectin-dependent mechanisms...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hongbin Jia, Shuangshuang Xu, Qingzhen Liu, Jian Liu, Jianguo Xu, Weiyan Li, Yi Jin, Qing Ji
The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the modulation of neuroimmune activation in the spinal cord by the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (Pio), in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI). Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham surgery with vehicle, chronic constriction injury with vehicle or Pio (10 mg/kg), and chronic constriction injury with Pio and a PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (2 mg/kg)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
David Hsu, Gad A Marshall
The field of Alzheimer disease (AD) prevention has been a culmination of basic science, clinical, and translational research. In the past three years since the new 2011 AD diagnostic guidelines, large-scale collaborative efforts have embarked on new clinical trials with the hope of someday preventing AD. This review will shed light on the historical and scientific contexts in which these trials were based on, as well as discuss potential challenges these trials may face in the coming years. Primary preventive measures, such as lifestyle, multidomain, medication, and supplemental interventions, will be analyzed...
September 30, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Amanda Karolina Soares E Silva, Fabiana Oliveira Dos Santos Gomes, Bruna Dos Santos Silva, Edlene Lima Ribeiro, Amanda Costa Oliveira, Shyrlene Meyre da Rocha Araújo, Ingrid Tavares de Lima, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos Oliveira, Martina Rudnicki, Dulcineia S P Abdalla, Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Christina Alves Peixoto
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a complex disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis. We previously indicated that the new TZD LPSF/GQ-02 inhibits hepatic steatosis and inflammation, which are reported as risk factors for atherosclerosis development. Here, we explored the effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on atherosclerosis in LDLr-/- mice comparing two treatment periods. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDLr(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 and 12 weeks and received oral treatment with LPSF/GQ-02 (30mg/kg/day) or pioglitazone (20mg/kg/day) for 15 and 30 days, respectively...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Werner J Geldenhuys, Heather M Yonutas, Daniel L Morris, Patrick G Sullivan, Altaf S Darvesh, Thomas C Leeper
MitoNEET (CISD1) is a 2Fe-2S iron-sulfur cluster protein belonging to the zinc-finger protein family. Recently mitoNEET has been shown to be a major role player in the mitochondrial function associated with metabolic type diseases such as obesity and cancers. The anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and rosiglitazone were the first identified ligands to mitoNEET. Since little is known about structural requirements for ligand binding to mitoNEET, we screened a small set of compounds to gain insight into these requirements...
September 6, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mazhar Hussian, Abdul Qudoos Arain, Sadia Chiragh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-dyslipidaemic effects of pioglitazone in diet-induced non-diabetic hyperlipidaemic rats and to compare them with gemfibrozil. METHODS: This comparative animal study was conducted at the Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan, from July to September 2011, and comprised Sprague Dawley albino rats divided into three equal groups. Initially all three groups were given high-lipid diet containing cholesterol 1.5g, coconut oil 8ml and sodium cholate 1...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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