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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659347/social-justice-at-the-core-of-breastfeeding-protection-promotion-and-support-a-conceptualization
#1
Paige Hall Smith
Despite widespread awareness of the health benefits for both mothers and babies we are far from achieving universal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding rates globally are lower than recommended levels and there are concerns that some global breastfeeding efforts have stalled (1, 2). In addition, we see persistent disparities in breastfeeding rates by race, ethnicity, class and status (3). A growing literature documents how a range of injustices, including gender inequality (7), racism (8), poverty (9), and violence (10, 11) shape whether, how exclusive, and for how long mothers and others will be able to breastfeed or feed their infants human milk...
May 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626069/a-y-encoded-suppressor-of-feminization-arose-via-lineage-specific-duplication-of-a-cytokinin-response-regulator-in-kiwifruit
#2
Takashi Akagi, Isabelle Marie Henry, Haruka Ohtani, Takuya Morimoto, Kenji Beppu, Ikuo Kataoka, Ryutaro Tao
Dioecy, the presence of male and female flowers on distinct individuals, has evolved independently in multiple plant lineages and the genes involved in this differential development are just starting to be uncovered in a few species. Here, we used genomic approaches to investigate this pathway in kiwifruits (genus Actinidia). Genome-wide cataloging of male-specific subsequences, combined with transcriptome analysis, led to the identification of a type-C cytokinin response regulator as a potential sex determinant gene in this genus...
April 6, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617359/sexual-dimorphism-of-sleep-regulated-by-juvenile-hormone-signaling-in-drosophila
#3
Binbin Wu, Lingling Ma, Enyan Zhang, Juan Du, Suning Liu, Jeffrey Price, Sheng Li, Zhangwu Zhao
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are a universal phenomenon in animals. In the model animal fruit fly Drosophila, males and females exhibit long- and short-sleep phenotypes, respectively. However, the mechanism is still a mystery. In this study, we showed that juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in regulation of sexually dimorphic sleep in Drosophila, in which gain of JH function enlarges differences of the dimorphic sleep phenotype with higher sleep in males and lower sleep in females, while loss of JH function blurs these differences and results in feminization of male sleep and masculinization of female sleep...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609904/translation-adaptation-and-preliminary-validation-of-dacakis-and-davies-transsexual-voice-questionnaire-male-to-female-in-french
#4
Dominique Morsomme, Joana Revis, Elisabeth Thomas
Transgender MtF people (trans women) consult otorhinolaryngologists and vocologists with the aim of feminizing their voice and being consistently perceived as women. Treatment of these trans women always begins with a vocal assessment that is relatively unspecific as it was originally constructed for individuals with dysphonia. OBJECTIVES: This study examines the subjective portion of the assessment and specifically the self-assessment questionnaire. There is no French-language questionnaire designed to identify the issues facing people who want voice feminization and quantify the impact of their voice disorder on their daily lives...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607029/males-prefer-virgin-females-even-if-parasitized-in-the-terrestrial-isopod-armadillidium-vulgare
#5
Margot Fortin, Catherine Debenest, Catherine Souty-Grosset, Freddie-Jeanne Richard
In many species, males increase their reproductive success by choosing high-quality females. In natural populations, they interact with both virgin and mated females, which can store sperm in their spermatheca. Therefore, males elaborate strategies to avoid sperm competition. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare , females can store sperm and produce several clutches. Moreover, this species can be parasitized by Wolbachia , which feminizes genetic males, transforming them into functional females. Our study compared attractiveness and mate choice when a male is exposed to both virgin and experienced females (i...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596424/germ-cells-in-the-teleost-fish-medaka-have-an-inherent-feminizing-effect
#6
Toshiya Nishimura, Kazuki Yamada, Chika Fujimori, Mariko Kikuchi, Toshihiro Kawasaki, Kellee R Siegfried, Noriyoshi Sakai, Minoru Tanaka
Germ cells are the only cells that can transfer genetic materials to the next generation via the sperm or egg. However, recent analyses in teleosts revealed another essential role of germ cells: feminizing the gonads. In our study, medaka mutants in which gametogenesis was blocked at specific stages provides the novel view that the feminizing effect of germ cells occurs in parallel with other reproductive elements, such as meiosis, the sexual fate decision of germ cells, and gametogenesis. Germ cells in medaka may have a potential to feminize gonads at the moment they have developed...
March 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575968/a-healthy-chubby-japanese-man-genki-na-debu-chan
#7
Genaro Castro-Vázquez
In light of official reports indicating a still prevalent tendency to masculinized obesity and overweight in Japan (Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, 2015), this article explores the experiences of 28 Japanese men grappling with bodyweight control. Aged between 24 and 67, 3 of the men were postgraduate or undergraduate students, 7 self-employed, 17 company workers and 1 retired. Fourteen hold a university degree, 1 completed senior high school and 10 finished 3-year junior college. Twelve were married and 16 were single...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573435/comparison-of-cricothyroid-approximation-and-glottoplasty-for-surgical-voice-feminization-in-male-to-female-transsexuals
#8
Elena Mora, Ignacio Cobeta, Antonio Becerra, Maria Jesús Lucio
OBJECTIVE: To compare voice feminization and quality of life (QoL) of Male-to-Female Transsexuals (MtF Ts) after cricothyroid approximation (CTA) or glottoplasty (GL). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Fifty-three MtF Ts were studied between 2007 and 2016. Voice assessment was based on fundamental frequency (F0 ), perceptual rating on GBRAS Hirano scale (Grade, Breathiness, Roughness, Asthenia, Strain), QoL related to voice on the Voice Handicap Index-10 Spanish validated version (VHI-10 Sv) and self-perceived femininity of the voice (SpFv), and overall satisfaction with the surgical technique (Sst) on a visual analogue scale (VAS)...
March 24, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569029/a-second-look-at-the-process-of-occupational-feminization-and-pay-reduction-in-occupations
#9
Hadas Mandel
Using the IPUMS-USA data for the years 1960-2015, this study examines trends in the effect of occupational feminization on occupational pay in the U.S. labor market and explores some of the mechanisms underlying these trends. The findings show that the (negative) association between occupational feminization and occupational pay level has declined, becoming insignificent in 2015. This trend, however, is reversed after education is controlled for at the individual as well as the occupational level. The two opposite trends are discussed in light of the twofold effect of education: (1) the entry of women into occupations requiring high education, and (2) the growing returns to education and to occupations with higher educational requirements...
March 22, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568143/populism-and-feminism-odd-bedfellows
#10
Rob Kroes
In this era of populist insurgency breaking the mold of democratic politics, two movements clashed.They represented opposite sides of the political spectrum, one emancipatory, the other exclusionary. One may be identified as feminism, the other as populism. This essay analyzes both concepts and explores their connection.
2018: Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550552/expression-profiles-of-amhy-and-major-sex-related-genes-during-gonadal-sex-differentiation-and-their-relation-with-genotypic-and-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-bonariensis
#11
Yan Zhang, Ricardo S Hattori, Munti Sarida, Estefany C García, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
To shed light on the mechanisms of and interactions of GSD and TSD in pejerrey, we investigated how the transcriptional profiles of amhy and amha are affected by feminizing (17°C) and masculinizing (29°C) temperatures during the critical period of sex determination/differentiation and their relation with the expression profiles of AMH receptor type II (amhrII), gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2). Careful consideration of the results of this study and all information currently available for this species, including similar analyzes for an intermediate, mixed-sex promoting temperature (25°C), suggests a model for genotypic/temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation that involves a) cyp19a1a-dependent, developmentally-programmed ovarian development as the default state that becomes self-sustaining in the absence of a potent and timely masculinizing stimulus, b) early, developmentally-programmed amhy expression and high temperature as masculinization signals that antagonize the putative female pathway by suppressing cyp19a1a expression, c) increasing stress response, cortisol, and the synthesis of the masculinizing androgen 11-keto-testosterone via hsd11b2 with increasing temperature that is important for masculinization in both genotypes but particularly so in XX individuals, and d) an endocrine network with positive/negative feedback mechanisms that ensure fidelity of the male/female pathway once started...
March 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534195/effects-of-sex-steroids-on-the-spinal-gastrin-releasing-peptide-system-controlling-male-sexual-function-in-rats
#12
Takumi Oti, Keiko Takanami, Saya Ito, Takashi Ueda, Ken Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Jintetsu Soh, Osamu Ukimura, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hirotaka Sakamoto
The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we have generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line, and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence...
March 8, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526590/a-single-neuron-chemosensory-switch-determines-the-valence-of-a-sexually-dimorphic-sensory-behavior
#13
Kelli A Fagan, Jintao Luo, Ross C Lagoy, Frank C Schroeder, Dirk R Albrecht, Douglas S Portman
Biological sex, a fundamental dimension of internal state, can modulate neural circuits to generate behavioral variation. Understanding how and why circuits are tuned by sex can provide important insights into neural and behavioral plasticity. Here we find that sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to C. elegans ascaroside sex pheromones are implemented by the functional modulation of shared chemosensory circuitry. In particular, the sexual state of a single sensory neuron pair, ADF, determines the nature of an animal's behavioral response regardless of the sex of the rest of the body...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514975/hormonal-treatment-in-young-people-with-gender-dysphoria-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Denise Chew, Jemma Anderson, Katrina Williams, Tamara May, Kenneth Pang
CONTEXT: Hormonal interventions are being increasingly used to treat young people with gender dysphoria, but their effects in this population have not been systematically reviewed before. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence for the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa), gender-affirming hormones, antiandrogens, and progestins on transgender adolescents. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases from January 1, 1946, to June 10, 2017...
March 7, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508108/feminization-of-male-brown-treesnake-methyl-ketone-expression-via-steroid-hormone-manipulation
#15
M Rockwell Parker, Saumya M Patel, Jennifer E Zachry, Bruce A Kimball
Pheromones are useful tools for the management of invasive invertebrates, but have proven less successful in field applications for invasive vertebrates. The brown treesnake, Boiga irregularis, is an invasive predator that has fundamentally altered the ecology of Guam. The development of control tools to manage Boiga remains ongoing. Skin-based, lipophilic pheromone components facilitate mating in brown treesnakes, with females producing the same long-chain, saturated and monounsaturated (ketomonoene) methyl ketones known to function as pheromones in garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis...
February 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490480/what-about-the-men-gender-parity-in-occupational-therapy-qu-en-est-il-des-hommes-la-parit%C3%A3-hommes-femmes-en-ergoth%C3%A3-rapie
#16
Brenda L Beagan, Erin Fredericks
BACKGROUND: Gender parity is frequently raised as an equity issue in occupational therapy, with strategies proposed to recruit more men. PURPOSE: This article explores whether this is a legitimate equity concern. KEY ISSUES: Most employment is gender segregated; when gender balances change, the field either re-genders feminine or creates gender-segregated internal divisions. Men avoid feminized jobs because they pay less and hold less social status...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486631/social-medicine-feminism-and-the-politics-of-population-from-transnational-knowledge-networks-to-national-social-movements-in-brazil-and-mexico
#17
Rafael de la Dehesa
This article examines the role of national actors articulated with an explicitly counter-hegemonic transnational knowledge network (TKN) mobilising around social medicine in policy debates on population control and family planning. It focuses primarily on Brazil, using Mexico as a shadow case to highlight salient points of contrast. In doing so, it makes two contributions to larger debates about TKNs. First, it highlights the plural and contested nature of the knowledge production they enact, underscoring contestation around a global reproductive regime that consolidated around family planning...
February 28, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480082/a-bittersweet-relationship-what-does-it-mean-to-be-the-caregiver-of-a-patient-with-bipolar-disorder
#18
Ingrid Vargas-Huicochea, Shoshana Berenzon, María Luisa Rascón, Luciana Ramos
BACKGROUND: As with most of the chronic illnesses, the changes and consequences brought on by bipolar disorder (BD) are not exclusive to the patient and often spread to those around them, especially for direct caregivers of these patients. It is known that there is a significant emotional and physical toll among persons who coexist daily with those who suffer from this disorder. OBJECTIVE: Aware of the importance of the role played by informal caregivers (especially the family) in the stability and evolution of patients with bipolar disorder, this study seeks to explore the perception that family members responsible for bipolar persons have of themselves as caregivers of these patients...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478635/effects-of-triclosan-on-gonadal-differentiation-and-development-in-the-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#19
Juan Chen, Tan Meng, Yuanyuan Li, Kun Gao, Zhanfen Qin
Previous studies have reported that triclosan (TCS) could possess an androgenic activity. We aimed to investigate the effects of TCS on gonadal differentiation and development in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, a sensitive amphibian species to androgenic chemicals. P. nigromaculatus tadpoles at stage 24 were exposed to TCS (3, 30, and 300nmol/L) to stage 46 in a semi-static exposure system. At the end of exposure, gonadal morphology and histology, sex ratio and gonadal expression of sex-biased genes were examined in P...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454634/feminizing-genital-gender-confirmation-surgery
#20
REVIEW
Miriam Hadj-Moussa, Dana A Ohl, William M Kuzon
INTRODUCTION: For many patients with gender dysphoria, gender-confirmation surgery (GCS) helps align their physical characteristics with their gender identity and is a fundamental element of comprehensive treatment. This article is the 2nd in a 3-part series about the treatment of gender dysphoria. Non-operative management was covered in part 1. This section begins broadly by reviewing surgical eligibility criteria, benefits of GCS, and factors associated with regret for transgender men and women...
February 14, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
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